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Are we building competitive and liveable cities?

Guidelines for developing eco-efficient and socially inclusive infrastructure

The guidelines for the development of eco-efcient and inclusive urban infrastructure have been developed by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacic (ESCAP), the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and the United Nations Human Settlement Programme (UN-HABITAT), in partnership with the Urban Design Lab (UDL), the Earth Institute, at Columbia University in the City of New York, in the context of the project Ecoefcient and Sustainable Urban Infrastructure in Asia and Latin America. The objective of the project is to promote the application of eco-efciency as a key criterion for economic competitive, socially inclusive and environmentally sustainable urban development and for expanding nancing opportunities. Activities included expert group meetings, case studies, pilot projects and training of urban managers and planners. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The content and views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily reect the views or policies, or carry the endorsement of any of the co-publishing organizations. Reference to a commercial entity or product in this publication does not imply endorsement. The co-publishing organizations do not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accept no responsibility for any consequence of their use. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this publication for educational or noncommercial purposes are encouraged, with proper acknowledgement of the source. Reproduction of material in this, or associated information products for sale or for other commercial purposes, including publicity and advertising is prohibited without the written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission, with a statement of purpose and extent of reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Environment and Development Division, United Nations, ESCAP. United Nations publication ST/ESCAP/ ISBN 978-974-680-292-5 Copyright United Nations 2011 Clung Wicha Press Co., Ltd. Thailand

Are we building competitive and liveable cities?Guidelines for developing eco-efcient and socially inclusive infrastructure

Increase your citys competitiveness and quality of life through environmental improvements: Responding to the challenges posed by rapid urbanization, globalization and climate change requires an urgent shift in the way urban infrastructure is planned, designed and managed: it must be eco-efcient and socially inclusive.Eco-efcient and socially inclusive infrastructure can: be a driver of economic growth and competitiveness increase employment opportunities contribute to poverty alleviation improve quality of life enhance energy security improve the environment avoid future costs and risks.

Do more with lessEco-efciency is a management philosophy that encourages municipalities, businesses and communities to seek environmental improvements that generate parallel economic and social benets. Doing this in an inclusive way guarantees equal opportunities for all people.

Deliver services to allApplied to infrastructure, the concepts of eco-efciency and inclusiveness are concerned with expanding the access to and quality of services, such as housing, transport, energy, water and waste treatment, while reducing costs and environmental problems, such as pollution, inefcient energy use and trafc congestion.

Core team: ESCAP: Rae Kwon Chung, Masakazu Ichimura, Lorenzo Santucci, Joris Oele ECLAC: Joseluis Samaniego, Ricardo Jordan, Beatriz Valenzuela UN-Habitat: Raf Tuts, Bernhard Barth UDL, The Earth Institute, Columbia University: Richard Plunz, Morana M. StipisicThis publication was printed with vegetable oil based ink on green series paper made from 100% EcoFiber, utilizing Ecological type which uses 50% less ink.

Achieve win-win situationsInfrastructure systems need to be rethought and redeveloped according to eco-efciency and inclusive principles and criteria. Essential strategies for cities to achieve win-win situations and develop into attractive, competitive and liveable places are leadership, long-term vision, integration across sectors and institutions, public participation and building the business case for eco-efcient solutions.

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Dr. Noeleen HeyzerUnder-Secretary-General of the United Nations and Executive Secretary of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacic (UN-ESCAP)Cities in Asia-Pacic already suffer from severe environmental problems, while the basic needs of millions of citizens are yet to be met. The rapid urbanization of the region poses an even greater challenge for providing services to all. We need to urgently promote eco-efciency and social inclusiveness to make our cities competitive, vibrant and liveable.

Alicia BrcenaUnder-Secretary-General of the United Nations and Executive Secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UN-ECLAC)Urban regions consume 75% of the planets resources. In Latin America and the Caribbean today, the challenges of development and equality are linked to those of urban management, including infrastructure, housing, transportation, and access to water and sanitation. The adoption of eco-efciency as a core urban value will require a thoroughgoing change in the way cities function and develop. Making eco-efciency a main criterion for decision-making on these issues represents a step towards the development of sustainable cities.

Dr. Joan ClosUnder-Secretary-General of the United Nations and Executive Director of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT)A new strategy based on more effective urban planning, strengthened local institutions and governance processes as well as the enhanced economic contribution of cities is needed. Only Infrastructure that is energy and eco-efcient, that serves the economic development of cities and supports the betterment of all citizens can be sustainable.

