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    "ARAB ARCHERY"

     An Arabic manuscript of about A.D. 1500 “Book on the Excellence of the Bow and Arrow”

    and the Description thereof.

    ranslated b! ".A. #aris and $.%. Elmer& 1'(5.

    Copyright details

    Some remarks about the copyright issues regarding this book and the justification for it

    being in the public domain

    Read this carefully before do!nloading especially if you li#e outside the $SA or %he

    &etherlands

    C'&%E&%S

    TITLE PAGE 

    I NTRODUCTION 

    PREFACE 

    K EY TO THE PRONUNCIATION OF ARABIC WORDS 

    A B''(  '& %HE E)CE**E&CE '+ %HE B', A&- ARR', A&- %HE -ESCR./%.'& %HERE'+

    I. In the Name of God the e!"#f$%& the Com'a((#onate

    II. On ho%) *a! and the (e!+#"e of a!"he!) the!e#n

    III. On the e,"e%%en"e of the a!a- -o*& #t( $(e& ado't#on& the !e*a!d of the mae! of #t(a!!o*(& #t( ta!/et& $!/#n/ the ma(te!) of #t( te"hn#0$e& the offen(e of h#m *ho d#("a!d(

    #t afte! he ha( %ea!ned #t( $(e& and the f#!(t to $(e and the f#!(t to mae #t

    I1. On the d#ffe!ent #nd( of -o*( and the mo(t de(#!a-%e of them

    1. On the name( and nomen"%at$!e( of the a!a- -o*( and the#! d#ffe!ent 'a!t(

    1I. On the ma(te! a!"he!(

    1II. On the '!#n"#'%e( of %oo(#n/ and the d#ffe!ent ("hoo%( the!e#n

    1III. Th#n/( the a!"he! (ho$%d no*

    I2. Ho* to dete!m#ne the "a(t of the -o*& #t( *e#/ht& and the %#m#t of the a!"he!3( (t!en/th

    #n d!a*#n/

    2. On te(t#n/ the -o* -efo!e -!a"#n/

    2I. On -!a"#n/& *h#"h #( the (ame a( (t!#n/#n/

    2II. On the "$!+at$!e of the -o* afte! -!a"#n/

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    2III. On $n(t!#n/#n/

    2I1. On '#"#n/ $' the -o* and a!!o* '!e'a!ato!) to (hoot#n/ and the manne! of (hoot#n/

    21. On the d#ffe!ent d!a*( and the manne! of %o"#n/ the th$m- and the #nde, f#n/e! on

    the (t!#n/& and on the !$%e( of a!!an/#n/ the #nde, f#n/e! $'on the th$m-

    21I. On ho* to ho%d the /!#' of the -o* *#th the %eft hand

    21II. On the "%en"h

    21III. On d!a*#n/ and #t( %#m#t(

    2I2. On a#m#n/& *h#"h #( the (ame a( 'o#nt#n/ at the ta!/et

    22. On the %oo(e o! !e%ea(e

    22I. On the 'a((a/e of the a!!o* o+e! the %eft hand

    22II. On -%#(te!( and *o$nd( on the #nde, f#n/e! of the !#/ht hand "a$(ed -) (t!#n/#n/&

    "%en"h#n/& d!a*#n/ and %oo(#n/& to/ethe! *#th the !emed#e( the!eof 

    22III. On the -%o* of the (t!#n/ on the a!"he!3( !#/ht th$m-& *h#"h "a$(e( #t to t$!n -%a" 

    and -%$e on the #n(#de and -eneath the na#% and (omet#me( !e($%t( #n -!ea#n/ the na#%4

    a( *e%% a( on the -%#(te!#n/ and -!$#(#n/ of the %eft th$m- at the t#me of (hoot#n/&to/ethe! *#th the !emed#e( the!eof 

    22I1. On the -%o* of the (t!#n/ on the fo!ea!m of the a!"he! and the !emed) the!eof 

    221. On the -%o* of the (t!#n/ on the "h#n of the a!"he!& o! on h#( ea!& and the !emed#e(

    the!eof 

    221I. When the t#' of the -o* h#t( the /!o$nd at the moment of %oo(#n/& and the !emed)

    the!eof 

    221II. When the no" of the a!!o* -!ea( and the !emed) the!eof 

    221III. On "a$(#n/ the a!!o* to mo+e on #t(e%f& o! *a/& #n #t( f%#/ht

    22I2. On the mana/ement of the a!!o* *hen (hoot#n/ a/a#n(t the *#nd& et "ete!a& and on

    t!)#n/ not to (hoot #t *hen a -!ea #( fo$nd afte! #t ha( -een f$%%) d!a*n

    222. On ho* nea! o! ho* fa! the ta!/et (ho$%d -e

    222I. On (tand#n/ and (#tt#n/ fo! a#m#n/

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    222II. On the +a!#at#on( #n the %en/th and "on(t!$"t#on of the A!a- Bo*

    222III. On (t!#n/(4 ho* to mae them and ho* to fo!m the#! e)e(

    222I1. On the %en/th and (ho!tne(( of the (t!#n/

    2221. On the th#nne(( and th#"ne(( of the (t!#n/ and on ho* to "hoo(e the "o!!e"t and

    a''!o'!#ate (#5e

    2221I. On the *e#/ht of the (t!#n/ #n !e%at#on to the *e#/ht of the -o*

    2221II. On the name( of the +a!#o$( #nd( of a!!o*( and the#! d#ffe!ent 'a!t(4 and on the

    %en/th of ea"h #nd& the de(#!a-%e *ood f!om *h#"h to mae #t& and the manne! of #t(

     'a!#n/

    2221III. On a!!o*head(4 the d#ffe!ent #nd(& the#! +a!#o$( $(e(& ho* to f#, them on the (haft4

    and the manne! of "$tt#n/ a!!o*6no"(

    222I2. On feathe!( and f%et"h#n/

    2L. On the *e#/ht of a!!o*(& a!!o* head(& and feathe!(

    2LI. On ($nd!) 'o#nt( not )et ment#oned "on"e!n#n/ the "om'et#t#on -o*& the de("!#'t#on

    of #t( a!!o*& and the manne! of #t( $(e& to/ethe! *#th (ome of the t!#"( em'%o)ed #n

