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COLEGIUL NAŢIONAL “MIHAI EMINESCU” BAIA MARE LUCRARE SCRISĂ REALIZATĂ ÎN VEDEREA OBŢINERII ATESTATULUI PROFESIONAL LA LIMBA ENG LEZĂ 9/11: TERRORISM IN TERMS OF AMERICA PROFESOR COORDONATOR: CANDIDAT: LAZĂR MONICA JUHASZ BIANCA PATRICIA 2011 1

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COLEGIUL NAŢIONAL “MIHAI EMINESCU” BAIA MARE

LUCRARE SCRISĂ REALIZATĂ ÎN VEDEREA OBŢINERIIATESTATULUI PROFESIONAL LA LIMBA ENGLEZĂ

9/11:

TERRORISM IN TERMS OF

AMERICA

PROFESOR COORDONATOR: CANDIDAT:LAZĂR MONICA JUHASZ BIANCA PATRICIA

2011

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PRÈCIS

1. INTRODUCTION1.1. Terrorism.............................................................................4

2. CHAPTER I: The History of the World Trade Center 2.1. Planning...............................................................................72.2. Construction.........................................................................72.3. Major Events........................................................................8

3. CHAPTER II: The Day of the Attacks3.1. Events…………………………………………………….. 93.2. Terrorists…………………………………………………..113.3. Immediate response……………………………………….143.4. ‘War of Terror’…………………………………………...14

4. CHAPTER III: Aftermath of the Attacks4.1. Victims……………………………………………………15

CONCLUSION

APPENDICES

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. TERRORISM

We live in a world where appearances dominate every aspect of our life, be it social,cultural, economic or even political. It is generally believed that this is a world of freedom, peace and liberty, a world that has now found its balance after a tumultuoushistory ravaged by wars, terror, deaths and blood but this is only a facade for keeping people under control. Behind this illusion of democracy and equality between states, thereality lies frightening, impregnated with corruption, an avid lust for power and a desireto satisfy personal wishes, exceeding any barriers of morality, ethics or human rights.

The process of globalization has transformed the world into the playground of the great

 powers which gained control in a subtle, but efficient way over the less developed states,threatening their national identity. Thus, some states voluntarily comply to the actualmainstream, whereas others feel undermined by the new trends designed to sneak in their traditional culture and therefore, they feel obliged to react for the protection of their country, but most of the times in a tough, violentmanner leading to acts of terrorism. (Jean Servier 2001: 30)

War can be defined by the confrontation betweentwo armies and the invasion of a territory may be a possible reason for war, but the massacre of thecivilian population, along with the infringement of its liberties, is related to terrorism.

What we call “terrorism” includes the violencesexecuted by one or more individuals againstarbitrarily chosen victims, exclusively for sustaining a power, a will of domination,through fear, through terror which immediately becomes contagious for the entire population.

Therefore, “terrorism” is an offensive system used by an individual or a group more or less ample, in order to impose their will in front of an entire people, even in front of anentire civilization, to exert an influence on history. (Jean Servier 2001: 31)

Terrorism is a criminal act that influences an audience beyond the immediate victim. Thestrategy of terrorists is to commit acts of violence that draw the attention of the local populace, the government, and the world to their cause. The terrorists plan their attack toobtain the greatest publicity, choosing targets that symbolize what they oppose. Theeffectiveness of the terrorist act lies not in the act itself, but in the public’s or government’s reaction to the act.