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Executive summary

Developing eco-efficient and socially inclusive infrastructure

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Why focus on cities?Why do we need eco-efcient and socially inclusive urban infrastructure development? 80% of people in Latin America live in cities

CITIES OF HOPE, CITIES OF DESPAIRUrbanization: towards a global city In Latin America 80% of people live in urban areas. This figure will grow to 85% by 2030.1 In 2030, about 2.6 billion people will live in cities in Asia and the Pacific.2 This growth is equivalent to adding an entire new city of 3.5 million people, every month for the next 20 years. Social issues: urbanization of poverty Approximately 30% of urban residents in Asia and the Pacific live in slums,3 without basic services. The number of people living in urban slums in India4 now exceeds the entire population of the Philippines.5 In Brazil 45 million people live in urban slums.6 This is almost 3 times the entire population of Chile.7


20% % 80%


Adding a new city nearly the size of Singapore every month for the next 20 years

20 x 12 x 3.5 million

30% of citizens in Asia live in slums70%


45 million people in Brazil live in slums

45 million

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Executive summary

Developing eco-efficient and socially inclusive infrastructure

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ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINTEnvironment: enormous footprint Cities occupy 3% of the Earths land surface, house half of the human population, use 75% of the resources,8 and account for approximately 2/3 of all used energy and greenhouse gas emissions.9

Why focus on cities?Cities use 75% of the Earths resources

Why focus on cities?Asia needs US$10 trillion over 10 years for infrastructure

CITY ECONOMIESFinance: need for investment Infrastructure investment in Asia and the Pacific must reach an estimated US$10 trillion over the next 10 years to keep up with its consumption and construction needs.12 This enormous investment requirement is comparable with two times the whole Latin America and the Caribbean regions yearly GDP.13 Infrastructure investment requirements in Latin America and the Caribbean are are an estimated US$1.3 trillion to keep up with consumption and construction needs.14 Economic issues: engines of growth In Asia and the Pacific over 80% of the regions GDP is produced in ci-ties and towns.15 Bangkok alone accounts for 38% of Thailands GDP.16 The GDP of Buenos Aires outsizes some of the regions national GDPs like those of Ecuador and Paraguay.17


The Ecological Footprint measures how much of the Earth or how many planet Earths it would take to regenerate the resources we use and to absorb the waste we produce. In 1990, our humanity started demanding more than one planet Earth to support our current lifestyle.10

We need more than one planet Earth

80% of Asias GDP is produced by the cities

?LAC needs 3% of annual GDP for infrastructure

Carrying capacity is defined as the maximum population that can survive indefinitely in a given environment. It depends on the available resources and the consumption habits.11

GDP of Buenos Aires is larger than GDP of ParaguayExecutive summary Developing eco-efficient and socially inclusive infrastructure

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Why focus on infrastructure?Are trafc congestion and high energy costs eating up your competitiveness?Infrastructure has key implications for urban development. It is difcult and costly to modify. Once built, it locks cities into specic consumption patterns for decades. Constructing, operating and maintaining infrastructure is resource intensive: taking up energy, water, materials and land thereby causing major environmental impacts.

Why focus on infrastructure?Cities are at a crossroadChoices made today will determine the competitiveness, quality of life and environmental sustainability of cities for decades to come. Cities in Asia and Latin America are at a crossroads in developing and expanding infrastructure in support of fast economic growth and rapid urbanization.


Traffic congestion costs can be as high as 10% of a citys GDP.18 Traffic congestion in Bangkok is responsible for 2.1% loss of the whole countrys GDP.19 Traffic congestion in Lima, Peru contributes to the loss of approximately 10% of GDP every year.18

We cant solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them. Albert Einstein

?Trafc congestion: sign of economic growth or low competitiveness? Business-as-usual: leads to: cities for cars more trafc congestion more pollution health problems high energy bills higher costs on the long run less competitiveness less jobs decreased quality of life


?Eco-efcient and inclusive urban development: leads to: cities for people fast, safe, affordable transportation vibrant streets and green areas clean and healthy environment lower energy bills more value for money attraction of foreign investment more jobs increased quality of lifeCities will grow. There is no question about that. How we build them, though, is up to us.

Along their lifecycle, buildings alone are estimated to consume up to 40% of all energy use and cause up to 30% of GHG emissions.20

Building construction: good investment or long-term cost burden?

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Executive summary

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Why focus on eco-efficiency? URBAN METABOLISM Cities as living organismsPeople dwell in cities to have access to jobs, education, health, goods and services. Resources like raw materials, land, water and energy are the inputs required to deliver these goods and services that present a value for the society, while producing waste and emissions in the process.

