of 20 /20
ATP, Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

ATP, Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis · Photosynthesis & Respiration are opposites & interdependent Respiration = exergonic Photosynthesis = endergonic One cannot occur without

  • Author
    others

  • View
    6

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of ATP, Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis · Photosynthesis & Respiration are opposites &...

  • ATP, Cellular

    Respiration and

    Photosynthesis

  • Energy for Cells

    Free Energy: the energy available to do

    work

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Krunkwerke_-_IMG_4515_(by-sa).jpg

  • Types of Reactions

    Endergonic Reactions: require an input of energy

    Exergonic Reactions: release energy (energy EXits)

  • ATP

    Adenosine Triphosphate

    3 Phosphate Groups

    Goes into endergonic reactions

    Released from exergonic reactions

    Energy source

    ATP + H2O ADP + P + Energy When the last phosphate bond (high energy bond)

    is broken, energy is released

    Hydrolysis reaction

  • Cellular Respiration

    The process by which energy is made

    available for biological work

    C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy

    Exergonic

    Occurs in both autotrophs & heterotrophs

    Reactions occur in the cytoplasm and

    mitochondria

  • Aerobic Respiration

    Aerobic Respiration: cellular respiration

    that uses O2

    Releases 38ATP

  • Anaerobic Respiration

    Anaerobic Respiration: cellular

    respiration that occurs in the absence of

    oxygen

    Fermentation: another term used to

    describe anaerobic respiration

    Types:

    Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Alcoholic Fermentation

  • Anaerobic Respiration

    Lactic Acid Fermentation: glucose is

    broken down into 2 lactic acid molecules

    in the absence of O2 Releases 4ATP

    Occurs in human muscle cells

    Allows muscles to keep working without oxygen,

    but produces MUCH LESS ATP than aerobic

    respiration

  • Anaerobic

    Alcoholic Fermentation: glucose is broken down into 2 ethanol molecules and 2 carbon dioxide molecules in the absence of oxygen Releases 4ATP

    Carried out by plant cells and microorganisms

    Yeast in bread breaks down carbohydrates in the dough by alcoholic fermentation, the CO2 released causes the bread to rise

    Yeast are used to produce ethanol in beer & wine

  • Photosynthesis

    Process by which producers store energy

    from sunlight as chemical energy in

    organic molecules (glucose)

    6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy C6H12O6 + 6O2 Endergonic (takes in sunlight)

    Occurs in producers only (autotrophs)

  • Light

    Light: radiant energy travels in waves

    Visible Spectrum: the range of colors that make up white light Longest R O Y G B I V Shortest

    Colors we see depend on what wavelengths are reflected

  • Chlorophyll & Other

    Pigments

    Organisms that carry out photosynthesis

    contain colored pigments that absorb

    light energy and convert it to chemical

    energy

  • Chlorophyll

    Most important pigment in photosynthesis

    Eukaryotes: chlorophyll is in the chloroplasts

    Prokaryotes: chlorophyll is in the cytoplasm

  • Chlorophyll

    Appears green = reflects green & yellow wavelengths of light

    Absorption Spectrum: a graph that shows the wavelengths of light absorbed

    Absorbed wavelengths are transformed from light energy to chemical energy during photosynthesis

    Absorbed wavelengths are USED

  • Carotenoids

    Yellow, orange, and red pigments in chloroplasts

    Absorb blue & green wavelengths

    Pass energy to chlorophyll

    Present in other plant parts (flowers, fruits)

    Become visible in autumn because chlorophyll production stops

  • Chloroplasts

    Contain chlorophyll & other pigments

    Thylakoid membranes Internal membranes

    Fluid mosaic

    Chlorophyll & carotenoids embedded in bilayer with proteins

    Where the light reactions occur

    Grana: stacks of thylakoids

    Stroma: fluid part of chloroplast Where the Calvin Cycle occurs

  • Light Reactions

    Involve a series of changes that convert

    light energy to chemical energy

    “photo” means light – this is the “photo” in photosynthesis!

    Occur in the thylakoid membranes

    H2O split into Hydrogen ions (H+),

    electrons, and O2

  • The Calvin Cycle (“Dark” Reactions)

    Synthesis of sugars by the stroma &

    molecules within it

    “Synthesis” of photosynthesis

    Produces 3 Carbon sugars

    2 can be combined to form 6 Carbon sugars,

    like glucose

  • Lack of Free Glucose in

    Plants

    Most plants contain little free glucose

    because:

    Glucose + fructose sucrose

    Glucose + glucose starch

    Glucose used for cellulose

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:D-glucose-chain-3D-balls.png

  • Energy Relationships

    Photosynthesis & Respiration are opposites &

    interdependent

    Respiration = exergonic

    Photosynthesis = endergonic

    One cannot occur without the

    other – products of one are the

    reactants of the other

    6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy C6H12O6 + 6O2

    C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy

    Photosynthesis only in autotrophs

    Respiration in autotrophs AND heterotrophs

    http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=xWBQeWKazyw5rM&tbnid=yrdKXQDHUcbQ6M:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mhhe.com%2Fbiosci%2Fap%2Fap_prep%2FbioB5.html&ei=zaxeUbrYA5G14APxj4HQDw&bvm=bv.44770516,d.dmg&psig=AFQjCNH7esEH3vEikGwyf2O3gZh2EfuQmw&ust=1365245498310803