Attitudes, values and perceptions due to religious beliefs. Variations in views, attitudes and perceptions,

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  • Attitudes, values and perceptions

    Muslims and the general population in 2007-08

    www.communities.gov.uk community, opportunity, prosperity

  • Acknowledgments

    First and foremost our thanks go to all of the respondents who gave up their time to take part in the 2007-08 Citizenship Survey.

    We would also like to thank the author of the report, Helen Connolly, and colleagues in the Citizenship Survey team for their advice and assistance, in particular Reannan Rottier, Philippa Robinson, Farzana Bari and Suzanne Cooper.

    Information on the Citizenship Survey and associated publications are available from:

    Suzanne Cooper Communities and Local Government Zone 7/E8, Eland House Bressenden Place London SW1E 5DU

    Email: citizenship.survey@communities.gsi.gov.uk

    For statistical queries please contact:

    Janet Dougharty Communities and Local Government 5th Floor, Eland House Bressenden Place London SW1E 5DU

    Email: janet.dougharty@communities.gsi.gov.uk

  • Attitudes, values and perceptions

    Muslims and the general population in 2007-08

    February 2010 Department for Communities and Local Government

  • Department for Communities and Local Government Eland House Bressenden Place London SW1E 5DU Telephone: 0303 444 0000 Website: www.communities.gov.uk

    © Crown Copyright, 2010

    Copyright in the typographical arrangement rests with the Crown.

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    If you require this publication in an alternative format please email alternativeformats@communities.gsi.gov.uk

    Communities and Local Government Publications Tel: 0300 123 1124 Fax: 0300 123 1125 Email: product@communities.gsi.gov.uk Online via the Communities and Local Government website: www.communities.gov.uk

    February 2010

    Product code: 09 CAD0 6121

    ISBN: 978 1 4098 2190 8

  • Contents

    Acknowledgements ........................................................................ inside front cover

    Executive summary ................................................................................................ 4

    Key findings ............................................................................................................ 6

    Introduction ............................................................................................................ 9

    Notes about the analysis ............................................................................................ 10

    Chapter 1: Engagement ........................................................................................ 13

    1.1 Influencing decisions .......................................................................................... 13

    1.2 Civic engagement .............................................................................................. 14

    1.3 Formal and informal volunteering ........................................................................ 16

    1.4 Rights and responsibilities.................................................................................... 18

    1.5 Values ................................................................................................................ 25

    Chapter 2: Cohesion, interaction and identity .................................................... 31

    2.1 Cohesion ............................................................................................................ 31

    2.2 Meaningful interaction ........................................................................................ 36

    2.3 Belonging to Britain ............................................................................................ 40

    2.4 Identity and religion ............................................................................................ 43

    2.5 The importance of religion in day-to-day life ........................................................ 46

    Chapter 3: Prejudice and discrimination .............................................................. 50

    3.1 Trust of institutions and expectations of treatment .............................................. 50

    3.2 Religious prejudice .............................................................................................. 54

    3.3 Discrimination in the labour market and by a range of organisations .................... 57

    3.4 Attitudes towards Muslims .................................................................................. 60

    Annex A: Definitions and terms ............................................................................ 64

    Annex B: Tables ...................................................................................................... 66

  • 4 | Attitudes, values and perceptions

    Executive summary

    This report forms part of a series which use Citizenship Survey data to explore attitudes, values and perceptions on a range of issues, and which include analysis of variations between ethnic and faith groups. Recent citizenship survey topic reports, which provide analysis of ethnic and faith groups in England, include the following: 2007-08 Citizenship Survey: Empowered communities; 2007-08 Citizenship Survey: Community Cohesion; 2007-08 Citizenship Survey: Identity and Values; 2007-08 Citizenship Survey: Volunteering and Charitable Giving; and 2007-08 Citizenship Survey: Race, Religion and Equalities (England and Wales). Each topic report provides headline figures for the general population and examines key variations to provide an in-depth analysis of findings.

    This report gives an overview of the growing evidence base that underpins our understanding of British Muslim communities in England. This does not suggest that, where differences are observed between Muslims and the general population, they are due to religious beliefs. Variations in views, attitudes and perceptions, both among Muslims and the general population, are likely to reflect demographic, socio-economic and experiential differences to a much greater extent than they are likely to reflect differences in religious beliefs. The findings in this report should therefore be viewed as providing descriptive information about the Muslim and general population, rather than suggesting that religious beliefs explain any variations.

    This is consistent with previous analysis using Citizenship Survey data for 2007-08, which demonstrates that other ethnic and faith groups also differ from the general population on a variety of measures; in some cases the differences can be explained by ethnicity and faith, but often they reflect variations in the age and socio-economic circumstances of different communities.

    The report examines a range of attitudes, perceptions and behaviours including engagement, cohesion, interaction, identity, trust and perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. Findings for Muslims are compared with findings for the general population. Variations by age and sex within the Muslim population are also discussed. It is important to recognise that whilst limited numbers have not allowed for a finer breakdown of the Muslim population, beyond age and sex, it is misleading to speak of a single, discrete Muslim community; there are important differences within Muslim communities, often related to differences in ethnicity, country (and region) of origin and regional location within England.

  • Executive summary | 5

    The report primarily uses data from the 2005 and 2007-08 Citizenship Surveys. The survey was given National Statistics status in March 2008. The Citizenship Survey is a nationally representative survey, which includes a large booster sample of minority ethnic respondents. This provides representative data on minority ethnic and faith groups and enables robust comparisons. The Citizenship Survey was initially carried out bi-annually in 2001, 2003 and 2005 but has adopted a continuous design from April 2007. Annual reports are produced at the end of each financial year in addition to statistical releases at the end of each financial quarter.

  • 6 | Attitudes, values and perceptions

    Key findings

    In many respects this report paints a positive picture of Muslim’s views, attitudes and perceptions in 2007-08. Muslims had very positive views about the level of cohesion in their local areas; the vast majority felt that people from different backgrounds got on well together in their local area and that their local area was a place where residents respected ethnic differences between people.

    Muslims also expressed strong feelings of belonging, both to their neighbourhoods and to Britain as a whole, and more than nine in ten Muslims agreed that they personally felt a part of British society.

    In 2007-08 Muslims also expressed high levels of trust in institutions. They were more likely than the general population to say that they trusted Parliament and their loc