Why focus on eco-efficiency? Eco-efficiency: a driver for competitiveness and liveabilityPrinciples of maximize maximize maximize eco-efcient and sustainable urban development: quality of life competitiveness environmental sustainability


reduce consumption of resources

Reducing the consumption of resources and the impact on nature is critical for achieving sustainable development with increased value for society.


increase value for society


a l i t y o f li f e

goods and services employment


eco-efficiencye n t a l s u s t ai n




en ic i

t and su


e or m

These principles are not in conflict, but can reinforce each other. The concept of eco-efficiency seeks to develop synergies, rather than just balance trade-offs.

ir o

economic return

quality of life







i lit y






tu ni n fr a s tr u c less


reduce impact on nature



$emissions impact on biodiversity

mp co



$waste disposal water pollution

raw materials

A moral point of view is compatible with efficiency. Antanas Mockus, former mayor of Bogot, Colombia

The quality of life of our citizens as well as competitiveness and environmental sustainability of cities depend on the efciency of this urban metabolism.

Eco-efciency is expressed as the creation of more value with fewer resources and less impact, or doing more with less. Eco-efciency is a management philosophy that encourages municipalities and businesses to seek environmental improvements that generate social as well as economic benets. It promotes innovation, growth and competitiveness while protecting our environment.21Developing eco-efficient and socially inclusive infrastructure


Economic and social value EE = Environmental impactpage 11

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Executive summary


What can we do? Prioritize the right policies

What can we do? Prioritize the right policies


Counter-intuitive examples of bad policies:Roads are congested Why not build more roads or yovers? Expanding roads has proven to be ineffective and even counter-productive in easing congestion because it attracts an even higher volume of cars.

Focus on the basics:Roads are congested Build the city for people, not cars. Develop walkable and bikeable cities and invest in public transport.

Waste is increasing Why not plan more landlls? Landlls bury waste that could be recycled or reused, contaminates ground water, releases greenhouse gases, and uses up valuable land.

Waste is increasing Invest in Reduce, Reuse, Recycle (3R) measures.

Water demand is growing Why not utilize more fresh water reserves? Waste water treatment and reuse can greatly enhance water supply, as well as reducing contamination.

Water demand is growing Invest in wastewater treatment and rainwater harvesting.

Energy demand is growing Why not build new power plants? Building new power plants is much more expensive than reducing demand and, in many cases, using renewables on the long run.

Energy demand is growing Invest in energy efciency and conservation.

Trying to solve traffic problems by building bigger roads is like putting out a fire with gasoline Enrique Pealosa, former mayor of Bogot, Colombia

Guidance on choosing and prioritizing appropriate policies and policy instruments is further elaborated in the complete publication of the Guidelines for developing eco-efcient and socially inclusive infrastructure.Executive summary Developing eco-efficient and socially inclusive infrastructure

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How can we prioritize the right policies? Integrate eco-efciency into decision makingEco-eciency can be used as a driver to promote win-win solutions that maximize competitiveness, quality of life and environmental sustainability. To guarantee eco-ecient outcomes, the following strategic principles are critical.

How can we prioritize the right policies? Integrate eco-efciency into decision making


You must be the change you wish to see in the world. Mahatma Gandhi

1. Lead the change

page 17 Drive the change you wish to see in the city. Put sustainable infrastructure on top of your agenda.

4. Recognize the value of sustainable infrastructure

page 23 Consider all values (monetary and non-monetary) of natural resources and the environment. Take a life-cycle approach.

Our waterways and reservoirs should do more than meet our water needs. They should enhance our living environment and lifestyle. Lee Hsien Loong, Prime Minister of Singapore

If we are facing in the right direction, all we have to do is keep on walking. Buddhist proverb

2. Bridge the gapLink short-term goals to long-term vision.

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5. Turn green into a business opportunityBuild the business case for eco-efcient solutions.

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The concept of incentivizing clean energy so that its the cheaper, more effective kind of energy is one that is proven to work and is actually a market-based approach. Barack Obama

3. Link sectors and actorsIntegrate across sectors and between institutions.$ $

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6. Build the city for people together with the people

page 27 Sustainable outcomes can be achieved only through broad-based participation.A good city is a good social event. What interests people the most are other people. Build cities for the people. Jan Gehl, architect

There is no ideal system except integration. Jaime Lerner, former mayor of Curitiba, Brasil

$ $

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Executive summary

Developing eco-efficient and socially inclusive infrastructure

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Lead the change

Being the one to walk the unpaved road towards changing your citys future requires courage because of potential initial resistance from a number of stakeholders who doubt the benets of the new intervention. Experiences such as those in Seoul, Republic of Korea and Curitiba, Brazil however, show that in spite of initial resistance sustainable infrastructure development projects can be very successful, not only in eco-efciency and sustainability outcomes but also in increasing the popularity of the mayor or politician pushing the agenda.