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Added to all these attacks are measures intended to shock the international opinion, suchas official statements to the press and publicity and their broadcasting. Mass media givesthe terrorism a new depth and vivid colors. Through it, an assassin becomes a star -especially if he is photogenic- and gives press conferences, presented as a victim of asociety of all vices. ( Jean Servier 2001: 152)

Almost no week goes by without an act of terrorism taking place somewhere in theworld, indiscriminately affecting innocent people who just happened to be in the wrong place at the wrong time. These massacres will not change positively the mentality of  people in the way of commiserating with the terrorists, as they intend, but will arouse

anger among the population and among states, determining the victim state to react withviolence and leading to large-scale conflicts which have devastating consequences on people’s lives. Apparently, there is ‘a free world’, divided by different interests, countriesthat disapprove with terrorism, but which, paradoxically, sell weapons to other countrieswhich help the terrorists. ( Jean Servier 2001: 156)

Judging by the facts we encounter nowadays, we are led to believe that the contemporarysociety is acting in the personal interests of the people in power, ignoring the population’sinterests and without any initiative of changing this situation. So is there anything we, thecommon people, could do or are we going to be bystanders witnessing acts of terrorismand corruption which will eventually represent an attack on our moral values?

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2. THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER 

"The original twin towers... were built at a time when New York's future seemed uncertain, the

towers restored confidence and helped bring a halt to the decline of lower Manhattan. Brash,

 glitzy, and grand, they quickly became symbols of New York." 

 David Johnson and Shmuel Ross, World Trade Center History

2.1. PLANNING

1946

The story of the WTC began in the 1950s, when several visionary New Yorkers plannedto make downtown Manhattan the home of world commerce. During the late 1940s and1950s, economic growth in New York City was concentrated in Midtown Manhattan,while Lower Manhattan was left out, therefore a plan was created to unify and revitalize

downtown through an original proposal for only one 70-storey building, not the final twintowers design.

September 20, 1962

The current site for the World Trade Center was chosen and a Japanese-Americanarchitect, Minoru Yamasaki, was selected to design the project. Yamasaki's designs wereoften related to classical themes but his use of modern technology resulted incontemporary structures of glass and concrete. A tube-frame structural system wasdeveloped which allowed for open floor plans without columns in the office spaces, theWorld Trade Center plan being estimated at the sum of $525 million. It was a complex

of six buildings consisting of 10 million square feet of office space. However, the TwinTowers were considered to be the focal point. The 110-storey buildings were to be theworld’s tallest skyscrapers.

2.2. CONSTRUCTION

1966

Demolition at the site began with the clearance of thirteen square blocks of low rise buildings for construction of the World TradeCenter. WTC 1, the North Tower, rose ahead of WTC 2.

 August 1968

Construction on the north tower began.

January 1969

Construction on the south tower began.

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December 23, 1970

The topping out ceremony of the north tower took place. 1 WTC featured manyinnovations such as the Twin Towers' high-speed elevators, sky lobbies, and the "hollowtube" building model.

January 1972

The first major tenants moved into the south tower.

April 4, 1973

The twin towers debut as the tallest buildings in the world --at 1,368 and 1,362 feet and110 stories each-- surpassing the height of the Empire State Building. In addition to thetwin towers, four smaller buildings and a hotel, all built nearby around a centrallandscaped plaza, completed the complex.

2.3. MAJOR EVENTS

February 13, 1975

A fire broke out on the 11th floor of the north tower. The firethen spread from the 9th to 14th floors by igniting the insulationof telephone cables that ran between the floors. Most of thedamage was concentrated on the 11th floor. Fireproofing protected the steel from melting, being no structural damage tothe tower.

December 1975

The Top of the World Observation Deck opens at Two World Trade Center (SouthTower) on the 107th floor providing breathtaking views of Manhattan

1976

The world-famous restaurant, Windows on the World, opened on the top floors (106 th and107th) of the north tower. February 26, 1993

A truck filled with 1,500 pounds (680 kg) of explosives detonated in the undergroundgarage of the North Tower, producing a 100 foot (30 m) hole through five sublevels,resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars of damage.  Six people were killed.The terrorists’ aim at the time of the attack was to destabilize the north tower and send itcrashing into the south tower, destroying both landmarks.2

