Bankruptcy. Property Passing to Trustee. Insurance Policy Reserving Power to Change Beneficiary

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The Yale Law Journal Company, Inc.Bankruptcy. Property Passing to Trustee. Insurance Policy Reserving Power to ChangeBeneficiarySource: The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 27, No. 3 (Jan., 1918), pp. 403-404Published by: The Yale Law Journal Company, Inc.Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/787448 .Accessed: 25/05/2014 08:29Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp .JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. .The Yale Law Journal Company, Inc. is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access toThe Yale Law Journal.http://www.jstor.org This content downloaded from 91.229.248.101 on Sun, 25 May 2014 08:29:30 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=yljhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/787448?origin=JSTOR-pdfhttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jspRECENT CASE NOTES BANKRUPTCY-JURISDICTION OF FEDERAL COURTS-SUIT ON UNPAID STOCK SUB- sCRiPrIoN.-The trustee of a bankrupt California corporation brought suit in equity in the United States District Court for the Southern District of Cali- fornia against the defendant and about 3,000 other residents of the district to recover overdue balances on unconditional stock subscriptions. The defendant moved to dismiss the bill. Held, that the Federal Court had no jurisdiction to entertain the suit. Kelley v. Gill (19I7) 38 Sup. Ct. 38. This decision settles an important point, previously uncertain, in the admin- istration of bankrupt corporations. The broad jurisdiction conferred upon bank- ruptcy courts by section 2(7) of the Bankruptcy Act is restricted by section 23(b), which prohibits the trustee (subject to certain exceptions) from suing a defendant, without his consent, in a court other than that in which the bankrupt might have sued had bankruptcy not intervened. The limits of the federal court's jurisdiction were much clarified by Bardes v. Hawarden Bank (i900) I78 U. S. 524, and the I903 and i9io amendments to section 23(b). But some authorities still asserted that a suit in equity to collect unpaid stock subscriptions would lie in the district courts. Skillin v. Magnus (i9o7, D. C., N. D. N. Y.) i62 Fed. 689; 7 C. J. 255. In the instant case it was argued that a bill in equity against all the stockholders was authorized by the i9io amendment to section 47a(2), giving the trustee all the rights, remedies and powers of a judgment creditor; that this was not a suit which the bankrupt itself could have brought and that therefore the suit was not within the prohibition of section 23(b). But the Supreme Court held that the appropriate remedy for the trustee, as well as for the bankrupt, was a separate suit at law against each stockholder, the reason being that there was no common issue between the alleged stockholders and the corporation and therefore no basis for equity taking jurisdiction to avoid a multiplicity of suits at law. It is true that a judgment creditor may sue all the stockholders in equity to reach unpaid stock subscriptions as assets of the debtor corporation. Harmon v. Page (i882) 62 Cal. 448. But to the argument that section 47a(2), as amended in i9io, gave the trustee a similar remedy, the court merely replied that the amendment "did not confer new means of collect- ing ordinary claims due the bankrupt." Whether this was intended as an authori- tative interpretation of that amendment is left somewhat doubtful by the addi- tional statement that even if equity were to take jurisdiction to avoid multi- plicity of actions at law, the suit could not be brought in the federal court, because the cause of action was one on which the bankrupt could have sued only in a state court. The trustee's power to sue at law in the state courts is clear. Jeffery v. Selwyn (19U7) 220 N. Y. 77, II5 N. E. 275; Clevenger v. Moore (0904) 7i N. J. L. I48, 58 Atl. 88. In the instant case the subscriptions were overdue, so that no order by the bankruptcy court directing payment of subscriptions was a necessary condition precedent to fixing the stockholders' liability. The opinion expressly leaves open the question whether the federal court has jurisdiction when such an order is necessary, either in lieu of a call or for the purpose of pro-rating among the stockholders the amount necessary to be collected to satisfy creditors. Cf. Scoville v. Thayer (i88i) I05 U. S. 143. BANKRUPTCY-PROPERTY PASSING TO TRUSTEE-INSURANCE POLICY RESERVING POWER TO CHANGE BENEFICIARY.