Lee Myung BakPresident of the Republic of Korea Lee Myung Bak, President of the Republic of Korea, started his political career as mayor of Seoul in 2002. Mr. Lee owes much of his electoral victory to two large-scale sustainable urban development projects he successfully completed as the mayor of Seoul: the restoration of the Cheonggyecheon waterway and the reformation of the public transportation system in Seoul. These sustainable infrastructure initiatives immediately made Mr. Lee a top presidential contender.Curitiba, Brasil URBS Rapid Bus System Off-board fare collection, along with the bus lane, is the key innovative strategy in Metronizing the Bus Transit System and is making it indeed rapid. The most important element in urban planning was a linear growth pattern, which served to protect both density and green public spaces. A combination of land-use zoning and public transport improvement led to a decrease of trafc in the city centre and the development of services, housing, and industries along vertical axes. Seoul, Republic of Korea Cheongyecheong The historic waterway had to make place for an elevated expressway. In 2003, however, Seoul City embarked upon the restoration of the 5.8 km waterway by peeling back pavement to make this public space tho-roughfare a part of the citywide eco-friendly initiative.

Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new. Albert Einstein

Jaime LernerThree-times Mayor, two-times Governor, architect, planner Curitiba, Brasil Following his three mayoral terms, Jaime Lerner won election twice as governor of Paran State after which he retired from his political career to devote himself to the practice of architecture, planning and worldwide lecturing on sustainable urban design. Among many sustainable initiatives that Mr. Lerner initiated the Metronizing Rapid Bus System stands out as an example of a successful practice that made many cities follow. Mr. Lerner is a visionary leader and a strong advocate of the liveable city designed for people.

The city is not the problem, its the solution. And its a solution for the problem of climate change. Jaime Lerner, former mayor of Curitiba, Brasil

When the best leaders work is done, the people say: We did it ourselves!. Lao Tzu, Chinese Taoist Philosopher Developing eco-efficient and socially inclusive infrastructure

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Executive summary

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Bogot, Colombia shows that different shortterm political agendas can be harmonized along one long-term vision, in this case the rebirth of a city based on the principles of inclusiveness and quality of life. Two mayors, Antanas Mockus and Enrique Pealosa, built on each others achievements and ma-naged to transform Bogot from a degraded city into one of the most competitive and liveable cities in Latin America in just one decade, while becoming very popular in their own right.

Link short-term goals to long-term visionOne of the main reasons why sustainable approaches are often not prioritized is because of the time gap between costs (mainly in the shortterm) and benets (mainly in the long-term). Short-term results are important. They are important for citizens, who need to see interventions improving their daily lives. They are also important for politicians, who need to show tangible results within their mandates in order to be reelected. But competitive and liveable cities are not built overnight through quick xes. They are built though actions that produce long-term and sustainable benets. Infrastructure has a long time span. Therefore, sustainable urban infrastructure solutions need to be thought and implemented decades in advance in order to anticipate needs. This requires undertaking not only policies that provide short-term solutions (e.g. expanding roads to ease trafc congestion) but also those that provide long-term solutions (e.g. changing land use and developing a public transport network). How to reconcile short-term costs and long-term benets, as well as different time horizons? How to bridge the gap? First of all, with a shared long-term vision based on sustainability. A vision based on sustainability will help prioritize policies and projects that provide long-term solutions. Moreover, it will bring together and motivate citizens, businesses and bureaucrats around a common purpose. Second, by translating this vision into action and linking short-term goals with medium and long-term objectives through proper planning. What does this mean for the city and its people? The city will be able to embark in the long-term projects required to make it liveable, attractive and competitive in the international arena, ready for future challenges. Creating a shared vision to establish a liveable future will make people embrace change. Temporary inconveniences will be accepted if people see where the city is going and they had a say in it.




Seoul, Republic of Korea The reform of the bus system in Seoul shows that ambitious reforms can be carried forward through the short-term political cycles thanks to proper planning and stakeholder participation. In 2004, after a series of failed reform attempts, a consensusbased long-term plan was developed. Today, the Seoul bus system forms the backbone of an integrated multi-mode transit network. It enjoys broad bipartisan political support as well as record levels of patronage across the board; yet also signicantly more manageable levels of trafc congestion, improved safety and commuting time, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions.


