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BÀI TẬP THỰC HÀNH MÔN QUẢN TRỊ MẠNG

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BI TP THC HNH MN QUN TR MNG

BI 1:Ci t Windows Server 2008

Gii thiu Windows Server 2008

H thng my ch (Server System) l thnh phn rt quan trng trong vic vn hnh h thng mng doanh nghip.H iu hnh(OS) chy trn cc Servers c nhim v iu khin cc hot ng ca h thng mng, qun l ngi dng, thc thi cc dch v v ng dng mng nh: Active Directory, DNS, DHCP, Web, FTP, Mail, Database, Khi cc dch v c pht trin v s lng ngi dng truy cp ngy cng tng s pht sinh nhng vn v bo mt, hiu sut v kh nng nng cao qun l. MS Windows Server 2008 l th h k tip ca MS Windows Server, c th gip cc chuyn gia CNTT kim sot ti a c s h tng, cung cp kh nng qun l, m bo an ton, tnh tin cy, cung cp nhng gi tr mi cho tt c ngi dng u c th c c nhng thnh phn b sung t cc dch v t mng. MS Windows Server 2008 cng cung cp nhiu tnh nng vt tri bn trong OS. MS Windows Server 2008 xy dng trn s thnh cng v sc mnh ca MS Windows Server 2003.1.Gii thiu

MS Windows Server 2008 c b sung nhiu tnh nng mi,nhm cung cp nhiu ci thin tt hn cho OS my ch so vi phin bn MS Windows Server 2003. Nhng ci thin c th thy c nh: cc vn v mng,cng ngh o ha, qun l nng cao vi tnh nng qun tr t xa v Powershell, cc tnh nng bo mt nng cao, cc cng c kim tra tin cy v hiu sut, nhm chuyn i d phng, ci thin dch v Active Directory v Group Policy.

Nhng ci thin ny s gip cc t chc ti a c tnh linh hot, kh nng sn c v kim sot c h thng Servers, p ng c tt c cc nhu cu x l cng vic v yu cu v h thng phn cng, gip khai thc ti a c h thng phn cng x64 v b vi x l (CPU) a nhn.

Trong bi vit ny, chng ta s tm hiu nhng im mi v nhng tnh nng vt tri ca phin bn OS mi ny gm: Internet Information services(IIS), cng ngh o ho Hype-V, bo mt nng cao,

2.My ch Web vi MS IIS 7.0 (Web Server)

MS IIS 7.0 l phin bn mi nht dnhcho Web Server,IIS c xy dng t Windows Server 2000 vi t cch l mt thnh phn chnh thc, hin c cung cp trong c phin bn MS Windows Vista/7 v MS Windows Server 2008.MS IIS 7.0 l phin bn c xem xt mt cch t m trong thit k t kinh nghim ca cc phin bn trc. MS IIS 7.0 ra i to mt nn tng linh hot v an ton nht cho vic cu hnh web v cc ng dng. MS IIS 7.0 c thit k tr thnh mt nn tng Web, ng dng linh ng, an ton v tp trung vo 5 lnh vc ln:Bo mt, kh nng m rng, cu hnh v trin khai, qun tr v chun on, hiu sut.

Ngoi ra, Windows Server 2008 cn cung cp mt nn tng hp nht cho vic xut bn Web c tch hp IIS 7.0, ASP.NET, Windows Communication Foundation, Windows Workflow Foundation v Windows SharePoint Services 3.0. IIS 7.0 l mt bc nng cao ng k cho Web Server ang tn ti v ng vai tr trung tm trong vic tch hp cc cng ngh nn tng Web, gip cc chuyn gia pht trin phn mm v qun tr vin ti a c quyn iu khin ca h trn cc giao din mng/Internet thng qua mt h thng chc nng chnh gm qun tr y nhim, bo mt nng cao v gim b mt tn cng, tch hp ng dng v qun l trng thi cho cc dch v Web, cc cng c qun tr c ci thin.

3.Cng ngh o ha (Virtualization Technology)

MS Windows Server 2008 tch hp cng ngh o ha gip doanh nghip khai thc ti a hiu sut ca h thng phn cng trn nn x64. Cng ngh Hyper-V c tch hp sn trong CPU ca AMD/Intel vi dung lng c 2MB gip n nh v bo mt, tng thch vi h thng CPU a nhn, v tch hp vi cng c qun tr tp trung SCVMM 2010.o ha ca Microsoft pht trin tp trung vo 6 lnh vc: o ha my ch (Server Virtualization), o ha trnh din (Presentation Virtualization), o ha ng dng (Application Virtualization), o ha desktop (Desktop Virtualization), o ha lu tr(StorageVirtualization) v o ha mng (NetworkVirtualization).