    "om'et#t#on(

    2LII. On th$m-6t#'( and the +a!#o$( #nd( the!eof 

    2LIII. On (hoot#n/ *#th the h  )usb*n& dawdan& and +us  ) f,ri a!!o*( th!o$/h the ho%%o* of a

    /$#de

    2LI1. On (t$nt (hoot#n/

    2L1. Ta!/et( and ta!/et '!a"t#"e

    2L1I. 7$#+e!(& -e%t& a!!o* '#"e!& f#%e

    2L1II. In("!#'t#on( on -o*(& a!!o*(& and 0$#+e!(

    APPENDI2

      8. Re#nfo!"ed Bo*(

      9. Len/th of the Com'o(#te Bo*

      :. The Com'o(#te Bo*

      ;. B!a"#n/ 

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      =. The C$-#t

      >. We#/ht( of Bo*(

      ?. S#/ht#n/ and Ran/e

      @. Ho!n( U(ed #n Bo*(

      8. Knot(  88.The D#!ham and #t( E0$#+a%ent(

      89. Len/th( of A!!o*(

      8:. Re%at#+e We#/ht(

      8;. The ma-ra o! A!!o* G$#de

      8. Feathe!%e(( A!!o*(

    ILLUSTRATIONS

      ARABIC FINGER  RECKONING&    E  D 23  

    ARABIC FINGER  RECKONING&    E    E"3  

    TURKISH BOW AND SIPER  

    DEONSTRATING THE LOCK  CALLED THE SI2TY THREE

    THE SI2 DIFFERENT DRAWS OR  LOCKS ACCORDING TO THE ARABIC SYSTE OF FINGER  

    RECKONING 

    K  NOTS

      GENUINE BOWSTRING K  NOT IN A CHINESE STRING 

    1ARIOUS KNOTS 

    BOWS

      CHINESE BOWS FRO PEKING AND ARROWS FRO CANTON 

    K OREAN& SIND AND LIGHT TURKISH BOW 

    TRANSLATOR  AND A NNOTATOR  

    Copyright -etails for0 Arab Archery by &A +aris and R/ Elmer 1234

    Th#( -oo *a( '$-%#(hed #n 8@;< -) -) The P!#n"eton P!e(( #n Ne* e!(e). The ed#t#on had

    no "o')!#/ht not#"e& -$t *a( !e/#(te!ed *#th the U.S. Co')!#/ht Off#"e

    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  • 8/17/2019 Arab Archery.docx

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    afte! 9? )ea!(.

    Con(e0$ent%)& the f#!(t ed#t#on (ho$%d ha+e had #t( "o')!#/ht !ene*ed #n 8@=< and the !e'!#nt

    ed#t#on #n 8@=:. The U.S. "o')!#/ht off#"e !ene*a% !e"o!d( do not (ho* a !ene*a% fo! the(e

    ed#t#on( f!om 8@=8 to 8@=

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    T!an(%ated -)

     NABIH AIN FARISAND

    ROBERT POTTER ELER 

    P!#n"eton Un#+e!(#t) P!e(( 8@;<

    P!#n"eton& Ne* e!(e)

    .ntroduction

    Th#( $n#0$e man$("!#'t& d#("o+e!ed #n the Ga!!ett Co%%e"t#on of A!a-#" an$("!#'t( at

    P!#n"eton Un#+e!(#t) L#-!a!)& #( the on%) no*n t!eat#(e a+a#%a-%e #n En/%#(h on the a!"he!) of 

    the med#e+a% O!#ent. It #( "on(#de!ed -) D!. Fa!#( and D!. E%me! a( e0$a% #n me!#t to the nea!%)"ontem'o!a!)oxophilus& or the 3chole of 3hoot!n4e& the "h#ef (o$!"e of deta#%ed no*%ed/e

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    of ea!%) En/%#(h a!"he!). The man$("!#'t "o$%d -e $(ed toda) a( a te,t-oo on a!"he!)& and #(

    +a%$a-%e to a%% (t$dent( of A!a- h#(to!) and "$%t$!e and to 'h#%o%o/#(t( #n a n$m-e! of f#e%d(.

    One of #t( mo(t $n$($a% "ont!#-$t#on( #( #t( !e($!!e"t#on of an an"#ent ()(tem of f#n/e!6

    !e"on#n/the an"#ent A!a-#" ()(tem of "on+e)#n/ n$me!#"a% +a%$e( -) a h#/h%) de+e%o'ed(#/n %an/$a/e #n+o%+#n/ the $(e of on%) a (#n/%e hand. Tho$/h ("ho%a!( ha+e ($('e"ted that

    ($"h a med#$m on"e e,#(ted& #t( deta#%( *e!e "om'%ete%) %o(t. B) #t( de%#"ate and a""$!ate%)

    fo!med man$a% 'o(t$!e( #t #( (ha!'%) d#ffe!ent#ated f!om the "!$de /e(t$!e( *h#"h #nd#"ate

    the n#ne d#/#t( and (ome of the#! mo!e (#m'%e "om-#nat#on( -) ho%d#n/ $' an e0$a% n$m-e! 

    of f#n/e!(.

    Ea"h of the(e !ed#("o+e!ed "om-#nat#on(& $(ed to !e'!e(ent d!a*( of the -o*& #( #%%$(t!ated -)

    a (et"h.

    Anothe! #nte!e(t#n/ "ont!#-$t#on #( the (o%$t#on of the do$-%e no" '!o-%em *h#"h ha(h#the!to -een one of the mo(t "ont!o+e!(#a% '$55%e( #n a!"he!).

    /reface

    THE t!an(%at#on and ed#t#n/ of th#( man$("!#'t ha( -een a Jo#nt ente!'!#(e $nde!taen -) t*o

    men& one of *hom (ta!ted *#th /!eat #nte!e(t #n A!a-#" (t$d#e( and +#!t$a%%) no no*%ed/e of 

    a!"he!)& the othe! fam#%#a! *#th a!"he!) -$t *#tho$t ('e"#a% t!a#n#n/ o! e,'e!#en"e #n theO!#enta% f#e%d. We fee% that ea"h of $( ha( he%'ed e,'and the no*%ed/e and #nte!e(t( of the

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    othe!& and #t #( o$! ho'e that th#( -oo *#%% -e !ead -) -oth #nd( of !eade!(& and *#th (#m#%a! 

    !e($%t(.