In our personal ambitions we are individualists. But in our seeking for economic and political progress as a nation, we all go up or else all go down as one people. Franklin Roosevelt

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Executive summary

Developing eco-efficient and socially inclusive infrastructure

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Ulsan, Republic of Korea Eco-industrial-park (EIP) The eco-industrial-park in Ulsan demonstrates how linking-up various actors can promote ecoefciency and generate win-win situations. In an eco-industrial park, the waste generated by one company can be used as a resource for another one, thereby improving eco-efciency. In Ulsan, for example, an investment of US$5 million to exchange steam between the Sung-am municipal waste incineration facility and Hyosung Company generated prots of US$7.1 million per year, with a payback period of less than 9 months, allowing hiring 140 new employees.

Link sectors and actorsInfrastructure development is still driven mainly by sectoral policies and multiple actors are involved, including national and local governments and the private sector. But most gains in eco-efciency can only be made by nding integrated solutions among sectors, such as transport and land-use planning. This calls for integrated policies and appropriate institutional arrangements and coordination mechanisms to be in place. An integrated approach to urban development that is reected in urban management stands on four pillars: Assets based assessment as opposed to needs assessment. Starting with assets and opportunities enables development from within, promotes partnerships to collaboratively address issues of importance to the community and creates development opportunities. Horizontal integration between sectors. This enables to address development challenges that are crosscutting, and to identify new opportunities for development arising from the interfaces between the sectors. Vertical integration between institutions and actors. This is required for the design and implementation of policies and strategies derived from the decentralized, multi-actors arena. Implementation and management platforms to upgrade local capacities to initiate, lead and sustain local development. What does this mean for the city and its people? Better solutions that address peoples needs. Cost savings that can be invested in social policies and job creation.water infrastructuretransportation infrastructure




If you dont understand the structure of the city, it is difficult to work on it. Jaime Lerner, former mayor of Curitiba, Brasil

sewage infrastructure

An eco-industrial park (EIP) is a community of businesses that cooperate with each other and with the local community to efciently share resources, leading to economic gains, gains in environmental quality, and equitable enhancement of human resources for the business and local community.

blue/green infrastructure

dynamics of urban infrastructurecommunications infrastructure

waste infrastructure

energy infrastructure

An integrated and sustainable approach to urban development enables cities to respond to current challenges of urban expansion, resource depletion, quality of life and increased competitiveness.

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Executive summary

Developing eco-efficient and socially inclusive infrastructure

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Recognize the value of sustainable infrastructureCurrent infrastructure approaches are generally biased towards unsustainable approaches because environmental and social costs and benets are not factored into decision-making. One of the major planning concerns of today is to do justice to the specic value that people associate with the city. In this regard, green has become more valuable in the city, not only from an environmental point of view but increasingly from a social and economic point of view. Public transport, for example, has numerous co-benets, such as reduced air pollution, improved road safety, reduced congestion, or increased land value. Similarly, developing blue-green infrastructure (i.e. parks and waterways), cleans the air, improves quality of life, provides employment and increases property value. The multiple values of sustainable infrastructure need to be integrated into policy-making in a holistic manner. The case of Singapore shows a re-orientation of policy and thinking. From the historically grounded engineering approach that regards infrastructure resources as an economic good, water is now seen as a means to improve the quality of life of people and the attractiveness of the city as a whole. Water infrastructure management has been integrated as part of the planning and design of the city, so that the local community can begin to embrace its waterways as attractive and positive features in the urban landscape. The case of Bogot, Colombia shows that cities can be reborn by redesigning them not primarily on economic principles of prot, but on those of social equity and quality of life. Developing infrastructure that all citizens, especially the poor, could benet from, such as developing public transport, sideways and bike lanes, improving parks and building new ones, and upgrading slums, turned Bogot into one of the most competitive and liveable cities in Latin America. What does it mean for the city and its people? Local people as well as international business will embrace the city because of its aesthetic, healthy and dynamic living and work environments. The city will become a place to not only live and work but also enjoy life to the fullest.




Bogot, Colombia Transmillenio Rapid Bus System combined with walkable and green areas. Enrique Pealosa won prizes for his efforts related to transportation, land use, housing for the poor, pollution abatement, the critical need for public spaces and their environmental benets and overall contributions to the quality of urban life. Singapore Active, Beautiful and Clean (ABC) Waters Programme Water for All: Conserve, Value, Enjoy Shift from cost to value Shift from economic necessity to social relevance Shift from mono-use to multifunctionality

Developing infrastructure is not an objective itself. Its purpose is to improve the lives of citizens.

