Art Exam 2

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Art History Test 2Vocabulary: 1. Hellenistic - relating to or characteristic of the classical Greek civilization 2. Pergamon - was an ancient Greek city in modern-day Turkey, in Mysia, today located

from the Aegean Sea on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern day Bakray), that became the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon during the Hellenistic3. Gauls - were a Celtic people living in Gaul, the region roughly corresponding to what is

now France and Belgium, from the Iron Age through the Roman period. They spoke the Continental Celtic language called Gaulish.4. Expressionism forms are created to evoke subjective emotions rather than portray objective reality 5. Gigantomachy battle between giants and Olympian gods 6. Haut Relief high relief 7. Virgil/The Aeneid Laocoon 8. Orchestra Where people performed on stage 9. Proscenium Additional space behind the orchestra, usually for the chorus 10.Skene building behind orchestra (changing of scenes) 11.Etruscans - Culture that ruled Rome prior to republic; ruled through powerful kings and

well-organized armies; expelled by Romans c. 510 bce (p. 152)12.Terracotta medium made from clay, usually orange-brown in color 13.Necropolis A large cemetery or burial area; literally meaning city of the dead 14.Stucco mixture of lime, sand, etc. into a material that is easily molded and when dried it produces a very durable surface used for covering walls or sculpture/dcor. 15.Sarcophagus stone coffin and often decorated with relief sculpture 16.Romulus/Remus Romes twin brother founders in its traditional foundation myth 17.Aeneas mythical Greek warrior who was a leader on the Trojan side of the Trojan War 18.Roman Republic - the ancient Roman state from 509 BC until Augustus assumed power

in 27 BC; was governed by an elected Senate but dissatisfaction with the Senate led to civil wars that culminated in a brief dictatorship by Julius Caesar19.Verism A style where artists capture the exterior likeness of an object or person by emphasizing its visible details in a finely executed, meticulous manner.

20.Strigil small curved metal tool used for scrapping dirt and oil from ones body, olive oil was usually put on beforehand. 21.Alexander the Great - Alexander: king of Macedon; conqueror of Greece and Egypt and

Persia; founder of Alexandria (356-323 BC)22.Roman Republic 509-27 BCE the ancient Roman state from 509 BC until Augustus as-

sumed power in 27 BC; was governed by an elected Senate but dissatisfaction with the Senate led to civil wars that culminated in a brief dictatorship by Julius Caesar23. She-Wolf 24. Aeneas trojan warrior survives war upon leaving Troy he founds a civilization in Rome/ Aeneid poem written by/ Virgil 25.Aulus Metellos - Discovered near Lake Trasimene in 1566, a Roman-appointed official. point to Etruscan origins. wears Roman costume and holds Roman office. 26. Toga - draped clothing 27. Verism - attempt to render exact likeness in sculpture 28.Opus Reticulatum - (also known as reticulated work) is a form of brickwork used in an-

cient Roman architecture. It consists of diamond-shaped bricks of tuff which are placed around a core of opus caementicium29. Pozzolana - adding it to concrete makes it stronger and would set underwater 30.Engaged Column - a column embedded in a wall and partly projecting from the surface of

the wall, sometimes defined as semi or three-quarter detached. ...31. Aqueduct - way to transport water 32.Fortuna Primigina - directed the fortune of a firstborn child at the moment of birth 33. Imperial / Empire 34. Augustus Caesar (Octavian) - defeated Marc Antony and became ruler of Rome 35. Pax Romana - 200 yr period of peace 36. Apotheosis - deifying man as a God 37. Tellus Mater - Roman goddess of earth 38.Dionysus/ Bacchus -god of wine and fertility and drama; the Greek name of Bacchus 39.Forum Romano -original Latin designation (Latin: Forum Romanum, Italian: Foro Ro-

mano), is located between the Palatine Hill and the Capitoline Hill of the city of Rome, Italy. Citizens of the ancient city referred to the location as the "Forum Magnum" or just

the "Forum". It is part of the centralised area around which the ancient Roman civilization developed.40.Insula (AE) - a large apartment building where the Plebs (lower class) and Equates (mid-

dle class) of Romans dwelled. The floor at ground level was used for tabernas, shops and businesses with living space on the higher floors.41.Apollodurus of Damascus - a Greek engineer, architect, designer and sculptor who flour-