-Policies on the bankrupt's life having a cash surrender value were payable to named beneficiaries but reserved to the insured [403] This content downloaded from 91.229.248.101 on Sun, 25 May 2014 08:29:30 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp404 YALE LAW JOURNAL the power to change the beneficiaries without their consent. The trustee claimed that the bankrupt must either deliver the policies or pay him their cash sur- render value. Held, that the trustee was entitled to the relief claimed. Cohen v. Samuels (19I7) 38 Sup. Ct. 36. The interpretation of section 70a (5) of the Bankruptcy Act has caused much disagreement among the lower federal courts. Clause (5) vests in the trustee property which the bankrupt might by any means have transferred or which was subject to judicial levy and sale, with the proviso that "when any bankrupt shall have any insurance policy which has a cash surrender value payable to himself, his estate or representatives," he may pay its cash surrender value to the trustee and continue to hold "such policy free from the claims of the creditors . . .; otherwise the policy shall pass to the trustee as assets." This language was capable of two constructions. One line of cases held the view that only policies having a cash surrender value passed to the trustee. Gould v. N. Y. Life Ins. Co. (i904, D. C., E. D. Ark.) I32 Fed. 927. Other courts maintained that all policies payable to the bankrupt were vested in the trustee by that portion of clause (5) which preceded the proviso, and that the proviso merely gave the bankrupt a power to redeem such policies as had a cash surrender value by paying this sum to the trustee. In re Welling (I902, C. C. A. 7th) II3 Fed. i89; and see Rem- ington, Bankruptcy (2d ed.) sec. ioon et seq. The controversy was settled by the Supreme Court in Burlingham v. Crouse (19I3) 228 U. S. 459, 33 Sup. Ct. 564 and Everett v. Judson (19I3) 228 U. S. 474, 33 Sup. Ct. 568. These cases held that the interest of the trustee in life insurance policies extended only to their cash surrender value determined as of the date of the filing of the bankruptcy petition. On the strength of these decisions it has been thought by some authorities that the trustee's sole source of title is the proviso, and that consequently a policy not expressly payable to the bankrupt, his estate or representatives, does not pass to the trustee, even though the bankrupt has the power to change the beneficiary at will and thus obtain for himself the cash surrender value of the policy. This was the holding of the District Court and of the Court of Appeals in the instant case. In re Samuels (19I7, C. C. A. 2d) 237 Fed. 796. See also Reming- ton, Bankruptcy (2d ed.) sec. ioo9; In re Arkin (i9i6, C. C. A. 2d) 23i Fed. 947; cf. In re Hammel (19[5, C. C. A. 2d) 22i Fed. 56. But see contra: Malone v. Cohn (I9I6, C. C. A. 5th) 236 Fed. 882; In re Bonvillain (i9i6, E. D. La.) 232 Fed. 370; In re Shoemaker (I9I5, E. D. Pa.) 225 Fed. 329. Fortunately the dispute has now been settled by supreme authority and the more liberal interpre- tation finally established. The court did not deem it necessary to support its decision by any extended argument. The fact that the policies, while not payable to the bankrupt, could be made so at his will and by his simple declaration, was thought to bring the case within the proviso, even if that were regarded alone. But the court also buttressed its decision by a reference to clause (3) of section 7oa which confers upon the trustee all powers which the bankrupt might have exercised for his own benefit. Whether the reference to clause (3) was intended as an argument in support of the court's construction of the proviso, or as an assertion that the bankrupt's power to change the beneficiary passed to the trustee by virtue of clause (3), does not clearly appear. CARRIERS-STATE REGULATION OF RATES-COMMUTATION TICKETS.-A railroad company sought an injunction to restrain the Public Service Commission of Maryland from enforcing an order revising a schedule filed by the company of proposed increases in its voluntarily established commutation rates for intrastate passenger service. Held, that the injunction was properly refused since, in a case where the railroad had itself established special commutation rates, the This content downloaded from 91.229.248.101 on Sun, 25 May 2014 08:29:30 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jspArticle Contentsp. 