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Reported by Maria Francesca Nacionales
History Defenition and Style Visual Art
HistoryBaroque started around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe. The popularity and success of the "baroque" was encouraged by the Catholic Church when it decided that the drama of the baroque artists' style could communicate religious themes in direct and emotional involvement. The secular aristocracy also saw the dramatic style of baroque architecture and art as a means of impressing visitors and would-be competitors. Baroque palaces are built round an entrance sequence of courts, anterooms, grand staircases, and reception rooms of sequentially increasing magnificence. Many forms of art, music, architecture, and literature inspired each other in the "baroque" cultural movement.
The canon promulgated at the Council of Trent (154563), by which the Roman Catholic Church addressed the representational arts by demanding that paintings and sculptures in church contexts should speak to the illiterate rather than to the well-informed, is customarily offered as an inspiration of the Baroque, which appeared, however, a generation later. This turn toward a populist conception of the function of ecclesiastical art is seen by many art historian as driving the innovations of Carravaggio and the Carracci brothers, all of whom were working (and competing for commissions) in Rome around 1600. The appeal of Baroque style turned consciously from the witty, intellectual qualities of 16th century Mannerist art to a visceral appeal aimed at the senses. It employed an iconography that was direct, simple, obvious, and dramatic. In paintings, Baroque gestures are broader than Mannerist gestures: less ambiguous, less arcane and mysterious, more like the stage gestures of opera, a major Baroque artform. Baroque poses depend on contrapposto ("counterpoise"), the tension within the figures that moves the planes of shoulders and hips in counterdirections.
The dryer, chastened, less dramatic and coloristic, later stages of 18th century Baroque architectural style are often seen as a separateLate Baroque manifestation. See the entry Claude Perrault. Academic characteristics in the Palladian architectural style, epitomized by William Kent are a parallel development in Britain and the British colonies: within doors, Kent's furniture designs are vividly influenced by the Baroque furniture of Rome and Genoa, hieratic tectonic sculptural elements meant never to be moved from their positions completing the wall elevation. Baroque is a style of unity imposed upon rich and massy detail. The Baroque was defined by Heinrich Wlfflin as the age where the oval replaced the circle as the center of composition, that centralization replaced balance, and that coloristic and "painterly" effects began to become more prominent. Art historians, often Protestant ones, have traditionally emphasized that the Baroque style evolved during a time in which the Roman Catholic Church had to react against the many revolutionary cultural movements that produced a new science and new forms of religion Reformation It has been said that the monumental Baroque is a style that could give the Papacy, like secular absolute monarchies, a formal, imposing way of expression that could restore its prestige, at the point of becoming somehow symbolic of theCounter-Reformation. Whether this is the case or not, it was successfully developed in Rome, where Baroque architecture widely renewed the central areas with perhaps the most important urbanistic revision.
What Is Baroque ?Baroque means 'absurd' or 'grotesque'. This term was used by people who thought that the forms of the classical buildings should never have been used in times after Greek and Roman periods. For, in baroque the classical forms were used, like in Renaissance and the mannerism. The intention of baroque was to make the transitory life on earth special and beautiful. Symmetry was very important. Baroque was a heavy style; many swelling forms, excessive ornaments, wealthy and glossy materials (a lot of colorful marble, gilding and bronze). There were a lot of movements in the sculptures and paintings; angels flew, saints rose heavenward, people moved and fought. There were many ceiling paintings and paintings of crowds.
Differences between Baroque and the Renaissance/MannerismBaroque has borrowed many things from Renaissance and mannerism, but there are certainly differences. The classical forms were used soberly in the Renaissance, with especial attention on clearness and realism. Mannerism wasn't sober; there were decorative and complicated effects. Baroque churches were beautified with decorative and complicative effects, but were also very realistic. That was expressed in a new way. In painting the leading figures were put in the forefront. In the art of sculpture dynamic exercises were expressed with round forms and many details. There was much variety in composition and the bodies were very expressive. In architecture, there were heavy pillars, overlapping pilasters (flat, rectangular wall pillars) and deeply carved ornaments. Curved faades, oval ground plans and broken frontons replaced straight faades, rectangular or circular ground plans and simple triangular or segmental (part of a arc of a circle, cut off by a straight line) frontons. The arts of sculpture, painting and architecture became a completion to each other. In churches architectonics ornaments ran over in painted planes. Marked, turbulent colors and straight lightconstrast were often used.
