Autumn Leaves Theorie

  • View
    178

  • Download
    8

Embed Size (px)

Text of Autumn Leaves Theorie

Copyright PB Asax.1. 2.5Asax.12Asax.16Asax.20Asax.24Asax.A7 D7 G7 C7(#4) F7(b5) B7(#9) E7 E7(#9) E71. 2.28Asax.F7(b5) B7(#9) E7 E7 A7 D7 G7 C7(#4) 37Asax.F7(b5) B7(#9) E7 A7 D7 G7 C7 F7 B7(#9) E7 E7(#9) 45Asax.53 gAutumn LeavesJoseph Kosma & Johnny Mercer

g

g

g

g

g -

g - - - - - - - - -dorian mixolyd ionian Lydian Locrian Mixo b2 b6 nat min

g - - - - - - - -

g - - - - - - - -

g - -B Mixo b2 b6, g g , . g g _ g g Asax.A7 D7 G7 C7(#4) F7(b5) B7(#9) E7 E7(#9) E71. 2.57Asax.F7(b5) B7(#9) E7 E7 A7 D7 G7 C7(#4) 66Asax.F7(b5) B7(#9) E7 A7 D7 G7 C7 F7 B7(#9) E7 E7(#9) 74Asax.82Asax.83Asax.84Asax.85Asax.86Asax.87Asax.88

g - - - - - - - - -d Maj pentaEb alt pentaD dom pentad Maj penta a alt pentaC alt pentae min penta