Hnh 1: Virtualization Management

Vi cng ngh ServerVirtualization, MS Windows Server 2008 cho php gim c chi ph, tng kh nng tn dng phn cng, ti u c c s h tng, tng kh nng phc v ca my ch.Lp Hyper-V gip cc my ch o truy cp trc tip n phn cng my ch m khng ph thuc OS hay phn mm, gip khai thc c phn cng mt cch ti u.

Hnh 2: Hype-V Architecture

MS Windows Server 2008 gii thiu mt s tnh nng mi trong Terminal Services kt ni n cc my tnh v ng dng t xa:

- Terminal Services RemoteApp tch hp hon ton cc ng dng ang chy trn mt my ch u cui vi cc my trm ca ngi dng h c th s dng nh ang chy trn my tnh cc b ca ngi dng phn bit, ngi dng c th chy cc chng trnh trn my k bn.

- Terminal Services Web Access cho php kh nng linh i vi vic truy cp ng dng t xa thng qua trnh duyt Web, cho php ngi dng c nhiu cch khc nhau truy cp v s dng chng trnh ang tn ti trn mt my ch u cui. Cc tnh nng ny cng vi Terminal Services Gateway cho php ngi dng c th truy cp vo cc my trm iu khin xa v ng dng t xa thng qua HTTPS theo tng la.

Hnh 3: Terminal Services Web Access

4. Tng cng bo mt nng cao (Advanced Security)

MS Windows Server 2008 c tnh vng chc v cch tn v bo mt, gm c Network Access Protection, Windows Firewall with Advanced Security v Read-Only Domain Controller cung cp nhng mc bo v tin cy:

Network Access Protection (NAP):Cho php qun tr mng nh ngha cc yu cu v tnh trng cho mng v hn ch cc my tnh khng c cc yu cu truyn thng vi mng. NAP bt buc cc chnh sch m qun tr vin nh ngha m t trnh trng sc khe ca mng cho mi t chc. V d, cc yu cu cn thit c th c nh ngha gm c tt c cc nng cp cho h iu hnh c ci t, hoc c phn mm chng virus v chng spyware c ci t v nng cp. Vi cch ny, cc qun tr vin mng c th nh ngha mt mc bo v c bn cho tt c cc my tnh mun kt ni vo mng ca h.

Microsoft BitLocker cung cp nhng tnh nng bo mt b sung i vi d liu thng qua vic m ha n bn y trn nhiu a, thm ch khi h thng khng c thm nh hoc ang chy mt h iu hnh khc.

Hnh 4: Network Access Protection

Read-Only Domain Controller (RODC):Mt kiu cu hnh DC mi trong MS Windows Server 2008 gip cc t chc d dng trin khai DC nhiu v tr, ni bo mt vt l ca DC khng th c bo m. Mt RODC qun l mt bn sao ging nh thc (ch c) ca c s d liu cc dch v th mc Active Directory cho min c cho. Trc y, ngi dng phi thm nh vi mi b iu khin min nhng khi h cc vn phng chi nhnh th khng th cung cp y bo mt vt l cho mi DC, t phi thm nh trn mng din rng (WAN). Trong nhiu trng hp, iu ny l khng th. Bng cch a ra bn sao ging nh c s d liu Active Directory tht ch c cho nhng ngi dng cc chi nhnh, nhng ngi ny c th hng li t nhng ln ng nhp nhanh hn v truy cp hiu qu hn vo ti nguyn c thm nh trong mng, thm ch trong cc mi trng thiu s bo mt vt l trin khai DC truyn thng.

Hnh 5: Read-Only Domain ControllerWindows Firewall with Advanced Security (WFAS):Cung cp mt s ci tin bo mt mi gip h thng my ch an ton hn v linh hot hn trong vic qun l. WFASl bc tng la (Firewall) trn my ch n c th cho php hoc ngn chn cc lu lng mng theo cu hnh hoc cc ng dng ang chy, cung cp mt mc bo v trc nhng ngi dng ph hoi v nhng chng trnh ang chy trong h thng mng. Mt ci thin trong Firewallca MS Windows Server 2008 l cung cp kh nng ngn chn lu lng vo v lu lng ra da trn cc chnh sch.