    In the Ga!!ett Co%%e"t#on of A!a-#" an$("!#'t( #n P!#n"eton Un#+e!(#t) L#-!a!) #( *hat

    a''ea!( to -e a $n#0$e man$("!#'t on a!"he!). A( *o!( on ('o!t( #n th#( "o%%e"t#on a!e notn$me!o$(& th#( one att!a"ted ('e"#a% attent#on. Fa!#( tho$/ht of '$-%#(h#n/ the *o! -$t *a(

    d#(($aded -) h#( $nfam#%#a!#t) *#th a!"he!) e#the! #n theo!) o! '!a"t#"e. In 8@;& ho*e+e!& he

    *!ote an a!t#"%e on the Ga!!ett Co%%e"t#on fo! the P!#n"eton Un#+e!(#t) L#-!a!) 9hronicle& and

    #n the "o$!(e of #t !efe!!ed "a($a%%) to th#( man$("!#'t. Th#( a!t#"%e fe%% #nto the hand( of 

    E%me!& *ho(e #nte!e(t #n a!"he!) #( *e%% no*n. He *a( (o ea/e! to ha+e the *o! made

    a+a#%a-%e #n En/%#(h that he offe!ed to ($''%) the te"hn#"a% ad+#"e #f Fa!#( *o$%d do the

    t!an(%at#on.

    We (et a-o$t the ta( to/ethe!& fo%%o*#n/ a theo!et#"a% d#+#(#on of %a-o! -$t a"t$a%%) "a!!)#n/

    fo!*a!d *hat #n a%% t!$th '!o+ed to -e a Jo#nt ente!'!#(efo! #n(tan"e E%me!( te"hn#"a%

    no*%ed/e f!e0$ent%) f$!n#(hed the e) to d#ff#"$%t %#n/$#(t#" '!o-%em(& *h#%e Fa!#(( !ead#n/

    of A!a-#" often /a+e the an(*e! to te"hn#"a% 0$e(t#on( that ha+e #nt!#/$ed and m)(t#f#ed

    (t$dent( of a!"he!) fo! man) )ea!(.

    The man$("!#'t #t(e%f "om'!#(e( :

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    Arab Archery

     A Book on the Excellence of 

    the Bow and Arrow

    and the Description thereof 

    . .n the &ame of 5od the 6erciful the Compassionate

    THERE #( no *a) $nto God -$t th!o$/h H#m& God a%one. a) the -%e((#n/ of God -e $'on

    o$! Lo!d $hammad and $'on H#( Fam#%) and Com'an#on(. Than( -e to God *ho(e

     -o$nt#e( $'on H#( "!eat$!e( a!e 'e!fe"t and "om'%ete& and *ho(e *#(dom #( e+#dent #n H#(

    "!eat#on th!o$/ho$t the *o!%d& *ho ha( made a%% *#tho$t an) '!e+#o$( 'atte!n& and end$ed

    H#( *o! *#th $t#%#t)4 fa$%t%e(( and '!e"#o$(. He ha( made ma!(man(h#' the $ndo#n/ of the

    enem) #n *a! and& #n !a#d(& the mean( of +#"to!) o+e! the foe4 and ha( '!om#(ed a h#/h !an 

    #n Pa!ad#(e to h#m *ho (hoot( an a!!o* #n H#( "a$(e& !e/a!d%e(( of *hethe! the a!"he! fe%%( an

    enem) o! m#((e( the ma!.

    I than God fo! /!ant#n/ me ma(te!) o+e! the m#n$te deta#%( of a!"he!)& and fo! /#+#n/ me

    (#%% #n #t( d#ff#"$%t te"hn#0$e4 fo! #t( (e"!et( *h#"h He ha( !e+ea%ed $nto me& and #t( m)(te!#e(

    *h#"h& th!o$/h H#( /!a"e& He $n+e#%ed to me. W#th H#( '!a#(e e+e!) matte! of #m'o!tan"e #("ommen"ed. And ma) the -%e((#n/ of God -e $'on o$! Lo!d& $hammad& H#( '!o'het& fo! 

    th!o$/h #n+o#n/ God3( -%e((#n/ $'on h#m #( e+e!) deed ded$"ed and e+e!) (tatement

    fo!m$%ated. I a%(o than God fo! H#( -enef#t( and -o$nt#e( *h#"h He /!ant( $nto $(& e+en

     -efo!e *e -e(ee"h H#( /!a"e. F$!the!mo!e I te(t#f) that the!e #( no /od -$t God& He a%one& no

    a((o"#ate( ha( He& and that $hammad #( H#( (e!+ant and a'o(t%e a te(t#mon) of one a*a!e

    of #t( ne"e((#t) and "o/n#5ant of #t( o-%#/at#on.

    Ho%) Wa! #( one of the -e(t fo!m( of *o!(h#'& and #( o-%#/ato!) $'on e+e!) -e%#e+e! 

    #nd#+#d$a%%)& tho$/h #t ha( no* -e"ome #n"$m-ent on the *ho%e "omm$n#t) "o%%e"t#+e%).F$!the!mo!e& the Ho%) Ko!an and the t!ad#t#on ha+e d*e%t $'on #t( e,"e%%en"e& the!e-) $!/#n/

    e+e!) o(%em to (ee& th!o$/h #t& the ma!t)!3( "!o*n. The A'o(t%e of God (a#d B) h#m *ho

    ho%d( #n H#( 'a%m $hammad3( %#fe& #t #( m) de(#!e to meet m) end on the -att%e/!o$nd of 

    God& and -e -!o$/ht -a" to %#fe& and d#e a/a#n& and a/a#n& and )et a/a#n. A""o!d#n/ to

    anothe! +e!(#on Wo$%d that I *e!e /#+en to d#e on the -att%e/!o$nd of God& and -e -!o$/ht

     -a" to %#fe& on%) to d#e a/a#n& and )et a/a#n& f#/ht#n/ H#( -att%e(. A-$6H$!a)!ah *a( *ont to

    (a) Of e+e!) (#n/%e )ea!& th!ee month( -e%on/ to God and H#( "a$(e. The P!o'het a%(o

    (a#d Of a%% the /od%) men *ho de(#!e to -e -!o$/ht -a" to %#fe& on%) the ma!t)!( a!e /!anted

    the#! !e0$e(t. God a%(o ha( enJo#ned $( to '!e'a!e fo!"e a/a#n(t the 'o%)the#(t( #n o!de! to(t!#e te!!o! #n the#! hea!t(& and 'o#nted to $( the e,"e%%en"e of the -o* and a!!o* a(