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Executive summary

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Turn green into a business opportunityInvesting in eco-efcient and sustainable infrastructure contribute to economic growth, create jobs and generate prots. But governments (both national and local) need to create the condition for this to happen. Infrastructure projects generally have large spill-over costs and benets, but these are not reected into market prices and, thus, into business cases. Moreover, business cases usually consider only the construction phase of infrastructure while operation and maintenance are neglected. However, a great share of the cost of unsustainable choices is incurred during these phases. This requires a life-cycle approach to infrastructure development. The private sector can be the main driver for the development of ecoefcient and sustainable infrastructure and for green growth in general, but this cannot happen as business-as-usual practices are more protable that the eco-efcient and sustainable ones. Governments need to tilt the balance in favour of sustainable practices and channel private sector investment into eco-efcient and sustainable infrastructure projects. In other words, governments need to build the business case for eco-efcient and sustainable infrastructure. This requires a mix of policy instruments, such as: Regulatory instruments such as building codes, labeling of building energy performance, restricting parking and car ownership or imposing recycling regimes for specic materials. Economic instruments such as scal incentives to developers, fuel taxes, congestion charging, subsidies for public transport or taxes on waste disposal. Information instruments such as public campaigns on energy savings potential in buildings, marketing for public transport or waste recycling/ reduction competitions among neighborhoods. What does it means for the city and its people? New and more sustainable sources of growth, prot and employment. Better goods and services and a more healthy and liveable urban environment.




Suncheon City, Republic of Korea Suncheon City has demonstrated how investing in ecosystems can stimulate economic growth that is green and sustainable. Instead of reclaiming its tidal wetlands to host major petro-chemical Suncheon competitive complexes and steel mills like neighbouring into a cities, of City turned its tidal ecosystem source advantage. The city government and its citizens worked to restore the ecosystem of Suncheon Bay, enabling as a the city of to emerge centre eco-tourism,

attracting more than 2.3 million visitors (more than 10 times its population) and creating 6,400 jobs and economic benets amounting to US$100 million. Dushanbe, Tajikistan A study on energy savings in public buildings in Dushanbe shows the clear business case for green buildings. Public buildings in Dushanbe are subject to high levels of energy losses due to the poor thermal insulate on and heating systems. Energy consumption could be reduced by an estimated 30-50% through energy efciency measures. The thermal insulation for wall structures of a nice-storey building, for example, can provide savings of US$900,000 a year with a payback time of only 4 years, making such an investment a clear business opportunity.

$ $

To make an impact on society, ecoefficiency must go beyond simply improving existing processes. It must also involve changing existing processes, creating new policies and changing or influencing markets with new ideas and rules.

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Executive summary

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Build the city for people together with the peoplePublic participation should be understood as a process in which all concerned parties, including the affected people, are involved in the decision-making. While strong leadership is required to steer the process, broad-based public participation in planning and developing infrastructure is essential in order to guarantee win-win outcomes and the overall sustainability of solutions. The prime element of any infrastructure system is its users, the people. Public participation can help ensure that action taken and services provided more adequately reect the needs of the people and that the benets of development are more equally shared. Participatory approaches can provide an institutional framework for such an integrated planning that can help to address the cross-cutting issues and deal with the problems of conicting objectives of development. Participation of all stakeholders, including the community, can improve the quality of planning and decision making and facilitate the implementation of actions. In fact, without participation of all concerned actors it may not be possible to explore all available options and implement difcult policy choices, such as demand management measures in a transport development strategy.Morn, Argentina Participatory budgeting This popular participation mechanism in which the community of Morn can actively make decisions on how to spend part of the public resources has resulted in improving public information access to the executuion of more than 163 urban, cultural, sport, environmental, sanitary and housing initiatives in ve years. Based on the implementation of the various methodologies of civic participation, the inhabitants of the district were able to determine the priorities of their neighbourhoods and to suggest proposals. Surabaya, Indonesia Waste generation reduction This city achieved a reduction of more than 20% in waste generation over a period of four years by actively promoting composting of organic waste and successfully involving communities in solid waste management activities.



6 5

What does it means for the city and its people? Greater ability to deliver within budget, faster implementation, less public resistance. Better response to local needs, increased community cohesion and increased understanding of problems.

Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) need to focus on increasing the local responsibilities and attracting the private sector through transparency of planning and budgets.

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Executive summary

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How to put the strategic principles into practice?Big changes come in stages.

To integrate eco-efciency principles and criteria into current planning and urban development activities, these guidelines are organized around a four-stage strategic planning approach. The planning process has four stages that entail ten steps. Each of the ten steps is broken down into more detailed tasks in the complete guidelines. Specics in the complete guidelines.

ere are we now? WhE G

STAGE A: Where are we now?Step 1 GET STARTEDGet organized and secure commitment, form an executive committee and a planning team, evaluate capacities, plan the process.





go t to do we wan



Identify stakeholders, establish the stakeholder group, ensure smooth communication, make a plan for engagement.