3. THE DAY OF THE ATTACKS2 http://www.wtc.com/about/original-wtc

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3.1. EVENTS

On 11th September 2001, an incredible piece of news, which encircled the entire worldwith the speed of a lightning, made the hearts of billions of people from each corner of the planet to shudder: at least 6 persons died after an explosion at World Trade Center from New York. ( America sub teroare 2001: 5)

These were the first words that spread around the globe, words that did not give anyonethe possibility to foresee the seriousness and the real dimensions of the tragedy thatwould shake from the roots in the next half of hour not only the United States of America, but also the entire civilized world. A few minutes were enough to changeforever the appearance of the world as we knew it, transforming it into an image alwaysto remain deeply imprinted in our minds. The consequence came soon, placing thehumanity in front of an unprecedented situation: at least 6 persons died and 1000 wereinjured after the explosion produced by the collision of two planes with the towers of theWorld Trade Center building from New York, at an 18-minute interval. The two planes

seemed to be part of a terrorism act. ( America sub teroare 2001: 5)

The United States of America represents alandmark from all points of view, beingconsidered so secure that nothing couldhappen to breach this security. New York canalso be considered, through everything that itrepresents, a world capital. In this way, all theinhabitants of the planet were partakers in thehorrendous events that took place there.(America sub teroare 2001: 6)

Two impacts had taken place, both towerswere surrounded by smoke, the firefighterswere concentrated in the area, the policemendismissed the area; it was supposed to act withspeed for evacuating especially the twoaffected buildings, as well as it was supposedthat the fire would spread, affecting more andmore floors of the twin towers. (America subteroare 2001: 7)

Events started to unfold rapidly. One of the two planes that hit the World Trade Center was a Boeing 767 of American Airlines company, which took off from Boston and mostlikely, it had been hijacked. A third plane hit, at the same time, in the same manner, thePentagon, the impact causing a fire that covered a side of the building which houses theU.S. Department of Defence, and which did not withstand the impact and collapsed. As aconsequences of this attack, the White House had been evacuated in a rush. (America subteroare 2001: 7)

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The attacks on New York and Washington startedat approximately 8.45 a.m, local time, and took  place over a period of 18 minutes, time elapsed between the first collision with the WTC NorthTower and the last collision with the WTC SouthTower. Meanwhile, the Pentagon was attacked

and a fourth plane crashed somewhere near Pittsburgh. ( America sub teroare 2001: 8)

For New Yorkers, this is a rush hour, 9 o’clock  being the time when the working programmestarts in Manhattan. It was supposed that some of the employees of the companies thathad the headquarters in the two towers were already at work, others were in the onehundred elevators which served the towers and others were heading for their work places.( America sub teroare 2001: 8)

The different nature of the attacks from Washington lies in the fact that in this case, there

were attacked targets of national interest, namely the Pentagon and the State Department.Therefore, this is not about a typical terrorist action, although the scale at which theaction developed in New York exceeded by far the dimensions of any other previousterrorist attack. ( America sub teroare 2001: 9)

A dramatic moment of that day was the one when the American television stationsannounced that evidence showed that the Boeing plane that crashed near Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania state actually targeted the White House. If the attack on the White Househad succeeded, the main symbol of the United States would have disappeared and thescale of the disaster would have been much greater. ( America sub teroare 2001: 12)

People worldwide realized that terrorism is notlimited by any boundaries and that any of the peopleon this planet can be the victim of these forms of fanaticism taken to unimaginable extremes.

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3.2. THE TERRORISTS

Within hours of the attacks, the FBI was able to determine the names and in many casesthe personal details of the suspected pilots and hijackers, by finding the luggage of one of the terrorists which did not make the connection between two flights. The bag was filledwith documents and papers that revealed not only the identities of all 19 hijackers, but

also important clues about about their plans, motives and backgrounds. Fifteen of thehijackers were from Saudi Arabia, two from the United Arab Emirates, one from Egyptand one from Lebanon.

