Bankruptcy. Property Passing to Trustee. Rights of Action Arising upon Contract: Effect of Amendment of 1910

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  • Bankruptcy. Property Passing to Trustee. Rights of Action Arising upon Contract: Effect ofAmendment of 1910Source: Harvard Law Review, Vol. 28, No. 2 (Dec., 1914), pp. 204-205Published by: The Harvard Law Review AssociationStable URL: .Accessed: 19/05/2014 08:48

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    erential. In re Tweedale, [I892] 2 Q. B. 2i6;I Van Casteel v. Booker, 2 Ex. 69i. Under such a doctrine, the principal case may be supported, since no actual desire to prefer was found. In this country, however, a more satisfactory doctrine prevails, and the opposite result would certainly be reached under the National Bankruptcy Act of i898, ? 6o b, especially as amended by the Act of i9io, which avoids a transfer if the person receiving it has reasonable cause to believe that it would effect a preference. Here the debtor's motive is immaterial. In re Herman, 207 Fed. 594E Motive, as distinguished from intent, would be equally unimportant in finding the "intent to prefer" neces- sary to make a preference an act of bankrupcty. BANKRUPTCY ACT OF I898, ? 3 a (2). In re McGee, I05 Fed. 895. The fact that the original check in the principal case was received without knowledge of any insolvency is im- material. For the payment of the check and not the giving of it constitutes the preference. In re Lyon, I2i Fed. 723.

    BANKRUPTCY - PREFERENCES - NECESSITY OF INTENT TO PREFER UNDER NATIONAL BANKRUPTCY ACT: EFFECT OF AMENDMENT OF i9io. - A company transferred certain assets to the defendant, a creditor, within four months prior to the institution of bankruptcy proceedings. Its trustee in bankruptcy now sues to set aside this transfer. The lower court omitted to charge that the transfer would be voidable if the defendant had reasonable cause to believe that it would effect a preference. Held, that such omission is error. Soule v. First National Bank of Asliton, I40 Pac. I098, 32 Am. B. R. 536 (Ida.).

    Before the i910 amendment the federal bankruptcy law provided that to render a preference voidable, the person receiving it must "have had reason- able cause to believe that it was intended thereby to give a preference." BANK- RUPTCY ACT of i898, ? 6o b; I903, ? I3 b. This language was construed by the courts to imply that the debtor must intend a preference. Kimmerle v. Farr, i89 Fed. 295; Hardy v. Gray, I44 Fed. 922. Contra, Benedict v. Des/el, I77 N. Y. i, 68 N. E. 999. But the cases did not determine definitely whether this intent could be inferred from the natural and probable results of the debtor's act. Hardy v. Gray, supra. Cf. Alexander v. Redmond, i8o Fed. 92. Section ii of the i910 amendment to the Bankruptcy Act under which the principal case was decided, provides that a preference shall be voidable when the person receiving it shall have reasonable cause to believe that the enforce- ment of the transfer "would effect a preference." Under the present law, therefore, the intent of the debtor and the creditor's belief as to his intent are immaterial in determining whether a preference is voidable. It is to be noted, however, that to render the transfer an act of bankruptcy the debtor must still intend a preference. BANKRUPTCY ACT OF 1898, ? 3 a (2).

    BANKRUPTCY - PROPERTY PASSING TO TRUSTEE - RIGHTS OF ACTION ARISING UPON CONTRACT: EFFECT OF AMENDMENT OF 1910. - A material- man filed notice of his lien, within the period prescribed by the lien law, but two days after the adjudication in bankruptcy of the contractor, to whom money was owing under his contract to pave the city streets. The i91i amend- ment to ? 47 a of the Bankruptcy Act of i898 gives the trustee the rights of a lien creditor on property in the custody of the court, but as to property not in the custody of the court the rights of a judgment creditor holding an execu- tion returned unsatisfied. Held, that the materialman prevails, on the ground that the property is not in the custody of the court. Hildreth Granite Co. v. City of Watervliet, i6i App. Div. (N. Y.) 420.