Step 3







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A ? re w e g e t t i n g t h e re

Create a prole of the city, identify legal frameworks and drivers of infrastructure development, conduct and eco-efciency assessment.

4 5



STAGE B: Where do we want to go?Step 4 Step 5 ESTABLISH A VISION SET OBJECTIVESReview main challenges, collect ideas, formulate a vision. Identify and organize issues, restate issues as objectives, ensure they are eco-efcient, select indicators.




e re







STAGE C: How do we get there?Step 6 Step 7 IDENTIFY ACTIONS & STRATEGIES SELECT ACTIONSGenerate action ideas to achieve your objectives, organize, screen, rank actions, develop strategies. Assess consequences of actions, prioritize best actions and strategies, assess mainstreaming opportunities and rene actions and strategies.






Step 8



do we get the

re ?

Identify and address institutional and governance gaps, identify lead agency, mainstream actions into established plans, programmes and processes, develop an action plan.

STAGE D: Are we getting there?Step 9 MONITOR & EVALUATEPrepare a monitoring and evaluation framework and a work plan, decide whom to involve, when and how to document and report, evaluate results.

Step 10Executive summary


Developing eco-efficient and socially inclusive infrastructure

Towards eco-efcient and socially inclusive citiesThe need for inclusive and sustainable cities Cities are fast-growing concentrations of people, economic growth, development and poverty and enormous footprints calling for investments to keep up with consumption needs. Infrastructure has key implications for urban development Constructing, maintaining and operating infrastructure is very resource intensive and once built, infrastructures lock cities into specic consumption patterns for decades. Choices made today will determine the competitiveness, quality of life and sustainability of cities for decades to come. Eco-efciency: a driver for competitiveness and liveability Doing more with less means maximizing the quality of life, competitiveness and environmental sustainability of cities. A new way to build competitive and liveable cities By initiating change, linking sectors and actors and identifying the multiple values of natural resources, we can turn green into a business opportunity and start to (re)build infrastructure that will be embraced by people, the city, the planet and our shared future. The guidelines By reecting on the key principles and criteria of eco-efciency in detail, by giving best practice examples and by paving the path forward, the guidelines provide crucial lessons and steering in developing infrastructure and cities in a sustainable way. With tools and methods to apply eco-efciency principles to infrastructure development, you will be able to prioritize appropriate policies and interventions and develop strategies and plans for implementation. The guidelines inform and guide inspired politicians and planners who believe that cities are crucial for improving the quality of our lives.


Keep the holistic view: think globally, act locally!

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Executive summary

Developing eco-efficient and socially inclusive infrastructure

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Endnotes and references1

United Nations, Urbanization Prospects website the 2009 Revision: Percentage of population living in urban areas in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2030: 84.87%. Available from http:// (accessed 22 April 2011). 2 United Nations, Urbanization Prospects website the 2009 Revision: Urban population in Asia in 2030: 2,598,358. Available from (accessed 22 April 2011). 3 UN-HABITAT, State of the Worlds Cities 2010/201, Bridging the Urban Divide (2010): Percentage of urban population living in slums in Asia and the Pacific in 2010: Eastern Asia: 28.2%; South Asia: 35%; South-East Asia: 31%; West Asia: 24.6%; Oceania: 24.1%. Available from www. (accessed 22 April 2011). 4 United Nations, UnData website, Slum Population in India in 2007: 109,501,151. Available from (accessed 22 April 2011). 5 United Nations, UNData website, Population of the Philippines in 2008: 93,617,000. Available from (accessed 22 April 2011). 6 United Nations, UNData website, Slum population in Brazil in 2007: 45,707,606. Available from (accessed 22 April 2011). 7 United Nations, UNData website, Population of Chile in 2010: 17,135. Available from http:// (accessed 22 April 2011). 8 Girardet, Connections (1995) Available from (accessed 19 Octobre 2010) 9 International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook Report executive summary (2008). Available from (accessed 06 June 2011) 10 Global footprint network online. Available from page/data_sources/ (accessed 19 Octobre 2010). 11 The Sustainable Scale Project online: Available from (accessed (19 Octobre 2010). 12 United Nations: The state of Asian Cities 2010/2011 (2010). Available from pmss/getElectronicVersion.aspx?nr=3078&alt=1 (accessed 22 April 2011). 13 International Monetary Fund, world economic outlook database: nominal GDP list of countries, Latin America and the Caribbean. Available from (accessed 25 July 2011). 14 ADB, ADBs infrastructure operations: responding to client needs (2007, p 17). Available from (accessed 25 July 2011). 15 United Nations: The state of Asian Cities 2010/2011 (2010). Available from pmss/getElectronicVersion.aspx?nr=3078&alt=1 (accessed 22 April 2011). 16 United Nations, Environmental Programme: Local Authorities Statement (2010). Available from (accessed 22 April 2011). 17 PricewaterhouseCoopers, Global city GDP rankings 2008-2025: GDP of Buenos Aires 2008: US$362 billion (13 million inhabitants). Available from (accessed 05 May 2011). 18 Congreso de Transporte de Lima. Organizado por la Municipalidad de Lima (2000) 19 United Nations, Sustainable Infrastructure in Asia: Overview and Proceedings. Seoul Initiative Policy Forum on Sustainable Infrastructure. Seoul, Korea, September 68, 2006. Available from (accessed 19-10-2010). 20 United Nations, Environmental Programme: Building and Climate Change; Summary for Policy Makers (2009). Available from (accessed 22 April 2011). 21 World Business Council for Sustainable Development, Eco-efficiency: Creating More Value with Less Impact (North Yorkshire 2000). Available from (accessed 22 April 2011). Sources of quotes are not referenced. We kindly ask for the understanding of the authors.