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    #m'%ement( of *a!. Th$( He (a#d ae !ead) a/a#n(t them *hat fo!"e )e "an& and (t!on/

    (0$ad!on( *he!e-) )e ma) (t!#e te!!o! #nto the enem) of God and )o$! enem). In $!/#n/

    that fo!"e -e made !ead) a/a#n(t the enem)& God ha( #nd#"ated the #m'o!tan"e of d!#%%#n/ and

    t!a#n#n/ #n the $(e of a%% #m'%ement( of *a!& #n o!de! to a"0$#!e (#%%& /a#n '!of#"#en")& o-ta#n

    ad!o#tne((& and de+e%o' fa"#%#t) #n the#! $(e. F$!the!mo!e& the A'o(t%e 'o#nted o$t that of a%%the #n(t!$ment( of *a!& the -o* and a!!o* a!e the mo(t effe"t#+e and the /!eate(t.

    The P!o'het a%(o (a#d The hand of man ha( *#e%ded no *ea'on *h#"h *a( not e,"e%%ed -)

    the -o*. I( the!e an)th#n/ mo!e e,"e%%ent than a man *ho ha( ma(te!ed ma!(man(h#'& *ho

     '#"( $' h#( -o* and (ho*e!( the 'o%)the#(t( *#th h#( a!!o*( The "!o*d( fea! h#m& and the

     -!a+e n#/ht( (tand #n a*e -efo!e h#m. an) a *ea "#t) ha( -een defended -) a (#n/%e

    a!"he!& and man) an a!m) ha( -een d#(-anded and ("atte!ed *#th a (#n/%e a!!o*. D$!#n/ the

     -att%e of Uh$d& the A'o(t%e add!e((ed Sa3d #-n6a-#6Wa00M(  & a-$6T  a%h  ah& and 7atMdah #-n6a%6

     N$6mMn& *ho (tood -) h#m defend#n/ h#m *#th the#! -o*( and a!!o*(& *h#%e mo(t of h#(

    Com'an#on( f%ed a*a) Stand f#!m4 +#"to!) (ha%% !ema#n o$!( (o %on/ a( )e (tand f#!m.

    Indeed th#( #( a /!eat t!#-$te to the -o* and a!!o* and a "om'%#ment fo! the#! (e!+#"e. He that

    *#e%d( them *#%% mo(t "e!ta#n%) -e +#"to!#o$(. Ho* then "o$%d a (ane o(%em '%a"e h#(

    "onf#den"e #n an) othe! *ea'on& o! da!e fa"e h#( ad+e!(a!) *#th an) othe! #n(t!$ment of *a!

      The 'oet (a#d

      Bows, with the strings of which victory is bound;  In praise of their excellence the Scriptures resound.

      Sa#d anothe!

      If glory be to slay the foe,  'Tis best to use the fastest throw,  And loose the arrow fro the bow.

    F$!the!mo!e& the -o* and the a!!o* a!e the mo(t effe"t#+e and de+a(tat#n/ of the #n(t!$ment(

    of *a! de('#te the fa"t that the) a!e the %ea(t "$m-e!(ome to "a!!) and $(e. Unfo!t$nate%)&

    ho*e+e!& the!e a!e +e!) fe* "ontem'o!a!#e( *ho "an $(e the A!a- -o* and fe*e! (t#%% *ho

    no* an)th#n/ a-o$t #t( method( and te"hn#0$e. Fo! th#( !ea(on I de"#ded to *!#te a -oo on

    ma!(man(h#' and the $(e of the A!a- -o*. S$"h a -oo I had& #n fa"t& *!#tten and ent#t%ed

    #t :if*!at al;6utas  )id al;Bas  )/r fi al;$am! +an al;

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    .. 'n Holy ,ar and the ser#ice of archery therein

    HOLY WAR #( to e,'end one(e%f #n the *a) of God and to hono! H#( Wo!d *h#"h He ha( %a#d

    do*n a( a 'ath to Pa!ad#(e and a h#/h*a) %ead#n/ the!eto. Sa#d He Do +a%#ant%) #n the "a$(e

    of God a( #t -ehoo+eth )o$ to do fo! H#m.

    It #( a d$t)& #n"$m-ent on the "omm$n#t) of the -e%#e+e!( "o%%e"t#+e%)& to -e "a!!#ed o$t -)

    (ome on -eha%f of the *ho%e "omm$n#t). God (a#d The fa#thf$% m$(t not ma!"h fo!th a%%

    to/ethe! to *a!(4 and #f a 'a!t of e+e!) -and of them ma!"h not o$t& #t #( that the) ma) #n(t!$"t

    them(e%+e( #n the#! !e%#/#on. In othe! *o!d(& God ha( enJo#ned that (ome (ho$%d ma!"h to

     -att%e fo! H#( "a$(e& *h#%e othe!( (ta) -eh#nd to ee' the to!"h of H#( %a* -$!n#n/. Sa#d God

    a/a#n Tho(e -e%#e+e!( *ho (#t at home f!ee f!om t!o$-%e& and tho(e *ho do +a%#ant%) #n the

    "a$(e of God *#th the#! ($-(tan"e and the#! 'e!(on(& (ha%% not -e t!eated a%#e. God hatha((#/ned to tho(e *ho "ontend ea!ne(t%) *#th the#! 'e!(on( and *#th the#! ($-(tan"e a !an 

    a-o+e that of tho(e *ho (#t at home. Good%) '!om#(e( hath He made to a%%. B$t God hath

    a((#/ned the (t!en$o$( a !#"h !e"om'en(e& a-o+e that of tho(e *ho (#t at home !an of H#(

    o*n -e(to*a%& and fo!/#+ene((& and me!")4 fo! God #( Ind$%/ent& e!"#f$%. F$!the!mo!e& the

    P!o'het em-a!ed $'on h#( *a!( and !a#d( *#th -$t a fe* of h#( fo%%o*e!(4 he %eft (ome

     -eh#nd at home.