g - - - - - - - -

g - - - - - - - -

gD maj penta

gd dom penta

gEb alt penta

ga alt penta

gc alt penta

ge min penta

g - - g g , _ g , _ _ g , _ 2Copyright PBA7 D7 G7 C7(#4) F7(b5) B7(#9) E7 E7(#9) E71. 2.F7(b5) B7(#9) E7 E7 A7 D7 G7 C7(#4) 10F7(b5) B7(#9) E7 A7 D7 G7 C7 F7 B7(#9) E7 E7(#9) 1826A7 D7 G7 C7(#4) F7(b5) B7(b13) E6 E7(#9) E61. 2.30F7(b5) B7(#9) E7 E7 A7 D7 G7 C7(#4) 39F7(b5) B7(#9) E7 E7 D7 D7 F7 B7(#9) E7 E7(#9) 4755 Autumn Leaves (Changes) AU 1 - G major Scale-tone ChordsThe famous and very beautiful Jazz standard Autumn Leaves by Joseph Kosma (lyrics by Jac-ques Prvert, English version by Johnny Mercer) contains several basic music principles which are interesting and, most importantly, essential knowledge for the competent Jazz improviser. Let us start with the rst one.Scale-tone chords are chords which are entirely formed by notes from one specic scale. Let us take the G major scale for example. When we stack the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th note of the G major scale on top of each other the G major 7th scale-tone chord is formed. When we stack the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th note of the G major scale on top of each other the A minor 7th scale-tone chord is formed.In this way we can in turn stack three alternate scale-tones on each of the seven scale-tones of the major scale, producing the seven characteristic scale-tone chords of the G major scale. Audio 1(All Audios of chords in this article are played 1 octave lower than shown on the Treble staff.)These chords are characteristic for the G major scale. We can do the same operation in any o-ther major scale, and the scale-tone chord combination will be different and unique to that scale. What remains the same however for all major scales is that The I chord will always be a major 7th chord The II chord will always be a minor 7th chord The V chord will always be a dominant 7th chord and so onReturning to the G major scale-tone chords, it is not usual that you see these chords in simple ascending order (as shown above) in a chord progression. Instead these chords are most com-monly arranged in a Circle of 5ths order.Typically the progression starts on C (the IV chord), cuts across to F# (the VII chord) on the other side and then follows the regular Circle of 5th motion until it reaches its resting place G, the tonic chord of the scale. Audio 2The above progression need not start on the C chord of course, and it need not contain all chords of the scale.(Down - Up - Top)AU 2 - E Harmonic minor Scale-tone ChordsNow let us look at G major's related minor E minor.Below you see the scale-tone chord progression for the E harmonic minor scale. Audio 3This scale contains some weird and wonderful chords. Placing them all in an approximate order of the Circle of 5ths (D# chord does not t) it produces this sequence :Am7 - D#o7 - Gaug - C - F# - B7 - EmMaj7Not what you call a very pretty sound or a useful progression as a whole, but the tail end is very popular and commonly used in many many songs. Audio 4The V chord (B7 above) is sometimes extended to include the b9 chord tone (C for B7), which also ts in the (here) E harmonic minor scale.The E minor Major 7th chord is not a very appropriate chord to end on.The E minor triad is the-refore used instead. Or quite commonly an E minor 7th chord. But in that case we move out of the E harmonic minor scale and into (usually) the E Dorian mode.(Down - Up - Top)AU 3 - Autumn Leaves : A sectionAutumn Leaves is usually played in mid tempo Swing style.The song consists of 32 bars, subdivided in four 8-bar sections in an A A B C format. In broader terms one can also view the song as consisting of two halves. A rst half consisting of two A sec-tions, and a second half consisting of a B and a C section.Let us rst look at the A section with our recently gained knowledge on scale-tone chords in mind. Audio 5As a rst reaction you may think : "Wow !, this is great, a complete G major scale-tone chord progression in Circle of 5ths order. I don't have to worry about all these chords, but just use the G major scale !" Audio 6If only !On closer inspection we notice one chord which does not toe the line. Which is the spoilsport ? The B chord. Does Johnny Mercer not know that this is supposed to be a B minor 7th chord instead of the dominant B7 ? ? Audio 7But Johnny Mercer is a lot smarter than you perhaps think. The B7 is not a spoil sport at all, but instead a magic wand, turning the bright G major summer sound instantly into the darker E minor autumn mood.The Am7 - D7 - G - C is clearly a segment of the G major scale.However the dominant B7 chord converts the F# chord before it as the II chord in an E minor II - V7 - Im segment. Therefore, for improvisation use the G major scale over the rst 4 bars of the A section, and the E harmonic minor over the second 4 bars of the section. Audio 8As you can observe, there is not much difference in the two scales. Just a single note, the D#, but it provides a distinctly different mood. (Down - Up - Top)AU 4 - Autumn Leaves : B sectionHaving successfully worked out what is going on in the A section, the B section should pose no problem whatsoever.Can you see what is the situation here ? Audio 9Of course !The B section features two II-V-I progressions. The rst one in the key of E minor, the second one in the key of G major. Audio 10There is a very important principle you must be aware of :1. Any dominant 7th chord (B7 or D7 above) is always a V7 chord. But which one ? 2. When preceded by a minor 7th chord (a 5th higher) the dominant chord is the V7 chord of a IIm7-V7 scale-tone chord segment of a major scale. 3. When preceded by a half diminished chord (a 5th higher) the dominant chord is the V7 chord of a II-V7 scale-tone chord segment of a harmonic minor scale.Improvisation over this section is easy, because it is the same as for the A section but in the re-verse order. Use the E harmonic minor scale over the rst 4 bars, and the G major scale over the last 4 bars. Audio 11(Down - Up - Top)AU 5 - Tritone SubstitutionBack to a little more theory for a moment.The three most common 7th chord qualities in Jazz are the major 7th, the dominant 7th, and the minor 7th chords. For the root C for example : C = C - E - G - B C7 = C - E - G - Bb Cm7 = C - Eb - G - BbThe above shows that all three chords have their 1st note (root) and 5th in common. They distin-guish themselves by their 3rd and 7th chord tones, which are unique for each chord. These are the essential chord tones. Here are the complete three chord qualities and their essential chord tones for the C and the Gb chords. Audio 12But look at this !The essential chord tones for the major and minor qualities of both chord roots are quite diffe-rent. But the essential chord tones for the two dominant 7th chords are the same ! How can that be ?The essential chord tones of a dominant chord (3 and b7) are always 6 semitones, or 3 whole to-nes, a so called tritone apart. It is a symmetric interval. This means that when you invert the interval (from E-Bb to Bb-E or vise versa) the interval's size remains the same (6 semitones, a tritone). Therefore the essential chord tones of any dominant chord shares these with a second dominant chord, its root a tritone away. The only difference is that what is the 3rd chord tone in one chord becomes the b7th chord tone in the other chord and vise versa.This sharing of both essential chord tones in two dominant chords is such a close musical bond that in Jazz the two chords are interchangeable. This procedure is aptly called tritone substi-tution. (Down - Up - Top)AU 6 - Autumn Leaves : C sectionThe rst two bars of Autumn Leaves' C section is in terms of its chords a case of "dja vu", e-xactly the same as the B section. But from the third bar onwards the chord progression is very much different. With the previous Chapter in mind can you spot what is going on here ? Audio 13Tritone substitution ? You are exactly right !Which chord is a tritone away from Eb7 ? A7 Which chord is a tritone away from Db7 ? G7Therefore the progression : Em7 - Eb7 - Dm7 - Db7 - C = Em7 - A7 - Dm7 - G7 - CThe i