Qun l kt hp gia Firewallv IPSec, trong cc phin bn trc th IPSec v firewall c cu hnh thc hin t hai ni khc nhau, dn n vic b xung t gia IPSec v Firewall. Nhng ci thin ca WFAS l:- iu khin truy cp vo/ra.- Tch hp cht ch vi Windows Server 2008 Server Manager, vi cu hnh t ng ca firewallkhi cc dch v c ci t bng Server Manager.- Cu hnh v vic qun l chnh sch IPsec c ci thin, cc chnh sch IPsec c khai bo nh cc rule bo mt kt ni (Connection Security Rules).- H thng gim st chnh sch firewallc ci thin.- H thng gim st chnh sch IPsec c ci thin.- H thng gim st tp trung cc trong vic kt hp ch bo mt Main v Quick c ci thin

Hnh 6: M hnh WFAS

5.Nhm t ng chuyn i d phng (Failover Clustering)

Nhng ci thin c lm d dng hn trong vic cu hnh cc nhm my ch, bn cnh vn bo v v kh nng c sn ca d liu v cc ng dng. Bng s dng Validate Tool mi trong cc nhm t ng chuyn i d phng, c th thc hin cc kim tra xc nh xem h thng, lu tr v cu hnh kim tra tnh thch hpvi nhm.

Vi kh nng t ng chuyn i d phng nhm trong MS Windows Server 2008, cc qun tr vin c th thc hin ci t, chuyn i cng nh qun l cc nhim v hot ng d dng hn. Nhng ci thin nhm c s h tng gip cc qun tr mng ti a c kh nng sn c dch v m h cung cp cho ngi dng, thc hin lu tr, hiu sut mng v bo mt tt hn.Nhng ci thin ca clustering tp trung vo:- Trnh kim tra t ng mi.- H tr dng a GUID partition table (GPT) trong b lu tr cluster.- Ci thin cu hnh cluster v di tr.- Ci thin v tin cy v bo mt, tng sn sng ca cluster.- H tr IPv6.- Multi-site Clustering.

Hnh 7: Failover Clustering

6.Nhng tnh nng mng ct li mi (Key New Networking Features)

Trong nhng tnh nng mi v ci thin ca MS Windows Server 2008, nhng ci thin cho vic kt ni mng l mt trong nhng iu ng k nht. Trung tm ca cc ci thin mi ny l "Next Generation TCP/IP Stack", y l mt nng cp ng k i vi Windows TCP/IP, cc dch v c lin quan v cc giao din lp trnh ng dng (API). Next Generation TCP/IP Stack gii thiu mt kin trc mi, hi t y nhng cn thit v s thc thi v kh nng kt ni trong cc mi trng v cng ngh ni mng ang thay i ngy nay. Cng ti thi im ny, kh nng m rng ca TCP/IP stack mi cng cung cp cho ngi dng kh nng linh hot tha nhn cc chun ni mng mi v nhm n nhng cn thit ca khch hng trong tng lai. Ngn xp TCP/IP c thit k li cho php tng thch vi card mng multi-gigabit tc cao, khng tiu th ht sc mnh ca CPU v ti nguyn ca server. N tch hp vi vi sn phm bo mt trn nn tng ca Windows, gip qun l n d dng hn. Ngoi ra ngn xp TCP/IP c thit k li phc v thm mt s dch v mi, d dng thm tnh nng mi, d dng cho cc i tc thm cc tnh nng cho n v c bit l tng thch vi sn phm tng la mi v chng li cc loi virus. Nhng tnh nng mi trong kt ni mng ca MS Windows Server 2008 bao gm bn lnh vc nh hnh di:

Hnh 8: Tnh nng mi trong kt ni mng

Receive Window Autotunning:T ng cm nhn mi trng kt ni mng v iu chnh cc thit lp hiu sut quan trng, iu chnh ng kch thc ca b m thu TCP c s dng lu d liu n cho ci thin v thng lng, c bit trn bng thng cao v cc lin kt c tr ln.

Windows Filtering Platform: gip cc qun tr mng gii quyt vi mt s lng ln nhng mi him ha mng ang ngy mt tng, MS Windows Server 2008 a ra mt lot cc ci thin mi v kh nng bo mt mng. Nh mt phn trong chin lc phng chng su rng, cc tnh nng ny to thnh nn tng cho cc gii php bo mt mng c kim sot bi cc chnh sch nh Server and Domain Isolation, Network Access Protection (NAP),

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