AUSTRALIAN CONSTITUTIONAL AUSTRALIAN CONSTITUTIONAL LANDMARKS Australian Constitutional Landmarks presents

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  • AUSTRALIAN CONSTITUTIONAL LANDMARKS

    Australian Constitutional Landmarks presents the most significant cases and controversies in the Australian constitutional landscape. Including the Communist Party case, the dismissal of the Whitlam government, the Free Speech cases, a discussion of the race power, the Lionel Murphy saga, and the Tasmanian Dam case, this book highlights turning points in the shaping of the Australian nation since Federation.

    Each chapter clearly examines the legal and political context leading to the case or controversy and the impact on later constitutional reform. With contri- butions by leading constitutional lawyers, judges and two former chief justices, this book is sure to have lasting appeal to all members of the judiciary, lawyers, political scientists, historians and all people with an interest in Australian politics, government and history.

    H. P. Lee is the Sir John Latham Professor of Law at Monash University. The author of many legal works on Australia, Singapore and Malaysia, he has been a member of various committees advising on the press and humanitarian law. His most recent work, co- authored with Enid Campbell, is The Australian Judiciary.

    George Winterton is Professor of Law at the University of New South Wales. He has published extensively in Australia and overseas and was a member of the Executive Government Advisory Committee of the Constitutional Commission, the Republic Advisory Committee, and an appointed delegate to the Consti- tutional Convention.

    www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press

    Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-15285-3 - Australian Constitutional Landmarks Edited by H. P. Lee and George Winterton Frontmatter More information

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  • AUSTRALIAN CONSTITUTIONAL

    LANDMARKS

    Edited by H . P. L E E

    Monash University, Melbourne

    G E O R G E W I N T E RT O N University of New South Wales, Sydney

    www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press

    Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-15285-3 - Australian Constitutional Landmarks Edited by H. P. Lee and George Winterton Frontmatter More information

    http://www.cambridge.org http://www.cambridge.org http://www.cambridge.org/9780521152853

  • CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

    Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore,

    São Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo, Mexico City

    Cambridge University Press

    The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK

    Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York

    www.cambridge.org

    Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521152853

    © H. P. Lee & George Winterton 2003

    This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception

    and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,

    no reproduction of any part may take place without the written

    permission of Cambridge University Press.

    First published 2003

    First paperback printing 2010

    A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library

    National Library of Australia Cataloguing in Publication data

    Australian constitutional landmarks.

    Includes index.

    ISBN 0 521 83158 X.

    1. Constitutional law – Australia – Cases.

    I. Lee, H. P. (Hoong Phun).

    342.94

    ISBN 978-0-521-83158-1 Hardback

    ISBN 978-0-521-15285-3 Paperback

    Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or

    accuracy of URLs for external or third-party Internet Web sites referred to in

    this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such Web sites is,

    or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

    www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press

    Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-15285-3 - Australian Constitutional Landmarks Edited by H. P. Lee and George Winterton Frontmatter More information

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  • Contents

    v

    List of Cases vii List of Commonwealth Constitution Provisions xviii List of Statutes xx List of Contributors xxiii Preface xxvii

    Introduction: The Commonwealth’s Constitutional Century xxix H. P. Lee and George Winterton

    1 The Emergence of the Commonwealth Constitution 1 John Williams

    2 The Engineers Case 34 Keven Booker and Arthur Glass

    3 The Uniform Income Tax Cases 62 Cheryl Saunders

    4 The Bank Nationalisation Cases: The Defeat of Labor’s Most 85 Controversial Economic Initiative Peter Johnston

    5 The Communist Party Case 108 George Winterton

    6 Fitzpatrick and Browne: Imprisonment by a House 145 of Parliament Harry Evans

    7 The Boilermakers Case 160 Fiona Wheeler

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  • vi

    8 The Race Power: A Constitutional Chimera 180 Robert French

    9 The Double Dissolution Cases 213 Sir Anthony Mason

    10 1975: The Dismissal of the Whitlam Government 229 George Winterton

    11 The Tasmanian Dam Case 262 Leslie Zines

    12 The Murphy Affair in Retrospect 280 Geoffrey Lindell

    13 The Privy Council and the Constitution 312 Sir Gerard Brennan

    14 Cole v Whitfield: ‘Absolutely Free’ Trade? 335 Dennis Rose

    15 The ‘Labour Relations Power’ in the Constitution and 355 Public Sector Employees Marilyn Pittard

    16 The Implied Freedom of Political Communication 383 H. P. Lee

    Index 412

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  • Cases

    vii

    Abley v Dale (1851) 20 LJ (CP) 235, …58 Abrams v United States (1919) 250 US 616, …136 Ackroyd v McKechnie (1986) 161 CLR 60, …352 Actors and Announcers Equity Association of Australia v Fontana Films Pty

