Ice and SnowGroundDe-iceManual Labor.Fluid ( I ).Forced Air De-icing.Infrared.Anti-iceFluid (Type II,III,IV)Air Florida 90. Washington, DC In-flight De-Ice Inflatable pneumatic boots. Anti-Ice. Bleed Air, Engine. Weeping wings. Probes & sensors.WINGS * TAIL * SENSORS
In-flight IceForecastPIREPSAltitudeAmerican Eagle 4184 Indy Star
Turbulence C A TComplain! Report.Slow down.Secure and stow.Change altitude.Complain.
ThunderstormsNo-go decisions or ATC delays.Pilot & Controller ResponsibilityFAA 7110.64 ATC, Para 2-6-4Visual Acquisition.Airborne WX Radar.TDWR/WSPWARP OCCDispatch.Flight Service Station.
American Airlines 1420
Weather RadarBe careful where you point that thing!Attenuation.Range.Southern Airways 242
Delays! Delays! Delays!
Safe! Safe! Safe!
Wind shearDeparture and Arrival considerations.Configuration and approach speed.Delay of arrival or departure.Ground and Cockpit detection.Pilots.PIREPSVisual signsLLWASTDWRDelta 191
BibliographyThunderstorms and AirplanesThe Complete Book On Flying In Thunderstorm Country.Richard L. CollinsWeather and FlightAn Introduction To Meteorology For Pilots.Don R. DicksonAviation WeatherEA-AC 00-6AFederal Aviation AdministrationAnd many, many more!
Key factors for operations in ground icing conditions, observations of 1) P-type 2) Rate 3) Temperature 4) Wind 5) Day or Night.No aircraft is certified for Severe Icing. Prolonged exposure to any other accumulation ratetrace, light or moderate is still considered hazardous.A significant hazard associated with turbulence is that it cannot be seen. A great deal of protection comes from the airplane itself. There are currently no operational, front-line forms of direct turbulence detection outside of pathfinding.Pilot in Command is the final authority as to the operation of the aircraft. Separation of aircraft from one another is the primary responsibility of the controller. The definition of a thunderstorm lacks specificity, i.e. METAR reporting criteria nor is the presence of lightning the determining factor for being in a hazardous weather, it can certainly be implied (a good one I might add, but not exact)turbulence and wind shear are the determining factors. Currently: No way to specifically see where conditions are located, hence why a wide berth is needed. Bad things happen when Assumptions are made. The definition of a thunderstorm Regulations prohibit flight in areas of known or forecast thunderstorms without an operational WX radar. Lack of echoes does not guarantee a smooth ride! Presence of echoes does not guarantee a hazardous ride.Delays happen because of reduced airspace! My girlfriend says the weathers good at her house!Wind shear is not exclusive to thunderstorms.