AMERICAN AIRLINES #77BOEING 757

1) Khalid Almihdhar - Possible Saudi national

2) Majed Moqed - Possible Saudi national

3) Nawaf Alhazmi - Possible Saudi national

4) Salem Alhazmi - Possible Saudi national

5) Hani Hanjour 

AMERICAN AIRLINES #11BOEING 767

1) Satam M.A. Al Suqami- Possible Saudi national

2) Waleed M. Alshehri - Possible Saudi national

-Believed to be a pilot

3) Wail M. Alshehri

-Believed to be a pilot

4) Mohamed Atta - Possible Egyptian national

-Believed to be a pilot

5) Abdulaziz Alomari - Possible Saudi national

-Believed to be a pilot

UNITED AIRLINES #175BOEING 767

1) Marwan Al-Shehhi

-Believed to be a pilot

2) Fayez Rashid Ahmed Hassan Al Qadi Banihammad

3) Ahmed Alghamdi

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4) Hamza Alghamdi

5) Mohand Alshehri

UNITED AIRLINES #93BOEING 757

1) Saeed Alghamdi

2) Ahmed Ibrahim A. Al Haznawi - Possible Saudi national

3) Ahmed Alnami

4) Ziad Samir Jarrah3

As the testimony of the passengers and the crew members reveals, the terrorists attackedsomewhere between 8.42 and 8.46 a.m. They used knives, pepper spray and they eventhreatened that they would detonate a bomb. They stabbed members of the crew of pilotsand also flight attendants and passengers. (Raportul final al Comisiei Americane deAncheta privind atacurile teroriste asupra Statelor Unite ale Americii 2006: 4)

The 19 Arabian Muslims have been portrayed as being extremely devoted Muslims,ready to meet their Creator. Their actions were submitted to a duty to their God and notto themselves. Western countries were considered faithless and responsible for all theinjustices commited in the world. In the name of their religion, the Muslims considered ittheir duty to root out the sinners by any means possible, their mission being to gainvictory over the faithless nations.

All these beliefs were listed in special books that each Muslim had toacquire, knowing by heart and rigorously fulfilling every action listed in the manual.These books were spiritually and physically preparing them for their meeting with theCreator, in other words, for death. What is paradoxical is that these people wereconvinced that their mission is sacred and that the slaughter of so many innocent peopleis a blessing, thanking the Creator that they were elected to accomplish thismission and being ready to sacrifice their life in the name of their  God. Claiming thatthe United States declared war to God and to his messengers, they wanted the killing of any American, anywhere in the world, like an “individual duty of every Muslim able todo it in any country where it is possible " (Raportul final al Comisiei Americane de

Ancheta privind atacurile teroriste asupra Statelor Unite ale Americii 2006: 62)

 

3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_11_attacks#Attackera_and_their_background

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“The young came to prepare themselves for Jihad 4 [holy war], commanded by the majestic Allah's order in the holy Koran. [Koranic 'verse:] "Against them-make ready your strength to the

utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into the hearts of the enemies of 

 Allah and your enemies, and others besides whom ye may not know, but whom Allah doth know." 

. . . to make their women widows and their children orphans.

. . . to make them desire death and hate appointments and prestige.

. . . to slaughter them like lambs and let the Nile, al-Asi, and Euphrates rivers flow with their 

blood.”

Terrorists’ Training Manual 

The terrorists involved in the 9/11 attacks are believed to be part of Al-Qaeda, which is amilitant Islamist group founded between August 1988 and late 1989. It operates as anetwork comprising both a multinational, stateless army and a radical Muslim movementcalling for global Jihad, most of the world considering it a terrorist organization. The

founder of this organisation is Osama bin Laden, who has repeatedly insisted on the needfor violent jihad to right what he believes are injustices against Muslims commited by theUnited States and sometimes by other non-Muslim states. Probably the most infamous part of Bin Laden's ideology is that civilians, including women and children, arelegitimate targets of jihad.