    It seems a serious error to apply the amended ? 47 a of the Bankruptcy Act to a case like the present. That amendment was primarily intended to prefer the trustee to claimants under unrecorded conditional sales and abolish the rule of York Mfg. Co. v. Cassell, 20I U. S. 344. See 24 HARV. L. REV.

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    620. It gives the trustee in bankruptcy power over property in the bank- rupt's hands to which another has title by virtue of a private agreement with the bankrupt. In re Hammond, 26 Am. B. R. 336. Section 70 a of the original act gives the trustee the bankrupt's title to rights of action arising upon contract. The amended section 47 a however speaks of giving a lien, and it would be anomalous for the trustee to have a lien on claims to which he already has title. Nor is there any specific sum in a contract debtor's hands to which a lien could attach. On its face, therefore, the amendment could not be intended to apply to the principal case. The trustee in bankruptcy here had title to the claim, and if the materialman is to prevail, it must be on the ground that he had already acquired a valid lien under the state law, good against the trustee, although not completely perfected before bankruptcy. Crane Co. v. Pneumatic Signal Co., 94 App. Div. (N. Y.) 53; In re Huston, 7 Am. B. R. 92. Cf. In re Roeber, I2i Fed. 449.

    BANKS AND BANKING - COLLECTIONS - LIABILITY FOR NEGLIGENCE OF CORRESPONDENT BANK. - The A. Bank gave a note, of which it was the in- dorsee, to the B. Bank for collection, under an agreement that the latter should only be responsible for negligence in choosing its correspondents. The B. Bank forwarded to the C. Bank under a similar agreement. The C. Bank forwarded to the D. Bank, which in turn forwarded to the E. Bank, neither of these banks making any reservation as to liability. Through the negligence of the E. Bank in presenting the note for payment, the indorser was released. The maker of the note was insolvent. The A. Bank now sues the D. Bank. Held, that it can recover. McBride v. Illinois National Bank, i63 App. Div. (N. Y.) 4I7.

    New York has adopted the view of many other American courts that in the absence of special agreement a depositary bank is liable for the default or negligence of its correspondents. National Revere Bank v. National Bank of Republic, I72 N. Y. I02, 64 N. E. 799; St. Nicholas Bank v. State National Bank, I28 N. Y. 46, 27 N. E. 849. Contra, Wilson v. Carlinville National Bank, i87 Ill. 222, 58 N. E. 250. Under this rule, however, in a chain of collecting banks, only the depositary bank is directly liable to the depositor for the acts of its correspondents, for the latter are regarded as the agents not of the depositor, but of the depositary bank. Montgomery County Bank v. Albany City Bank, 7 N. Y. 459, 464. Nor will a special agreement protecting the de- positary bank, according to the first appeal of the principal case, thrust this direct liability upon all the subsequent banks. McBride v. Illinois National Bank, I38 App. Div. 339, I2i N. Y. Supp. i04i. See 23 HARV. L. REV. 639. This liability for the acts of the correspondent banks, the second appeal now adds, devolves upon the first bank in the chain which does not protect itself by special reservation. The theory appears to be that the agreement con- stitutes the depositary bank, and each succeeding correspondent similarly protected, a mere agent to employ some other bank as collector. It seems a very forced construction, however, to hold that the reservation goes beyond relieving the depositary bank from the rule of respondeat superior, and affects the liability of the correspondent banks. Nor can the reservation be construed to do more than release the depositary bank from an implied warranty of its correspondents, if that be taken as the basis of its liability. Under the rule prevailing in many other jurisdictions only the ultimate correspondent bank would be liable anyway, and the special agreement protecting the depositary bank would therefore be immaterial. Farmer's Bank of Virginia v. Owen, 5 Cranch C. C. 504.

