Authoritarian States

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Authoritarian States. 1. Conservative Authoritarianism. Anti-democratic Believed in avoiding change Limited in power Conservative authoritarianism alive in Eastern Europe, Spain and Portugal no tradition of self-government torn by ethnic conflict - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Authoritarian States

  • Authoritarian States

  • 1. Conservative AuthoritarianismAnti-democraticBelieved in avoiding changeLimited in powerConservative authoritarianism alive in Eastern Europe, Spain and Portugal no tradition of self-government torn by ethnic conflict the rich and the church needed help from dictators

  • Radical Totalitarian DictatorsAppear in Soviet Union-Germany-ItalySoviet Union- Lenin/StalinGermany-HitlerItaly-MussoliniLeaders wanted: conflict power to the state worship of violenceLeaders did not want: liberal values economic freedom large middle class

  • 2. The Political Spectrum

    Soviet UnionNazi GermanyleftrightSeized private propertyallowed private propertyCrushed middle classkept middle classFor working classfor capitalistCommunismFascism

  • Stalins Soviet Union

  • 3. The Early Years1921- Russian economy ruinedLenins New Economic Policy gives peasants economic freedomAgriculture and Manufacturing sectors grow4-1924- Lenin dies and Stalin takes power from Trotsky Trotsky wanted world wide revolution Stalin wanted socialism in one country

  • 5. Five Year PlansStalin declares economic war on kulaks ( rich peasants )Stalin collectivizes peasant landsState owns all land6. Stalin establishes master plans for heavy industry to be carried out in 5 year increments manufacturing improves dramatically poor harvests result in famines workers suffer low standards of living

  • 6. Life under StalinEducation stressed-skilled elite emergeWomen gain equality at a price divorce and abortion made easier women urged to work outside home all professions open to women women must work to support familiesPrevious art replaced by state formsHistory rewrittenReligion persecuted

  • 7. The Great PurgesStalin purges ( to rid ) old party faithfulPeople charged with crimes against state are tried in large show trials and confess8 killed or sent to work campsHysteria grips countryNew, younger converts educated in technical schools take power under Stalin

  • Mussolini and Fascism in Italy

  • 8. Mussolini takes powerCatholics, conservatives and landowners resist democracyWartime reforms not delivered to workersItaly upset with war settlementRussian revolution inspires socialistsMussolinis fascists ( The Black Shirts ) uses violence against socialistsMussolini forces king to name him head of government with march on Rome

  • 9. Mussolini in ActionFascists fix elections and kill socialist leader- MatteotiMussolini builds a fascist one party Italy but not a totalitarian state conservatives still control army, economy and state Church supports Mussolini Women suppressed Jews left alone

  • Hitler and Nazism in Germany

  • 10. Roots of NazismNationalism Germans needed living spaceCapitalism and liberalism = excessive individualismJews and Marxists lost the war for GermanyGermans are a superior race-DarwinistNeed for a strong leader

  • Warm Up 3-19Where do these two posters come from?What are each one about?

  • COVER PAGE OF GERMAN EDITIONS OF MEIN KAMPF WRITTEN IN 1924 WHILE HITLER WAS IMPRISONED FOR STAGING A REVOLT

  • NAZI PROPAGANDA DEPICTING THE IDEAL GERMAN ARYANNAZI PROPAGANDA DEPICTING THE IDEAL ARYAN MEMBER OF THE MASTER RACE

  • EXAMPLES OF NAZI ANTISEMITISM FINAL SOLUTION TO THE JEWISH PROBLEM

  • TREATY OF VERSAILLES,EUROPE1914 1919

  • TREATY OF VERSAILLES,GERMANY

  • 11. Hitlers route to powerVeteran of WWIBegins German Workers PartyJailed after failed attempt to overthrow Weimar RepublicWrites Mein Kampf1924-1929 forms National Socialist German Workers Party ( Nazi Party ) and takes advantage of depression to build party1932- Nazis become largest party in Germany1933- Hitler named chancellor of Germany when socialists and communists split coalition

  • Hitler entrenchesReichstag ( German legislature ) Building fire blamed on CommunistsHitler outlaws Communist Party and pushes through the Enabling ActHis SS troops murder old Nazi thugs and thus gains control of militarySecret police ( gestapo ) purges opponentsNuremberg laws deprives Jews of citizenshipsKristallnacht is night of violence against Jews

  • 12.How did Hitler keep power?PropagandaFiery speechesInvolvement of YouthControl of all sectors of life, cultureHigher standard of livingGreater opportunityNationalism

  • KRISTALLNACHT: HITLER BEGINS HIS EXTERMINATION CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE JEWS

  • VOLKSWAGEN: A CAR FOR ALMOST EVERY GERMAN FAMILY

  • Nazi expansion and W.W. II

  • 13. Nazi AggressionHitler tells Europe he wants to overturn Versailles treaty using legal means1933-Withdraws from League of Nations1935-establishes draft1936 -occupies demilitarized zone of the Rhineland

  • German AggressionAggressionReoccupied the Rhineland, 1936Allied with Italy & Japan (Comintern Pact)Declared the Anschluss annexed Austria unopposed

  • 14. European AppeasementBritish sign naval pact with GermansFrench do not resist Rhineland occupation by GermansBritish feel guilty over Versailles TreatyNo one wants another world warMany feel German demands to be sensibleGermans seen as a buffer against communism

  • Warm Up 3-25How was the US an appeaser?