Visual ArtA defining statement of what Baroque signifies in painting is provided by the series of paintings executed by Peter Paul Rubens for Marie de Medici at the Luxembourg Palace in Paris (now at the Louvre), in which a Catholic painter satisfied a Catholic patron: Baroque-era conceptions of monarchy, iconography, handling of paint, and compositions as well as the depiction of space and movement. Another frequently cited work of Baroque art is Bernini's "Saint Theresa in ecstasy" for the Cornaro chapel in S. Maria della Vittoria, which brings together multiple arts, including opera. The later baroque style gives way gradually to Rococo. A comparison with Rococo, will help define Baroque by contrast.
SculptureIn Baroque sculpture, groups of figures assumed new importance, and there was a dynamic movement and energy of human forms they spiralled around an empty central vortex, or reached outwards into the surrounding space. For the first time, Baroque sculpture often had multiple ideal viewing angles. The characteristic Baroque sculpture added extra-sculptural elements, for example, concealed lighting, or water fountains. The architecture, sculpture and fountains of Bernini (15981680) give highly-charged characteristics of Baroque style. Bernini was undoubtedly the most important sculptor of the Baroque period. He approached Michelangelo in his omnicompetence: Bernini sculpted, worked as an architect, painted, wrote plays, and staged spectacles. In the late 20th century Bernini was most valued for his sculpture, both for his virtuosity in carving marble and his ability to create figures that combine the physical and the spiritual. He was also a fine sculptor of bust portraits in high demand among the powerful.
ArchitectureIn Baroque architecture, new emphasis was placed on bold massing,colonnades, domes, light-and-shade (chiaroscuro), 'painterly' color effects, and the bold play of volume and void. Baroque architecture was taken up with enthusiasm in central Germany (Ludwigsburg Palace and Zwinger Dresden) and Austria. In England the culmination of Baroque architecture was embodied in work by Sir Christopher Wren, Sir John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor, from ca. 1660 to ca. 1725. Many examples of Baroque architecture and town planning are found in other European towns, and in the Spanish Americas. Town planning of this period featured radiating avenues intersecting in squares, which took cues fromBaroque garden plans.
Prometheus, by NicolasSbastien Adam, 1737 (Louvre): a hectic tourde-force of violent contrasts of stress, multiple angles and viewpoints, and extreme emotion
Can You Describe The Difference?
Gian Lorenzo Berninis David(162324): Baroque freeze-frame stopped action, contrapposto and theatrical emotion
David by Michaelangelo
Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598: a moment caught in a dramatic action from a classical source, bursting from the picture plane in a sweeping diagonal perspective.
Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens: dynamic figures spiral down around a void: draperies blow: a whirl of movement lit in a shaft of light, rendered in a free bravura handling of paint
Still-life, by Portuguese painter Josefa de bidos, 1679, Santarm, Portugal Municipal Library
Rembrandt van Rijn, The Night Watch or The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642, oil on canvas, 363 437 cm., 142.9 172.0 inches, Rijksmuseum,Amsterdam. The painting is a classic example of Baroque art
The Virgin and Child Adored by Angels, 1608, oil on slate and copper. This is the central panel depictingThe Virgin and Child Adored by Angels above the High Altar, Santa Maria in Vallicella, Rome.
Caravaggio, Bacchus c.1595, Oil on canvas, 95 x 85 cm., Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
Francisco de Zurbarn, The Birth of the Virgin, c. 16251630, ,Pasadena, Norton Simon Museum
Nativity by Josefa de bidos, 1669,National Museum of Ancient Art, Lisbon
The Elevation of the Cross, 161011. Central panel. Cathedral of Our Lady, Antwerp
Artemesia Gentileschi , Judith Slaying Holofernes, 161420, oil on canvas, 199 x 162 cm Galleria degli Uffizi Florence
Rubens is known for