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E-Commerce, Assignment A


Marks 10

Q: Explain why B2B and B2C initiatives require different IT infrastructures. A: B2B typically has less users with larger transaction volume per user. B2C typically involves larger number of individual customers with intermittent transactions, or lower dollar values per transaction. -------------------------------------------------------------comprehensive infrastructure needed to exchange B2B transactions with partners, translate business documents between any of the many B2B e-commerce standards now in use, and provide reporting and visibility into B2B processes and networks. This infrastructure should include: a global B2B infrastructure that spans every major economic region in the world; on-demand B2B data translation and delivery; and B2B business process management and activity monitoring ------------------------------------------------------------The purpose of every e-business is to utilize technology in a way that enhances communication and the company's profitability. Business-to-business (B2B) use of technology would enhance efficiency within the company's supply chain, while business-to-consumer (B2C), also known as e-commerce, technologies would facilitate a transaction between a company and its consumers. Describe several (2 or more) B2B technologies and applications, and also describe several (2 or more) applications or ways B2C can use technology that your pastry business could utilize as part of an e-business strategy. Search the library and provide 2 research citations that illustrate examples of companies that are utilizing e-business strategies (e.g., B2B, B2C), and discuss how your company could benefit from employing similar strategies. Provide specific examples to support your points. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. What do you understand by a digital signature? Explain its application and verification diagrammatically. A digital signature or digital signature scheme is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or document. A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender, and that it was not altered in transit. Digital signatures are commonly used for software distribution, financial transactions, and in other cases where it is important to detect forgery or tampering. Digital signatures are often used to implement electronic signatures, a broader term that refers to any electronic data that carries the intent of a signature,[1] but not all electronic signatures use digital signatures.[2][3][4] In some countries, including the United States, India, and members of the European Union, electronic signatures have legal significance. However, laws concerning electronic signatures do not always make clear whether they are digital cryptographic signatures in the sense used here, leaving the legal definition, and so their importance, somewhat confused. Digital signatures employ a type of asymmetric cryptography. For messages sent through a nonsecure channel, a properly implemented digital signature gives the receiver reason to believe the message was sent by the claimed sender. Digital signatures are equivalent to traditional handwritten signatures in many respects; properly implemented digital signatures are more difficult to forge than the handwritten type. Digital signature schemes in the sense used here are cryptographically based, and must be implemented properly to be effective. Digital signatures can also provide nonrepudiation, meaning that the signer cannot successfully claim they did not sign a message, while also claiming their private key remains secret; further, some non-repudiation schemes offer a time stamp for the digital signature, so that even if the private key is exposed, the signature is valid nonetheless. Digitally signed messages may be anything representable as a bitstring: examples include electronic mail, contracts, or a message sent via some other cryptographic protocol. A digital signature (not to be confused with a digital certificate) is an electronic signature that can be used to authenticate the identity of the sender of a message or the signer of a document, and possibly to ensure that the original content of the message or document that has been sent is unchanged. Digital signatures are easily transportable, cannot be imitated by someone else, and can be automatically time-stamped. The ability to ensure that the original signed message arrived means that the sender cannot easily repudiate it later. A digital signature can be used with any kind of message, whether it is encrypted or not, simply so that the receiver can be sure of the sender's identity and that the message arrived intact. A digital certificate contains the digital signature of the certificate-issuing authority so that anyone can verify that the certificate is real. How It Works Assume you were going to send the draft of a contract to your lawyer in another town. You want to give your lawyer the assurance that it was unchanged from what you sent and that it is really from you. 1. 2. You copy-and-paste the contract (it's a short one!) into an e-mail note. Using special software, you obtain a message hash (mathematical summary) of the contract.

3. hash. 4.

You then use a private key that you have previously obtained from a public-private key authority to encrypt the The encrypted hash becomes your digital signature of the message. (Note that it will be different each time you send a message.)

At the other end, your lawyer receives the message. 1. To make sure it's intact and from you, your lawyer makes a hash of the received message. 2. Your lawyer then uses your public key to decrypt the message hash or summary. 3. If the hashes match, the received message is valid. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. WHAT ARE THE VARIOUS TYPES VIRUSES? WHAT CAN A VIRUS TO DO THE COMPUTER? A computer virus can get into your computer and it tries to intersept infomation thats sent from your computer and recived from your computer. It can also try and steal your personal infomation, such as passwords and PIN numbers. If you do suspect you have a virus try not to use your credit card on the internet. Download a anti-virus a.s.a.p. It can do a multitude of things, all harmful. Many viruses, which disguise themselves as tracking cookies, are meant to allow access to personal information that you give out over the internet. If you are shopping and this happens, it can be used for identity theft. Viruses can also slow down your computer significantly, erase information, destroy vital data, even shut down your computer, but those are rather extreme ones and pretty rare.some viruses encrypt themselves in a different every every time so it is impossible to find them using anti-virus as anti-virus uses a signature string to locate them computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself[1] and infect a computer. The term "virus" is also commonly but erroneously used to refer to other types of malware, including but not limited to adware and spyware programs that do not have the reproductive ability. A true virus can spread from one computer to another (in some form of executable code) when its host is taken to the target computer; for instance because a user sent it over a network or the Internet, or carried it on a removable medium such as a floppy disk, CD, DVD, or USB drive.Viruses can increase their chances of spreading to other computers by infecting files on a network file system or a file system that is accessed by another computer.[3][4] As stated above, the term "computer virus" is sometimes used as a catch-all phrase to include all types of malware, even those that do not have the reproductive ability. Malware includes computer viruses, computer worms, Trojan horses, most rootkits, spyware, dishonest adware and other malicious and unwanted software, including true viruses. Viruses are sometimes confused with worms and Trojan horses, which are technically different. A worm can exploit security vulnerabilities to spread itself automatically to other computers through networks, while a Trojan horse is a program that appears harmless but hides malicious functions. Worms and Trojan horses, like viruses, may harm a computer system's data or performance. Some viruses and other malware have symptoms noticeable to the computer user, but many are surreptitious or simply do nothing to call attention to themselves. Some viruses do nothing beyond reproducing themselves. TYPES OF VIRUSES Introduction : There are thousands of viruses, and new ones are discovered every day. It is difficult to come up with a generic explanation of how viruses work, since they all have variations in the way they infect or the way they spread. So instead, we'll take some broad categories that are commonly used to describe various types of virus. File Viruses (Parasitic Viruses) : File viruses are pieces of code that attach themselves to executable files, driver files or compressed files, and are activated when the host program is run. After activation, the virus may spread itself by attaching itself to other programs in the system, and also carry out the malevolent activity it was programmed for. Most file viruses spread by loading themselves in system memory and looking for any other programs located on the drive. If it finds one, it modifies the program's code so that it contains and activates the virus the next time it's run. It keeps doing this over and over until it spreads across the system, and possibly to other systems that the infected program may be shared with. Besides spreading themselves, these viruses also carry some type of d