    Othe!( ha+e ma#nta#ned that Ho%) Wa! *a( a d$t) o-%#/ato!) $'on e+e!) o(%em

    #nd#+#d$a%%). In ($''o!t of the#! 'o(#t#on the) "#ted the *o!d( of God *hen He (a#d Atta" tho(e *ho a((o"#ate othe! /od( *#th God #n a%%& a( the) atta" )o$ #n a%%. And a/a#n a!"h

    )e fo!th the %#/ht and hea+) a!med& and "ontend *#th )o$! ($-(tan"e and )o$! 'e!(on( #n the

    Wa) of God. Th#(& #f )e no* #t& *#%% -e -ette! fo! )o$. And (t#%% a/a#n Wa! ha( -een

     '!e("!#-ed to )o$& -$t f!om #t )e a!e a+e!(e.

    At an) !ate& Ho%) Wa! #( amon/ the -e(t fo!m( of *o!(h#' and one of the mo(t a""e'ta-%e

    *o!( of !#/hteo$(ne(( -efo!e God. Th$( He (a#d 1e!#%) God %o+eth tho(e *ho& a( tho$/h

    the) *e!e a (o%#d *a%%& do -att%e fo! H#( "a$(e #n (e!!#ed a!!a). O )e *ho -e%#e+eQ Sha%% I

    (ho* )o$ a me!"hand#(e that (ha%% de%#+e! )o$ f!om the (o!e to!ment Be%#e+e #n God and #nH#( A'o(t%e& and do +a%#ant%) #n the "a$(e of God *#th )o$! *ea%th and )o$! 'e!(on(. Th#(&

    d#d )e -$t no* #t& *#%% -e -e(t fo! )o$. Yo$! (#n( He *#%% fo!/#+e )o$& and He *#%% -!#n/ )o$

    #nto /a!den( -eneath the (hade( of *h#"h !#+e!( f%o*4 #nto "ha!m#n/ a-ode( #n the /a!den( of 

    Eden. Th#( (ha%% -e the /!eat -%#((. God a%(o (a#d And !e'$te not tho(e (%a#n #n the 'ath of 

    God to -e dead. Na)& a%#+e *#th the#! Lo!d& a!e the) !#"h%) ($(ta#ned4 !eJo#"#n/ #n *hat God of 

    H#( -o$nt) hath +o$"h(afed them4 f#%%ed *#th Jo) fo! tho(e *ho fo%%o* them& -$t ha+e not

    o+e!taen them& that on them no! fea! (ha%% "ome& no! /!#ef4 f#%%ed *#th Jo) at the fa+o!( of 

    God& and at H#( -o$nt)& and that God ($ffe!eth not the !e*a!d of the fa#thf$% to 'e!#(h. He

    a%(o (a#d 1e!#%)& of the fa#thf$% God hath -o$/ht the#! 'e!(on( and the#! ($-(tan"e& on

    "ond#t#on of Pa!ad#(e fo! them #n !et$!n4 on the 'ath of God (ha%% the) f#/ht& and (%a)& and -e

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    (%a#n. A '!om#(e fo! th#( #( '%ed/ed #n the E+an/e%& and #n the Ko!an& and *ho #( mo!e fa#thf$%

    to h#( en/a/ement than God ReJo#"e& the!efo!e& #n the "ont!a"t that )e ha+e "ont!a"ted4 fo! 

    th#( (ha%% -e the /!eat -%#((.

    The A'o(t%e of God& on -e#n/ a(ed "on"e!n#n/ the -e(t a"t( of *o!(h#'& !e'%#ed Be%#ef #nGod and Ho%) Wa! #n the "a$(e of God. He a%(o (a#d Com'a!ed to Ho%) Wa!& a%% the a"t( of 

    *o!(h#' '$t to/ethe! a!e %#e a d!o' of *ate! #n the ('a"#o$( (ea. And a/a#n If I (ho$%d

    ('end the *ho%e n#/ht #n '!a)e! and fa(t the ent#!e da)& I *o$%d not atta#n the (tat$!e of h#m

    *ho ('end( a da) #n Ho%) Wa!. And a/a#n He *ho d#e( *#tho$t ha+#n/ taen an) 'a!t #n

    Ho%) Wa!& o! *#tho$t e+e! ente!ta#n#n/ ($"h an $nde!ta#n/ #n h#( m#nd& #( /$#%t) of de"e#t

    and h)'o"!#().

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    ... 'n the e7cellence of the Arab bo! its use adoption the re!ard of the maker of its

    arro!s its target urging the mastery of its techni8ue the offence of him !ho discards it

    after he has learned its use and the first to use and the first to make it

    SAID GOD ae !ead) a/a#n(t them *hat fo!"e )e "an. Th#( *a( #nte!'!eted -) the

    A'o(t%e of God a( ma!(man(h#'. The %ea!ned J$d/e a-$6a%6Fad  % I)Md  & #n a''!a#(#n/ the

    d#ffe!ent "ommenta!#e( $'on the(e 'a((a/e(& (a#d that the A'o(t%e of God had on"e de"%a!ed

    The hand of man ha( not !ea"hed to an #m'%ement of *a! to *h#"h the -o* and a!!o* a!e

    not ($'e!#o!. Sa#d he a/a#n U(e )e the ('ea! and the A!a- -o*& fo! *#th them *a( )o$! 

     '!o'het +#"to!#o$( and *#th the#! m#/ht ha+e )e "on0$e!ed the ea!th.

    Ana( a%(o !e%ated that ne+e! ha( the -o* -een ment#oned -efo!e the A'o(t%e of God e,"e't he

    (a#d no *ea'on e,"e%%ed #t.

    The A'o(t%e (a#d on anothe! o""a(#on that Ga-!#e% a''!oa"hed h#m on the da) of the Batt%e of 

    Bad! -!and#(h#n/ an A!a- -o*. And a/a#n *hen A%# a''ea!ed -efo!e h#m "a!!)#n/ an A!a-

     -o*& the A'o(t%e e,"%a#med Th$( hath Ga-!#e% (tood -efo!e me. O God& to h#m *ho (eeeth

    the!e*#th /ame fo! meat& /#+e Tho$ ($(tenan"e& and to h#m *ho (eeeth the!e*#th Th#ne a#d&

    /#+e +#"to!)& and to h#m *ho (eeeth the!e*#th %#+e%#hood& /#+e ma#ntenan"e.

