Astronomy Merit Badge

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Astronomy Merit Badge. Part 3. Covered in the cabin on Wednesday 14-Dec-2011. Review. Counselor Name: Niels Ryde E-mailryde@comcast.net Requirements 1 – 3 and 4 in part was covered on 16-Nov-2011 Requirements 4 – 5 on 7-Dec-2011 Requirements 6 – 8 on 14-Dec-2011 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Astronomy Merit Badge

  • AstronomyMerit BadgePart 3. Covered in the cabin on Wednesday 14-Dec-2011

  • ReviewCounselor Name: Niels RydeE-mailryde@comcast.net

    Requirements 1 3 and 4 in part was covered on 16-Nov-2011

    Requirements 4 5 on 7-Dec-2011

    Requirements 6 8 on 14-Dec-2011

    The Astronomy merit badge booklet is available in Troop 7s library in the cabin. Many answers to the requirements can be found there.

  • Rise and set times for the sun and the planetsUse this table to figure out requirement 5b

    MonthSunMercuryVenusMarsJupiterSaturnRiseSetRiseSetRiseSetRiseSetRiseSetRiseSet15-Dec-117:1716:385:3815:359:3018:5023:0412:0613:433:022:3613:4515-Jan-127:2217:016:3515:499:2120:0321:3810:2611:411:030:4411:4915-Feb-126:5617:377:2218:078:3921:0919:198:219:4823:1622:409:4815-Mar-127:1319:097:2320:048:5623:0417:327:019:0822:4821:408:5215-Apr-126:2319:415:3017:208:1623:3915:054:397:2421:2119:286:4515-May-125:4620:115:1519:007:1422:4513:352:495:4719:5817:194:4115-Jun-125:3320:335:5622:064:4719:1312:361:124:0918:3215:112:3615-Jul-125:4620:307:3221:123:1017:2011:5623:442:3217:0613:150:3815-Aug-126:1419:584:4518:572:4217:1111:2722:240:5015:2911:2222:3615-Sep-126:4319:107:0419:253:0717:1311:0821:1522:5713:439:3520:4115-Oct-127:1318:229:0919:084:0116:5510:5720:2221:0011:467:5418:5215-Nov-126:4816:457:1616:564:0615:259:4318:5017:488:325:1016:00

  • Rise and set times for the sun and the planets5:35 rise or set times when inner planets are visible23:04 rise or set time when outer planets are visible in the pm sky3:02 rise or set time when outer planets are visible in the am sky

    MonthSunMercuryVenusMarsJupiterSaturnRiseSetRiseSetRiseSetRiseSetRiseSetRiseSet15-Dec-117:1716:385:3818:5023:0412:0613:433:022:3615-Jan-127:2217:016:3520:0321:3810:2611:411:030:4415-Feb-126:5617:3718:0721:0919:198:219:4823:1622:409:4815-Mar-127:1319:0920:0423:0417:327:019:0822:4821:408:5215-Apr-126:2319:415:3023:3915:054:397:2421:2119:286:4515-May-125:4620:115:1522:4513:352:4917:194:4115-Jun-125:3320:3322:064:4712:361:124:0915:112:3615-Jul-125:4620:3021:123:1011:562:3213:150:3815-Aug-126:1419:584:452:4211:270:5011:2222:3615-Sep-126:4319:103:0711:0822:5713:439:3520:4115-Oct-127:1318:2219:084:0110:5721:0011:4615-Nov-126:4816:454:069:4317:488:325:10

  • Motion of the Planets, contd

    Relative motion in the equatorial planeDateJupiterMarsVenusAldebaran12/14/2011000012/21/20117.34.8-2.16.712/28/201114.09.4-4.214.01/4/201220.714.7-6.220.7

  • More on the planetsKeplers 3rd law: P2 = const*R3 slope = 1.5

    PlanetOrbital radius (A.E.)Orbital Period (y)Mercury0.3870.241Venus0.7260.615Earth11Mars1.5241.881Jupiter5.20311.862Saturn9.5429.458Uranus19.284.01Neptune30.1164.8Pluto39.4248.4

  • The Moon

  • The Sun

    Chemical composition of photosphere in %Hydrogen 73.46Helium 24.85Oxygen 0.77Carbon0.29Iron0.16Neon0.12Nitrogen 0.09Silicon0.07Magnesium0.05Sulfur0.10