Carbon footprint is a measure of the impact our activities have on the environment, and in particular climate change. It relates to the amount of greenhouse gases produced in our day-to-day lives through burning fossil fuels for electricity, heating and transportation, etc. It is a measurement of all greenhouse gases we individually produce and has units of tons (or kg) of carbon dioxide equivalent. To calculate your carbon footprint, go to: Carbon FootprintTM


. Online: (both visited 4-11-2010)

Carrying capacity can be defined as the maximal population size of a given species that an area can support without reducing its ability to support the same species in the future. Specifically, it is a measure of the amount of renewable resources in the environment in units of the number of organisms these resources can support.Source: Roughgarden (1979)

Eco-efficiency is defined as the delivery of competitively-priced goods and services that satisfy human needs and bring quality of life while progressively reducing ecological impacts and resource intensity throughout the life-cycle to a level at least in line with the Earths estimated carrying capacity.Source: WBCSD (2000)

Ecological footprint is a measure of how much biologically productive land and water an individual, population or activity requires to produce all the resources it consumes and to absorb the waste it generates using prevailing technology and resource management practices. Today, humanity uses the equivalent of 1.5 planets to provide the resources we use and absorb our waste. If everyone lived the lifestyle of the average American, we would need 5 planets. Turning resources into waste faster than waste can be turned back into resources puts us in global ecological overshoot, depleting the very resources on which human life and biodiversity depend.Source: Global Footprint Network. Online: (visited 4-11-2010)

Eco-Industrial park (EIP) is a community of businesses that cooperate with each other and with the local community to efficiently share resources (information, materials, water, energy, infrastructure and natural habitat), leading to economic gains, gains in environmental quality, and equitable enhancement of human resources for the business and local community.Source: Chertow: Uncovering Industrial Symbiosis (2007)

Life cycle analysis and thinking implies that everyone in the whole chain of a products life cycle, from cradle to grave, has a responsibility and a role to play, taking into account all relevant external effects. From the extraction of the raw material through refining, manufacturing, use or consumption to its reuse, recycling or disposal, individuals must be aware of the impact that this product has on the environment and try to reduce it as much as possible. The impacts of all life cycle stages need to be considered when making informed decisions on the production and consumption patterns, policies and management strategies.Source: UNEP (2003)

Sustainable development The Brundtland Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development defines sustainable development as follows: Humanity has the ability to make development sustainable to ensure that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meets their needs.Source: United Nations (1987)

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Executive summary

Developing eco-efficient and socially inclusive infrastructure

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PhotographsCover: Kibae Park, ESCAP/ page 2: Kibae Park/ page 3: top ESCAP, bottom ECLAC/ page 4: Kibae Park/ page 8: Kibae Park/ page 9: left Fang-zhou Zhou, right Ulsan Metropolitan City/ page 16: top Stephanie Vacek, middle right Morana M. Stipisic, bottom left Lina Faria/ page 18: top right Enrique Pealosa, botoom left ESCAP/ page 20: Ulsan Metropolitan City/ page 22: top Flaminia Maietti, middle right Enrique Pealosa, bottom left Public Utilities Board (PUB) Singapore/ page 24: top Suncheon City, bottom Kibae Park/ page 26: top Kibae Park, middle left ESCAP, bottom right ECLAC, page 30: Evert Doorn

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