    BANKS AND BANKING - COLLECTIONS - NATURE OF LIABITITY OF DE- POSITARY BANK. - The plaintiff deposited at the defendant bank a check on

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    Article Contentsp. 204p. 205

    Issue Table of ContentsHarvard Law Review, Vol. 28, No. 2 (Dec., 1914), pp. 121-224Mutuality and Consideration. I [pp. 121-134]Business Jurisprudence [pp. 135-162]Assumption of Risk under the Federal Employers' Liability Act [pp. 163-185]NotesThe Law School [pp. 186-188]The Harvard Legal Aid Bureau [p. 188]The Stopping of American Oil Ships by English Cruisers [pp. 188-191]The Evolution of the Contingent Remainder [pp. 191-193]Application of the Rule in Clayton's Case to the Distribution of Property Held under Constructive and Resulting Trusts [pp. 193-195]The Domicile of a Wife [pp. 196-198]The Right to a Hearing before Administrative Tribunals [pp. 198-200]Aeroplanes and Admiralty [pp. 200-201]The Proper Scope of the Doctrine of Equitable Servitudes [pp. 201-203]

    Recent CasesBankrupcty. Preferences. Intent of Debtor: Importance of Motive [pp. 203-204]Bankruptcy. Preferences. Necessity of Intent to Prefer under National Bankruptcy Act: Effect of Amendment of 1910 [p. 204]Bankruptcy. Property Passing to Trustee. Rights of Action Arising upon Contract: Effect of Amendment of 1910 [pp. 204-205]Banks and Banking. Collections. Liability for Negligence of Correspondent Bank [p. 205]Banks and Banking. Collections. Nature of Liabitity of Depositary Bank [pp. 205-206]Carriers. Passengers: Ejection of Passengers. Refusal to Pay Unlawful Fare [pp. 206-207]Constitutional Law. Due Process of Law. Right to Hear Adverse Evidence in Hearing before Administrative Board [p. 207]Discovery. Privilege. Notes of Previous Legal Proceedings Made in Anticipation of Future Litigation [pp. 207-208]Eminent Domain. For What Purposes Property May Be Taken. Land Condemned by Railroad Used for Private Warehouse [p. 208]Executors and Administrators. Title. Effect of Revocation of Administration upon "Bon Fide" Purchaser's Title to Assets [p. 208]Injunctions. Nature and Scope of the Remedy. Injunction against Continuing Trespass Where Damages Are Nominal [p. 209]Insurance. Accident Insurance. Meaning of "Accidental" in the Policy [pp. 209-210]Legacies and Devises. Disclaimer by Parol [p. 210]Limitation of Action. Nature and Construction of Statute. Legal Disability: Whether Plaintiff's Proof in Bankruptcy Stops Running of Statute [pp. 210-211]Pledges. Loss of Lien. Redelivery to Pledgor as Agent [p. 211]Restraint of Trade. Sherman Anti-Trust Law. Regulation of Combination without Dissolution: Injunction against "Fighting Ships" [pp. 211-212]Restrictions and Restrictive Agreements as to the Use of Property. Sale of Lots According to a Plat [p. 212]Restrictions and Restrictive Agreements as to the Use of Property. Where the Covenantee Has No Corporeal Interest in Adjoining Land [p. 213]Sales. Implied Warranty. Exclusion by Express Warranty [p. 213]Specific Performance. Defenses. Clean Hands: Application of the Maxim to Baseball Contracts [pp. 213-214]Taxation. Where Property May Be Taxed. Taxation of Foreign Corporations on Credits in Hands of Local Agent [pp. 214-215]Torts. Interference with Business or Occupation. Justification. Interpretation of English Trades Disputes Act of 1906 [p. 215]Trade Marks and Trade Names. Protection Apart from Statute. Audible Similarity without Fraudulent Intent [pp. 215-216]Trusts. Powers and Obligations of Trustees. Power of Court to Interfere with Discretionary Investments [p. 216]Trusts. Resulting Trusts. Distribution among Subscribers to a Fund Raised by Subscription [pp. 216-217]War. Prize. Capture: Rights of Neutral Mortgagees and Shareholders [p. 217]Wills. Execution. Attestation: What Is Attested under Statute of Frauds [pp. 217-218]Wills. Mutual Wills. Revocability [p. 218]

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