  • Sun spots

  • Color of Stars

  • Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

  • Group ActivityWith your counselor's approval and guidance, do ONE of the following: Visit a planetarium or astronomical observatory. Submit a written report, a scrapbook, or a video presentation afterward to your counselor that includes the following information: 1. Activities occurring there 2. Exhibits and displays you saw 3. Telescopes and instruments being used 4. Celestial objects you observed. Plan and participate in a three-hour observation session that includes using binoculars or a telescope. List the celestial objects you want to observe, and find each on a star chart or in a guidebook. Prepare an observing log or notebook. Show your plan, charts, and log or notebook to your counselor before making your observations. Review your log or notebook with your counselor afterward. Plan and host a star party for your Scout troop or other group such as your class at school. Use binoculars or a telescope to show and explain celestial objects to the group. Help an astronomy club in your community hold a star party that is open to the public.

  • Individual ActivityWith your counselor's approval and guidance, do ONE of the following: Personally take a series of photographs or digital images of the movement of the Moon, a planet, an asteroid or meteoroid, or a comet. In your visual display, label each image and include the date and time it was taken. Show all positions on a star chart or map. Show your display at school or at a troop meeting. Explain the changes you observed.

    List at least three different career opportunities in astronomy. Pick the one you in which are most interested and explain how to prepare for such a career. Discuss with your counselor what courses might be useful for such a career

    *This exercise is meant to illustrate that planets does usually not follow the motion of distant stars, and that they sometimes can have a retrograde motion (e.g. Venus in this example). Note that the prograde or retrograde motion depends on the relative position between the earth and the planet, and therefore depends on the date (thease do not repeat into an annual pattern).*Kepler postulated that the orbits of the planets were ellipses (previously these were thought of being circular) and that the orbital period squared was proportional to the cube of the semi major axis of the ellips. Keplers laws were based on experimental observations (obtained from Tycho Brahe), specifically the orbit of mars.

    Copernicus was the first to suggest a heliocentric solar system a century earlier. This was, however, still widely disputed at the time of Kepler (e.g. Tycho Brahe was a firm believer of a geocentric solar system).

    Galileo, a contemporary to Kepler, is the first to use a telescope for astronomical observations. It was observations of Venus that further supported a heliocentric model of the solar system. The only way the planet could have phases similar to the moon, required that Venus would be placed between the sun and the earth. Furthermore, he observed that size of the disc was larger when a crescent phase was observer as opposed to a gibbous phase, which is consistent with the planet being between the sun and earth at the crescent phase and on the far side of the sun in the gibbous phase.

    Isaac Newton, born a half century later, was able to explain Kepplers laws in terms of the laws of gravity and classical mechanics (and by inventing calculus).*The seas are actually not seas, the were called seas by early astronomers who believed that the darker areas of the moon were bodies of water. They are instead believed to be the result of an event called the late heavy bombardment, where orbital debris slammed into the lunar surface. Some impacts were so monumental that they gouged impact basins that eventually filled up with dark basaltic lava (perhaps a direct result of the impact). The flooded basins formed a pristine smooth surface that we see today.*Sunspots are areas of the Sun's photosphere that are cooler than the surrounding regions. Cooler being relative in this case, with the sunspot having a temperature of about 3,700 degrees Kelvin, about 2,000 degrees cooler than the rest of the solar surface. Sunspots are only appear dark in contrast to the rest of the brilliant surface.

    Manifesting intense magnetic activity, sunspots host secondary phenomena such as coronal loops (prominences) and reconnection events. Most solar flares and coronal mass ejections originate in magnetically active regions around visible sunspot groupings. Similar phenomena indirectly observed on stars are commonly called starspots and both light and dark spots have been measured.

    *Stars appear to be exclusively white at first glance. But if we look carefully, we can notice a range of colors: blue, white, red, and even gold. In the winter constellation of Orion, a beautiful contrast is seen between the red Betelgeuse at Orion's "armpit" and the blue Bellatrix at the shoulder. What causes stars to exhibit different colors remained a mystery until two centuries ago, when Physicists gained enough understanding of the nature of light and the properties of matter at immensely high temperatures. Examples are Betelgeuse, Cappella and Rigel.

    *In the early 1900's, Ejnar Herstzprung and Henry Norris Russell independently made the discovery that the luminosity of a star is related to its surface temperature. The resulting plot is amazing. A schematic Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is shown to the right. A Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for the old cluster M55 (Mochejska & Kaluzny, see APOD, 2001 Feb 23) is the top panel on this page. The Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram was one of the most important astronomical discoveries of the twentieth century.

    **