    Ltd (1982) 150 CLR 169, …142, 272 Adelaide Company of Jehovah’s Witnesses Inc v Commonwealth (1943) 67

    CLR 116, …110, 135, 137, 139 Airlines of New South Wales v New South Wales (No. 2) (1965) 113 CLR 54,

    …50, 58, 60 Amalgamated Society of Engineers v Adelaide Steamship Co Ltd (1920) 14

    CAR 428, …57 Amalgamated Society of Engineers v Adelaide Steamship Co Ltd (1920) 28

    CLR 129, …xxxii, 34–60, 71, 83, 129, 141, 270, 278, 318, 320, 331, 333, 334, 373, 381

    Amalgamated Society of Engineers v Adelaide Steamship Co Ltd (1921) 29 CLR 406, …57

    Ansett Transport Industries (Operations) Pty Ltd v Commonwealth (1977) 139 CLR 54, …393

    Application for Registration of Association of Australian University Staff, Re (1981) 23 AILR [222], …369

    Arena v Nader (1997) 71 ALJR 1604, …159 Asma Jilani v Government of Punjab [1972] PLD (SC) 139, …143 Attorney-General (Cth) v Colonial Sugar Refining Company Pty Ltd (1913) 17

    CLR 644; [1914] AC 237, …316, 317, 320, 330 Attorney-General (Cth) v Finch (No. 1) (1983) 155 CLR 102, …334 Attorney-General (Cth) v Finch (No. 2) (1984) 155 CLR 107, …334 Attorney-General (Cth); Ex rel McKinlay v Commonwealth (1975) 135 CLR 1,

    …334, 388, 397

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  • Attorney-General (Cth) v R; Ex parte Boilermakers’ Society of Australia (1957) 95 CLR 529; [1957] AC 288, …175, 177, 260, 318, 319, 326 332, 334

    Attorney-General (Cth) v T & G Mutual Life Society Ltd (1978) 144 CLR 161, …334

    Attorney-General of Mauritius v Ramgoolam [1993] 3 LRC 82, …309 Attorney-General (NSW) v Trethowan (1931) 44 CLR 394, …257, 334 Attorney-General (NSW) v Trethowan (1932) 47 CLR 97; [1932] AC 526,

    …328, 329, 334 Attorney-General for Ontario v Attorney-General for Canada [1912] AC 571,

    …58, 320 Attorney-General (Victoria); Ex rel Black v Commonwealth (1981) 146 CLR

    559, …79, 84 Attorney-General (Victoria); Ex rel Dale v Commonwealth (1945) 71 CLR 237,

    …104, 142 Attorney-General (WA) v Australian National Airlines Commission (1976)

    138 CLR 492, …60 Austin v Commonwealth (2003) 77 ALJR 491, …49, 50, 59, 102 Australian Broadcasting Corporation v Lenah Game Meats Pty Ltd (2001)

    208 CLR 199; 185 ALR 1, …107, 401 Australian Capital Television v Commonwealth (1992) 104 ALR 389,

    …406 Australian Capital Television Pty Ltd v Commonwealth (1992) 177 CLR 106,

    …xxxi, xxxv, xxxvi, 32, 58, 107, 134, 143, 354, 383, 384, 386, 387, 389, 391–5, 397, 398, 406–8

    Australian Communist Party v Commonwealth (1951) 83 CLR 1, …xxxii, xxxvi, 103, 108, 124, 129–35, 137, 139–44, 212, 300, 310

    Australian Education Union, Re; Ex parte Victoria (1995) 184 CLR 188, …49, 59, 84, 375, 376, 378, 381