    It *a( a%(o !e%ated that *hene+e! the A'o(t%e mo$nted the '$%'#t to de%#+e! a ('ee"h o! a

    (e!mon& he $(ed to %ean a/a#n(t an A!a- -o*. It *a( a%(o !e'o!ted that he had $(ed h#( -o*

    $nt#% the (#)ah(8 *o!e o$t. It *a( then taen -) 7atMdah #-n6a%6N$mMn *ho e't #t $nt#% #t 'a((ed on to the Ca%#'h(. It #( no* #n the "a%#'ha% t!ea($!) a%on/ *#th the Ho%) Re%#"(. It(

    (*eet ("ent #( not#"ea-%e to an)one (tand#n/ nea! the Ho%) Re%#"(& (#n"e #t( /!#' #( !edo%ent

    *#th the 'e!('#!at#on of the P!o'het3( 'a%m& and *#%% d#ff$(e the!ef!om %#e m$( $nt#% the da)

    of !e($!!e"t#on.

    It *a( !e'o!ted that the P!o'het had th!ee -o*(. One *a( -a"ed al;mu+aabah& "a%%ed

    The (*eet (me%%#n/ al;rawh  )*= 4 anothe! *a( made of the shawh  )*t   )9 *ood& "a%%ed The

    *h#te one al;ba!d   )*=  4 and the th#!d made of the na- *ood& *a( "a%%ed The )e%%o* one

    al;s  )afr*= .

    When U0-ah #-n6m#! d#ed& he %eft (e+ent) -o*(& ea"h *#th #t( o*n f$%% 0$#+e!.

    The A!a- -o* #( that *h#"h *a( (ent do*n to Adam f!om Pa!ad#(e and *h#"h he $(ed. It *a(

    a%(o !e%ated that the f#!(t to "on(t!$"t the A!a- -o* and to $(e #t *a( A-!aham. He made a

     -o* fo! ea"h of h#( (on(& I(hmae% and I(aa"& -oth of *hom *e!e (#%%f$% #n #t( $(e. The A!a-

     -o* *a( a%(o $(ed -) the P!o'het $hammad and -) h#( Com'an#on(. It #( the (ame #nd of 

     -o* that Ga-!#e% "a!!#ed *hen he a''ea!ed -efo!e the P!o'het on the da) of the Batt%e of 

    Bad!.

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    Th$( #t #( the d$t) of e+e!) f!ee& ad$%t& and (ane o(%em to %ea!n the $(e of the A!a- -o* and

    tea"h #t to h#( off('!#n/.

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    .9 'n the different kinds of bo!s and the most desirable of them

    Bo*( a!e of t*o #nd( the hand -o* and the foot -o*. The hand -o* #( of th!ee +a!#et#e(

    H#JM5#: A!a-& "om'o(#te mas  )n,+ah& and Pe!(#an& *h#"h #( a%(o the T$!#(h. The A!a- -o**a( (o "a%%ed -) I(hmae%& the fathe! of a%% the A!a-(& *ho *a( the f#!(t to #nt!od$"e a!"he!)

    amon/ them.

    The -o*( of the H#JM5# A!a-( a!e a%(o of th!ee #nd(. One #( made of a (#n/%e (ta+e ad   )/b4

    anothe! #( made of a (ta+e o! t*o (ta+e( d#+#ded %en/th*#(e4 and the th#!d #( -a"ed& o! 

    !e#nfo!"ed mu+aabah. A%% the(e th!ee #nd( a!e made of the nab+ & shawh  )at &

    and shir!*n *ood. The method #( that of (ha+#n/ the *ood do*n ;. It #( he%d that the(e th!ee

    #nd( of *ood a!e #n !ea%#t) one& the name( of *h#"h +a!) *#th the %o"a%e of /!o*th. That

    *h#"h /!o*( on the mo$nta#n to' #( the nab+ & that *h#"h /!o*( on the mo$nta#n(#de #(the shir!*n& and that *h#"h /!o*( at the foot of the mo$nta#n #( the shawh  )at .

    The -o* *h#"h #( made of a (#n/%e (ta+e #( "a%%ed ad   )/b4 that *h#"h #( made of a (#n/%e (ta+e

    ('%#t %en/th*#(e #( "a%%ed fil4 and that *h#"h #( made of t*o (ta+e( ('%#t %en/th*#(e #(

    "a%%ed shar/-

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    Anda%$(#a. It #(& ho*e+e!& of no +a%$e -e"a$(e the P!o'het ha( de"%a!ed #t a""$!(ed. Th#( ha(

    %ed (ome %ea!ned men to ma#nta#n that a%% -o*( *h#"h a!e (et on a (to" a!e a""$!(ed -e"a$(e

    the) !e(em-%e the "!o(( #n (ha'e. Othe!( ma#nta#n that ($"h -o*( *e!e "ondemned -e"a$(e

    the) *e!e $(ed -) the Pe!(#an(& *ho *e!e 'a/an #nf#de%(. The t!$th of the matte!& ho*e+e!& #(

    that ($"h -o*( a!e $nde'enda-%e& -e#n/ hea+)& $n*#e%d)& and "%$m(). U'on %oo(#n/& the(to" on *h#"h the) a!e (et #nte!fe!e( *#th the (t!#n/ and d#((#'ate( the /!eate! 'a!t of #t(

    fo!"e@.

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    9 'n the names and nomenclatures of the Arab bo!s and their different parts

    WE HA1E a%!ead) (tated that the A!a- -o* #( e#the! "om'o(#te o! non6"om'o(#te. The non6"om'o(#te -o*( a!e tho(e of the 'eo'%e of the H#JM5. The) mae them o$t of 

    the nab+ & shir!*n& o! shawh  )at   )4 *ood4 o$t of a (#n/%e (ta+e& one o! t*o (ta+e( d#+#ded

    %en/th*#(e& o! a (ta+e -a"ed *#th (#ne* and %#ned *#th ho!n.

    The -o*( ma) e#the! -e !o$nd& *#th !o$nd %#m-(& o! f%at& *#th f%at %#m-(.

    The "om'o(#te -o* #( of e%a-o!ate mae and "a!ef$% *o!man(h#'. It( "on(t!$"t#on 'a!a%%e%(

    the mae6$' of %#+#n/ th#n/(. $(t a( man #( made of fo$! "om'onent 'a!t( -one& f%e(h&

    a!te!#e(& and -%ood (o #( the -o* made of fo$! "om'onent 'a!t(. The *ood #n the -o*

    "o!!e('ond( to the (e%eton #n man& the ho!n to the f%e(h& the (#ne*( to the a!te!#e(& and the

    /%$e to the -%ood. S#m#%a!%)& a h$man -e#n/ ha( a -e%%) and a -a"& and (o ha( a -o*. And J$(t

    a( a man "an -end #n*a!d $'on h#( -e%%) *#tho$t an) ha!m& -$t ma) -e #nJ$!ed #f he -end(

    o$t*a!d $'on h#( -a"& (o #t #( *#th a -o*. It "an -e -ent #n*a!d $'on #t( -e%%) -$t *#%% -!ea 

    #f #t -e -ent $'on #t( -a".