403p. 404Issue Table of ContentsThe Yale Law Journal, Vol. 27, No. 3 (Jan., 1918), pp. 299-426Inter-Citizenship: A Basis for World Peace [pp. 299-316]Surviving Fictions II [pp. 317-330]What Is Giving Aid and Comfort to the Enemy? [pp. 331-347]International Copyright Relations of the United States [pp. 348-352]New Trial in Present Practice [pp. 353-361]Does a Pre-Existing Duty Defeat Consideration?. Recent Noteworthy Decisions [pp. 362-381]CommentsThe Formation of a Unilateral Contract [pp. 382-386]"Going Value" for Purposes of Rate Regulation [pp. 386-388]Constructive Trusts Arising from Breach of Express Oral Trusts of Land [pp. 389-392]Immunities of Diplomatic Officers [pp. 392-393]Unconstitutionality of Segregation Ordinances [pp. 393-397]State versus Federal Rules as to Price Restrictions [pp. 397-402]Recent Case NotesBankruptcy. Jurisdiction of Federal Courts. Suit on Unpaid Stock Subscription [p. 403]Bankruptcy. Property Passing to Trustee. Insurance Policy Reserving Power to Change Beneficiary [pp. 403-404]Carriers. State Regulation of Rates. Commutation Tickets [pp. 404-405]Conflict of Laws. Due Process. Jurisdiction of Non-Resident Served by Publication [pp. 405-406]Conflict of Laws. Judgments Quasi in Rem. Full Faith and Credit [p. 406]Constitutional Law. Powers of the States. Treaty-Making Powers [pp. 406-407]Constitutional Law. Taking Property without Due Process. Invalidity of a Segregation Ordinance [p. 407]Contracts. Acceptance. Acts Necessary to Form a Unilateral Contract [p. 407]Contracts. Consideration for Unilateral Contract. Performance by Promisee as Required by Previous Contract with a Third Person [p. 407]Contracts. Construction. Causes beyond Seller's Control [pp. 408-409]Contracts. Restraint of Trade. Validity of Restrictions on Resale Price [p. 409]Criminal Law. Assault. Disease Communicated by Husband to Wife. State v. Lankford (1917, Del. Gen. Sess.) 102 Atl. 63 [p. 409]Criminal Law. Larceny. Diversion of Water from City Mains [pp. 409-410]Criminal Law. Specific Intent. Assault upon Mistaken Person [pp. 410-411]Evidence. Interpretation. Devise by Mistaken Description [pp. 411-412]Evidence. Self-Incrimination. Compulsory Taking of Finger Prints [p. 412]Federal Employers' Liability Act. Survival of Action for Injuries. Contributory Negligence of Beneficiary as Defense [p. 413]Foreign Corporations. Service on Secretary of State under Statute Not Requiring Notice to Corporation [pp. 413-414]Fraudulent Conveyances. Consideration. Agreement to Support Grantor [pp. 414-415]International Law. Diplomatic Officers. Immunity of Property from Execution [p. 415]Negligence. Liability to Volunteers. Injury to Fireman [pp. 415-416]Public Utilities. Rate Regulation. Excluding "Going Value" in Valuation of Property [p. 416]Torts. Right of Burial. Failure to Notify Parent of Child's Death [pp. 416-417]Trials. Misconduct of Jury. Statement by Juror of Facts Not in Evidence [p. 417]Trusts. Constructive Trusts. Absolute Devise on Oral Trust [pp. 417-418]Trusts. Unincorporated Associations. Disposition of Property on Dissolution [p. 418]Wills. Mistake. Effect of Testator's Erroneous Belief of Son's Death. Bowerman v. Burris (1917, Tenn.) 197 S. W. 490 [pp. 418-419]Workmen's Compensation Act. Basis of Compensation. Gratuities [p. 419]Current DecisionsAcknowledgments. Taking Separate Acknowledgment by Telephone [p. 420]Alien Enemies. Right to Sue. Summary Suspension of Suit [p. 420]Conflict of Laws. Married Woman's Contract. Enforcement in State Where Common Law Disability Prevails [pp. 420-421]Constitutional Law. Equal Protection of the Laws. Ohio Workmen's Compensation Act [p. 421]Constitutional Law. Freedom of Contract. Minimum Wage Law for Women [p. 421]Constitutional Law. Qualifications of Voters. Woman Suffrage in City Elections [p. 421]Corporations. Powers of Majority Stockholders. Renewal of Charter [p. 422]Death by Wrongful Act. Who May Sue. Adult Children Losing Prospective Gifts [p. 422]Educational Institutions. Control of Students. Expulsion for Disloyalty [p. 422]Extradition. Who are Fugitives. Criminal Whose Prosecution Is Barred by Statute of Limitations [pp. 422-423]International Law. Admiralty Jurisdiction. Public Vessel of Foreign Power [p. 423]Interstate Commerce. Federal Employers' Liability Act. Crossing Flagman [p. 423]Jury. Qualifications of Grand Jurors. Women Ineligible [p. 423]Process. Immunity from Service. Nonresident Trustee in Bankruptcy [p. 424]Waters and Water Courses. Percolating Waters. "Reasonable User" Doctrine [p. 424]Workmen's Compensation Act. Injury "Arising out of" Employment. Peril Attached to Particular Location [p. 424]Book ReviewsReview: untitled [p. 425]Review: untitled [pp. 425-426]

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