  • GERMANY, 1933

  • FEAR OF COMMUNISM

  • HORRORS OF WWI

  • 15. Final Moves before WWII1935-Italy attacks EthiopiaItaly joins Germany in backing fascists in Spain1938-Hitler annexes Austria and demands part of CzechoslovakiaBritish cave in to German demandsHitler occupies all of Czechoslovakia1939-Germany and Russia sign non-aggression pactGermany invades PolandBritain and France declare war on Germany-1939

  • HAILE SELLASSIE: EMPEROR OF ETHIOPIA SELLASSIE PLEADS FOR HELP FROM THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS, 1936 SHOULD IT HAPPEN THAT A STRONG GOVERNMENT FINDS IT MAY WITH IMPUNITY DESTROY A WEAK PEOPLE, THEN THE HOUR STRIKES FOR THAT WEAK PEOPLE TO APPEAL TO THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS TO GIVE ITS JUDGMENT IN ALL FREEDOM.

  • TESTING GROUND, THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR: 1936 - 1939

    REPUBLICAN DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT SUPPORTED BY:FRANCO FASCIST NATIONALISTS

    SUPPORTED BY:USSRNAZI GERMANYINTERNATIONALBRIGADESFASCIST ITALY

  • Nazi-Soviet N.A. Pact1939Public implicationsPrivate agreementAllignmentDivision of Poland and Eastern Europe

  • HITLER INVADES POLAND:SEPTEMBER 1, 1939

  • THE POLISH ARMY WAS NO MATCH FOR THE GERMANS

  • 16. The Early War YearsGermans use blitzkrieg ( speed and force) to gain early victoriesPoland and France defeated earlyBombing of Britain beginsGermany turns towards Russia in 1941 but stopped by winterAfter Japan attacks Pearl Harbor Hitler declares war on the U.S.

  • MAGINOT LINE

  • Blitzkrieg Spring 1940PreviouslyAustriaSudentenlandCzechoslovakiaPolandLightening WarNorwayDenmarkNetherlandsBelgiumLuxembourgFrance!!!All in under 10 weeks

  • TOOLS OF THE BLITZKRIEG

  • CUTAWAY VIEW OF THE MAGINOT LINE

  • DunkirkSurrender or Retreat by Sea

    British RAF tried to keep the skies clearEvery available ship or boat in Southern England transported trapped soldiers

    From May 26-June 4, 338,000 soldiers were transferred

  • GREAT BRITAIN GETS A NEW PRIME MINISTER: WINSTON CHURCHILL

  • TO CONQUER GREAT BRITIAN HITLER WOULD HAVE TO CROSS THE ENGLISH CHANNEL. FIRST HE WOULD HAVE TO DESTROY THE RAF (ROYAL AIR FORCE) AND GAIN CONTROL OF THE AIR.

  • STATISTICS OF THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN

    PLANE TYPE AT START OF AIR BATTLEAUGUST 1940GERMANLUFTWAFFEROYALAIRFORCEBOMBERS960500FIGHTERS760700

    PLANE LOSSES AT END OF BATTLE, MARCH 19412840 PLANES 915 PLANES

  • PLANES OF THE BATTLE OF BRITAINBRITISH SPITFIRE FIGHTER

  • RUSSIAN MIXED TANK AND SKI INFANTRY TEAM ADVANCE ON GERMAN POSITIONS.

  • SOLDIERS KILLED, WOUNDED, CAPTURED OR MISSING FROM JUNE 1941 TO JAN 31, 1942. USSR NUMBERS INCLUDE 3.35 MILLION SOLDIERS CAPTURED

  • THE END AT STALINGRAD GERMAN PRISONERS, ONLY 5,000 OF THE 250,000 CAPTURED RETURNED AFTER THE WAR

  • 17. German MaintenanceNordics treated with preference-Slavs treated as sub-humanPoland evacuated for GermansPrisoners of war sent to Germany to work as slavesJews, Gypsies, Jehovahs Witnesses and communists exterminated

  • 18. The Grand Alliance Russia, Britain, and U.S. form allianceUSA concentrates on Europe firstAmericans/British think military then politicalAllies demand unconditional surrenderUSA sends aid to Britain and RussiaBritish and Russians resist German attacksResistance groups snipe at Germans

  • 19. The Tide TurnsRussians win at Stalingrad and take offensive on eastern frontAllies win pivotal battles in South PacificBritish drive Germans out of Northern AfricaItalians surrender but German continues fight in ItalyBombing of Germany keeps them fightingGermany caught in vise by Allies finally surrenders on May 7, 1945

  • Operation Barbarossa: USSRJune 22, 1941Why?Surprise!Luftwaffe successScorched-earth policyStalin requests Allied aid, Aug 1941North RouteSouth Route

  • ALTHOUGH THE USSR HAD MORE OF EVERYTHING MOST OF THEIR EQUIPMENT WAS OUT OF DATE AND COULD NOT STAND UP TO MODERN GERMAN WEAPONS; BUT NEW MODELS OF TANKS WERE SUPERIOR TO GERMAN WEAPONSUSSR

  • The Atomic Question

  • Photos of the vicious fighting on Iwo Jima.

  • AMERICAN CASUALTIES ON OKINAWA WOULD EXCEED 68,000. OF THE NEARLY 16,000 SERVICEMEN KILLED THE BURDEN FELL TO THE NAVAL FORCES: 8,343 DEAD SAILORS, COAST GUARDSMEN AND MARINES, THE HIGHEST TOLL IN NAVAL HISTORY. MUCH OF THE NAVAL LOSS WAS DUE TO THE JAPANE