    A/a#n& the "om'o(#te -o* ha( f#+e (e"t#on( o! 'a!t(& and fo$! Jo#nt( o! "onne"t#n/ 'o#nt(. The

    (e"t#on( o! 'a!t( a!e the t*o si!ahs& the t*o a!m(& and the /!#'. Ea"h (e"t#on ma) mea($!e

    one and a ha%f ('an(& o! one and t*o th#!d( ('an(& -$t (ho$%d not /o -e)ond that. A%6T  a-a!#

    "on(#de!ed the (ho!t /!#' a -%em#(h. The -e(t o'#n#on !e/a!d#n/ #t( %en/th #( that #t (ho$%d -ee#/ht f#n/e!(8. The Jo#nt( ma! the meet#n/ 'o#nt( of the si!ahs*#th the a!m( and the a!m(

    *#th the /!#'.

    A -o* ha( t*o 'a!t( an $''e! and a %o*e!. The $''e! 'a!t #( that *h#"h 'o#nt( hea+en*a!d at

    the t#me of (hoot#n/& *h#%e the %o*e! 'a!t #( that *h#"h 'o#nt( do*n*a!d to*a!d the ea!th.

    The %#m#t( of the $''e! 'a!t a!e the e,t!eme end of the $''e!  si!ah and the *#dth of a f#n/e! 

    do*n the /!#'. The %#m#t( of the %o*e! 'a!t #n"%$de the !e(t of the -o*& name%)& the

    %o*e! si!ah& the %o*e! a!m& and the /!#' %e(( the *#dth of one f#n/e! *h#"h -e%on/( to the

    $''e! 'a!t. The "ente! of the -o* *o$%d then -e at a 'o#nt #n the /!#' the *#dth of one f#n/e! f!om the $''e! a!m. Th#( #( "a%%ed the kabid & o! "ente!& and #( *he!e the a!!o* 'a((e( the -o*

    at the t#me of (hoot#n/. A( a !e($%t& the $''e! a!m #( %on/e! than the %o*e! and the

    $''e! si!ah %on/e! than the %o*e!. Th#( ha( -een (o de(#/ned #n o!de! to ha+e the /!#'& %e((

    the *#dth of one f#n/e!& to/ethe! *#th the %o*e! a!m and #t( si!ah& "on(t#t$te one ha%f of the

     -o*& *h#%e the *#dth of one f#n/e! of the /!#' to/ethe! *#th the $''e! a!m and

    #t( si!ah "on(t#t$te the othe! ha%f. The a!!o* then 'a((e( at the m#dd%e 'o#nt of the -o*& *h#"h

    #( the kabid . The de(#!ed -a%an"e *#%% then o-ta#n& and the (hoot#n/ *#%% -e 'e!fe"t.

    The $''e! %#m-& *h#"h #( a%(o the %on/e! of the t*o& #( "a%%ed the (hoot#n/ %#m- ba!t al;

    ram!& and #t( si!ah that of the (hoot#n/ %#m-. It #( a%(o "a%%ed the () %#m- ba!t al;ma+ani

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    and the head. The (ho!te! %#m- #( "a%%ed the d!o''#n/ %#m- ba!t al;is*t & and #t( si!ah that of 

    the d!o''#n/ %#m-. It #( a%(o "a%%ed the nethe! %#m- and the foot. The $''e! %#m- #( "a%%ed the

    (hoot#n/ %#m- -e"a$(e #t a""o$nt( fo! mo(t of the (hoot#n/. It #( "a%%ed the head -e"a$(e of #t(

    $'*a!d 'o(#t#on at the t#me of (hoot#n/. The %o*e! %#m- #( "a%%ed the d!o''#n/ %#m- -e"a$(e #t

    #( d!o''ed to*a!d the /!o$nd at the t#me of (hoot#n/. It #( "a%%ed the nethe! %#m- -e"a$(e #t #((ho!te! than the $''e! %#m- and -e"a$(e #t 'o#nt( do*n*a!d at the t#me of (hoot#n/. Fo! th#(

    !ea(on #t #( a%(o "a%%ed the foot88.

    The "$!+ed o! !ef%e,ed end( of the -o* a!e "a%%ed the si!ahs. The #ndentat#on on

    ea"h si!ah *he!e the (t!#n/ #( he%d #( "a%%ed the noo  fard   ). The 'a!t -et*een the no" and

    the e,t!em#t) of the si!ah #( "a%%ed -) the A!a-( the f#n/e!na#% al;>   )ifr & and -) the

     '!ofe((#ona% a!"he!( the -#!d al;+us  ) f,r . The '!oJe"t#n/ 'a!t at the %o*e! ed/e of ea"h no" #(

    "a%%ed -) the A!a-( the "$t#"%e ut   )rah& and -) the '!ofe((#ona%( the (t!#n/6(to''e! aabah.

    The 'a!t -et*een a si!ah and the /!#' #( "a%%ed an a!m ba!t . The J$n"t#on -et*een an a!m

    and #t( (#)ah #( "a%%ed the nee rukbah. It #( the 'a!t *h#"h -$%/e( #n and "$!+e(. What %#e(

    ne,t to the si!ah& to*a!d the /!#'& #( "a%%ed the ne" t   )*+if & o!& +un. The m#dd%e 'a!t of the

    a!m e,tend( f!om the (ha!' 'o#nt of the si!ah to the (ha!' 'o#nt of the /!#'. What %#e( o+e! 

    the ibran-a& "onne"t#n/ #t *#th the /!#'& #( "a%%ed -) the Pe!(#an(dust*r . It #( the 'a!t

    "onne"ted *#th the fa"e of the /!#' f!om the kabid . The 'a!t ne,t to the kabid & *h#"h #(

    th#"e! and (%#/ht%) h#/he! than the /!#'& #( "a%%ed the #dne) kul!ah. The end of ea"h a!m

    adJa"ent to the /!#'& *he!e f%e,#-#%#t) -e/#n(& #( "a%%ed a daffah. The 'a!t of the a!m ne,t to

    the #dne) #( "a%%ed the ('#ne abhar . The /!#' #( the 'a!t *h#"h the a!"he! ho%d( *#th#n h#(

    /!a(' at the t#me of (hoot#n/. The '%a"e *he!e the a!!o* 'a((e( the -o* at the t#me of (hoot#n/& *h#"h %#e( on the /!#' at the *#dth of one f#n/e! f!om the $''e! a!m& #( the kabid al;

    aws %#te!a%%) the m#dd%e of the -o*. The (#ne* *h#"h #( on the -a" of the /!#' #( "a%%ed -)

    the A!a-( the "o"("om- al;+urf  and the '!ofe((#ona%( "a%% #t the ho!(e al;faras.