“Is far better for anyone to kill a single American soldier than to waste effort in other activities.”

“We believe that the worst thieves in the contemporary world and the biggest terrorists are

the Americans.Therefore, nothing leads us to do any

difference between them. Should not make any distinction between

 soldiers and civilians. From our point of view, they are all targets”

Osama bin Laden (Raportul final al ComisieiAmericane de Ancheta privind atacurile teroriste asupraStatelor Unite ale Americii 2006: 62)

3.3. IMMEDIATE RESPONSE

4 Jihad = an Islamic term, is a religious duty of Muslims. In Arabic, the word jihād translates as anoun meaning "struggle". Muslims use the word in a religious context to refer to three types of struggles: an internal struggle to maintain faith, the struggle to improve the Muslim society, or thestruggle to defend Islam

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The 9/11 attacks had immediate and overwhelming effects upon the American people.Many police officers and rescue workers everywhere in the country got involved in the process of recovering bodies from the twisted remnants of the Twin Towers. Blooddonations across the U.S. also saw a surge in the weeks after 9/11. Over 3,000 childrenwere orphaned, families were divided and many pregnant women were to raise their children alone after the death of their husbands.

3.4. ‘THE WAR ON TERROR’

The phrase War on Terror was first used by President George W. Bush at that time todescribe a global military, political, legal and ideological struggle against terroristorganizations and regimes that were accused of having a connection with them or  providing them with support or, which were perceived or presented as posing a threat tothe US and its allies in general. It was typically used with a particular focus on militantIslamists and al-Qaeda.

The President stated that the United States will not only punish the perpetrators of theattacks, but also those who granted them asylum. The United States was atwar with a new and different kind of enemy. The President requested that all thoseresponsible for causing suffering should be brought to justice and a strategy toeliminate terrorists and punish those who support them should be devised.

The USA intends to use all resources to eliminate the terrorist threat, to punish thoseresponsible for the attacks on 11th September, to make the countries and anyother structure responsible for granting asylum to terrorists , to work with

the coalition to eliminate terrorist groups and networks and to prevent aggressionagainst people, religions and cultures. The United States wanted to drain the financialresources of all terrorist networks and to prevent them from acquiring weapons of massdestruction. Their goal was the “ elimination of terrorism as a threat to their way of life.”5

4. AFTERMATH OF THE ATTACKS

5 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_11_attacks

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4.1. VICTIMS

Years after the tragedy of 9/11, people are still unable to get out of their mindsthe horrific images of the towers in flames, the desperate cries of people in torment or thehidden fear that everybody has experienced since that black day. Time is passing andmaybe the measures taken against terrorism were intended to avenge the pain and

suffering, but the reality is not as simple as it seems. The real victims of this terroristattack are the ordinary people, their safety, their self-confidence and freedom. No war can bring back the peace they were enjoying before that day, nothing can banish the feelingsinside their souls when they look back to the site where they used to work and these arethe genuine consequences of an act like this. Their minds will be scarred for the rest of their lives.

"Initially, I thought I had died. I lost all sense. I had no sight. I had no smell. I had no hearing. Everything was

 just silent….Nobody will ever fully recover from what happened that day" 

- McLoughlin.- survivor 

"That day is one of those days where you can never forget,

 you remember every detail you experience from the

moment of the plane hitting the building, to the evacuation

and the building collapsing. Those images become a part 

of you." 