ished during the 2nd century AD, from Damascus, Roman Syria. He was a favorite of Trajan, for whom he constructed Trajan's Bridge over the Danube for the 105-106 campaign42.Basilica - originally used to describe a Roman public building 43.Apse/ a domed or vaulted recess or projection on a building especially the east end of a

church; usually contains the altarNave/ the central area of a church Side Aisles/ Clerestory/ part of an interior wall rising above the adjacent roof with windows

admitting light44.Coffer -an ornamental sunken panel in a ceiling or dome 45.Annular Vault -A barrel vault, also known as a tunnel vault or a wagon vault, is an archi-

tectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve46.Amphitheatre - a sloping gallery with seats for spectators 47.Rotunda/ a building having a circular plan and a dome Drum/ barrel: a bulging cylindrical shape; hollow with flat ends Oculus/ A window that has an oval or circular shape (as of an eye); A circular

hypaethral opening at the apex of a dome48.Tetrarchy - The term Tetrarchy (Greek: "leadership of four [people]") describes any sys-

tem of government where power is divided among four individuals, but usually refers to the tetrarchy instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire.49. Porphyry 50. Dado: lower 1/3 of wall

51.Diocletian - Roman Emperor who when faced with military problems decided in 286 to

divide the Roman Empire between himself in the east and Maximian in the west; he initiated the last persecution of the Christians in 303 (245-313)52. Constantine - Emperor of Rome who stopped the persecution of Christians and in 324

made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire; in 330 he moved his capital from Rome to Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople (280-337)53.Battle of the Milvian Bridge, 312 - The Battle of the Milvian Bridge took place between

the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius on 28 October 312. Constantine won the battle and started on the path that led him to end the Tetrarchy and become the sole ruler of the Roman Empire. Maxentius drowned in the Tiber during the battle.54. XP = Chi RH0 - first two letters Jesus Christ 55. Edict of Milan, 313 - was a letter signed by emperors Constantine I and Licinius that pro-

claimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. The letter was issued in AD 313, shortly after the conclusion of the Diocletianic Persecution.56.. Spolia - a modern art-historical term used to describe the re-use of earlier building mate-

rial or decorative sculpture on new monuments57. Monotheism - belief in a single God 58. Torah - the whole body of the Jewish sacred writings and tradition including the oral tra-

dition59. Synagogue - (Judaism) the place of worship for a Jewish congregation 60. Menorah - (Judaism) a candelabrum with seven branches used in ceremonies to symbol-

ize the seven days of Creation61. Ark of The Covenant - (Judaism) sacred chest where the ancient Hebrews kept the two

tablets containing the Ten Commandments62. Syncretism - is the attempt to reconcile disparate or contrary beliefs, often while melding

practices of various schools of thought.63. Good Shepherd - Jesus: a teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth;

his life and sermons form the basis for Christianity (circa 4 BC - AD 29)64. Orant - is a type of gesture during prayer in which the hands are raised, set apart, and the

palms face outward. It was once common in early Christianity, and can frequently be seen in early Christian art.

65. Catacombs/ ncient, human-made underground passageways or final resting place of

reffuges or subterranean cemeteries composed thereof. Loculus/ A little place or space; a cell; a chamberlet; In ancient catacombs and tombs of some types, a small separate chamber or recess cut into the rock, for the reception of a body or urn Loculi/ plural loculus66. Cubiculum/ A small room, especially a bedroom, typically those small rooms found on

the upper floor of a Roman house; A small room carved out of the wall of a catacomb, used as mortuary chapels, and in Roman times, for Christian worship Cubicula/67. Medallion/ A medal, or medallion, is generally a circular object that has been sculpted,

molded, cast, struck, stamped or some way rendered with an insignia, portrait or other artistic rendering. Lunette/ is a half-moon shaped space, either filled with recessed masonry or void.68. Alpha/ Omega = AW - the beginning of a series or sequence; "the Alpha and Omega, the

first and the last, the beginning and the end"--Revelations / symbol for Jesus Christ69. Triforium - A triforium is a shallow gallery of arches within the thickness of inner wall,

which stands above the nave in a church or cathedral.70. Basilica Plan - an early Christian church designed like a Roman basilica; or a Roman

Catholic church or cathedral accorded certain privileges; "the church was raised to the rank of basilica"71. Transept/ structure forming the transverse part of a cruciform church; crosses the nave at

right angles - horizontal Narthex/ portico at the