- Manuel Chea- survivor 6 

Deaths are counted in thousands:265 in the four hijacked planes, 2596 citizensincluding 343 firefighters, 23 policemen, 37 employees of the Port Authority, all of them at World Trade Center; and 125 civilians and military personnel from the Pentagon.In total, 2985 people died. 200 people jumped from the burning platform of the towerswhere they had climbed hoping to be rescued by helicopters.About 1366 people werecaught between the floors of the North Tower at the moment of the impact. There wereno survivors. 600 people remained isolated in the South Tower - 18 had escaped beforethe tower collapsed. The authorities identified only 1600 bodies, the rest being impossible

to be identified. (Raportul final al Comisiei Americane de Ancheta privind atacurileteroriste asupra Statelor Unite ale Americii 2006: back cover)

6 http://survivorsnet.org

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A list of the 77 countries whose citizens died as a result of the attacks on

September 11, 2001

. Antigua & Barbuda . Ghana . Panama

. Argentina . Greece . Peru

. Australia . Guatemala . Philippines

. Austria . Guyana . Poland

. Bahamas . Haiti . Portugal

. Bangladesh . Honduras . Romania

. Barbados . Hong Kong (China) . Russia

. Belgium . India . Slovakia

. Belarus . Indonesia . South Africa

. Belize . Iran . South Korea

. Bolivia . Ireland . Spain

. Brazil . Israel . Sri Lanka

. Cambodia . Italy . St. Kitts & Nevis

. Canada . Jamaica . St. Lucia

. Chile . Japan . Sweden

. China . Jordan . Switzerland

. Colombia . Kenya . Taiwan

. Costa Rica . Lebanon . Thailand

. Czech Republic . Luxembourg . Trinidad & Tobago

. Dominica . Malaysia . Turkey

. Dominican Republic . Mexico . Ukraine

. Ecuador . Netherlands . UK  

. Egypt . New Zealand . Uruguay

. El Salvador . Nicaragua . USA

. France . Norway . Uzbekistan

. Germany . Pakistan . Zimbabwe

 List distributed by the Office of International Information Programs,

U.S. Department of State

CONCLUSION

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When starting the research and documentation for this paper, I never thought that I couldchange my mentality and perspective upon the world. I could hardly believe that therewas anything that could make me react, as I thought that I had seen and heard everything.

The information that I found ran contrary to my expectations. Despite all thecontradictory theories about the people responsible for the attacks, which I did not find as

important as the social, moral and psychological consequences on people, I changed myopinion about humankind.

It was shocking for me to discover that man has such a tremendous potential for destruction, for violence inflicted on other human beings. I still cannot accept the ideathat people are capable of killing, of judging and taking control over other people’s lives,deciding over their right to live or die.

History will record this day as a starting point, as the day in which humanity began torealise that it was time terrorist organizations were disbanded. But it is also possible that this day will mark the beginning of an escalation in violence in the fight

against some unforgiving forces. If this occurs, it will be terrible.

APPENDICES

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Terrorists’ Training Manual

The terrorists

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The remnants of World Trade Center 

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS

• 11 Septembrie- Raportul final al Comisiei Americane de Anchetă privind

atacurile teroriste asupra Statelor Unite ale Americii. Bucureşti: Editura ALLFA,2006.• America sub teroare. Bucureşti: Editura Alex-Alex, Leti Press, 2001.• Brinkbäumer, K., Buse, U., Cziesche, D. (2004) 11 Septembrie: Ziua în care

lumea s-a cutremurat. Bucureşti: Editura Runa.• Chiesa, G. (2008) Zero: de ce versiunea oficială despre atacul de la 11 septembrie

este un fals. Bucureşti: Editura Litera Internaţional• Laurent, E.(2006) Faţa ascunsă a lui 11 septembrie. Bucureşti: Editura Vivaldi• Servier, J. (2001) Terorismul. Iaşi: Editura Institutul European

INTERNET RESOURCES

• Al-Qaeda Training Manual: http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/aqmanual.pdf 

•  http://www.fema.gov

• http://www.terrorism-research.com/

• http://www.fbi.gov/

• http://www.survivorsnet.org

http://whatreallyhappened.com• http://www.11-sept.org

• http://news.bbc.co.uk 

• http://www.wtc.com/about/original-wtc

• http://en.wikipedia.org

•  A list of the 77 countries whose citizens died as a result of the attacks on

September 11, 2001. U.S. Department of State, Office of InternationalInformation Programs