    The ibran-a& a""o!d#n/ to the '!ofe((#ona%(& #( a *ooden '#e"e '%a"ed on the ($!fa"e of the

    /!#' on *h#"h the ho!n( of the t*o a!m( end. The -one *h#"h "o+e!( the /!#' #(

    "a%%ed khudrud .

    The -o* ha( a -a" and a -e%%). The -a" #( the (#de !e#nfo!"ed *#th (#ne*& and #( to*a!d

    )o$! fa"e at the t#me of -!a"#n/. The -e%%) #( %#ned *#th ho!n& and #( to*a!d )o$! fa"e at thet#me of (hoot#n/.

    The A!a- -o*( a!e& the!efo!e& of fo$! #nd( one made of a *ho%e (ta+e4 one made of a (#n/%e

    (ta+e o! of t*o (ta+e( ('%#t %en/th*#(e4 one !e#nfo!"ed -$t not "om'o(#te4 and one

    "om'o(#te89

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    9. 'n the master archers

    THE ma(te! a!"he!( a!e th!ee a-$6HM(h#m a%6M*a!d# %#te!a%%) The fathe! of HM(h#m& the

    man *ho (e%%( !o(e *ate!& T  Mh#! a%6Ba%h# Ba%h #( a '%a"e #n no!the!n Pe!(#a #n the

     '!o+#n"e of Kh$!a(an& and I(h  M0 a%6Ra/0# Ra00ah *a( a '%a"e #n no!the!n S)!#a. The(e

    th!ee men *e!e *e%% no*n fo! the#! no*%ed/e of th#( '!ofe((#on& and the#! fame ('!ead fa! 

    and *#de. An)one de(#!#n/ to ma(te! the a!t (ho$%d %oo #nto the#! *o!( and (e%e"t fo! 

    h#m(e%f *hate+e! #( ($#ta-%e J$(t a( a%6T  a-a!# d#d #n h#( -oo al;?*dih The C%ea! Boo.

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    9.. 'n the principles of loosing and the different schools therein

    ABU6HSHI AL6WARDI (a#d that the '!#n"#'%e( of (hoot#n/ *e!e fo$! the /!a('abd   )ah& the "%en"h aflah& the a#m i+timad & and the %oo(e ifl*t 8:.

    On the othe! hand& T  Mh#! a%6Ba%h# ma#nta#ned that the '!#n"#'%e( of (hoot#n/ *e!e f#+e the

    /!a('& the "%en"h& the a#m& the no"#n/ tafw/& and the %oo(e.

    I(h  M0 a%6Ra/0# (a#d that the) *e!e ten (tand#n/ o''o(#te the ta!/et o-%#0$e%) (o that #t #( #n

    %#ne *#th the %eft e)e& -!a"#n/& no"#n/& "%en"h#n/& /!a('#n/& a#m#n/& d!a*#n/ $'on the mo$th&

     -!#n/#n/ the a!!o*head to a (to' -et*een the t*o n$"%e( of the %eft th$m-& %oo(#n/& and

    o'en#n/ the hand.

    A-$6afa! $hammad #-n6a%6H  a(an a%6Ha!a*# (on of Ha(an *ho "ame f!om He!at #n

    Af/han#(tan ma#nta#ned that the '!#n"#'%e( of (hoot#n/ *e!e (e+en -!a"#n/& no"#n/&

    "%en"h#n/& /!a('#n/& d!a*#n/& a#m#n/& and %oo(#n/. Some ha+e (a#d that the '!#n"#'%e( *e!e

    fo$! the /!a('& the d!a* *#th (#,t)6th!ee (ee (e"t#on 1III& the a#m& and the %oo(e.

     Ne,t to the '!#n"#'%e( a!e the (o6"a%%ed -!an"he(& *h#"h "om'!#(e no*%ed/e of n#ne th#n/(

    of d!a*#n/ e+en%) and (tead#%)& of the "a'a"#t) of the -o*& of the "a'a"#t) of the (t!#n/& of the

    "a'a"#t) of the no" of the a!!o* on the (t!#n/& of the "a'a"#t) of the a!!o*& of the "a(t of the

     -o*& of the a-#%#t) to (hoot *h#%e f$%%) a!med& of a""$!ate ma!(man(h#'& and of #nf%#"t#n/dama/e the!e*#th.

    Be(#de( the(e '!#n"#'%e( and -!an"he(& an a!"he! need( t*o t!a#t( "a$t#on and 'at#en"e. The

     '!#n"#'%e( a!e tho(e *#tho$t *h#"h the!e "an -e no (hoot#n/4 the -!an"he( a!e e,t!eme%)

    he%'f$%.

    The -e(t ("hoo% of (hoot#n/ #( that of I(h  M0 a%6Ra/0#& (#n"e *#tho$t (tand#n/ o''o(#te the

    ta!/et and a#m#n/ at #t& (hoot#n/ *o$%d -e $(e%e((4 *h#%e -!a"#n/& no"#n/& /!a('#n/& and

    %oo(#n/ a!e #nd#('en(a-%e and the a-(en"e of an) one of them *o$%d '!e+ent (hoot#n/.

    A-(en"e of o'en#n/& o! $n"%en"h#n/& the hand afte! %oo(#n/& ho*e+e!& *o$%d not '!e+ent

    (hoot#n/ -$t *o$%d /!a+e%) #nte!fe!e *#th #t.

    D!a*#n/ $'on the mo$th and -!#n/#n/ the head of the d!a*n a!!o* to !e(t -et*een the t*o

    n$"%e( of the %eft th$m-& a( *e%% a( !e%ea(#n/& o! $n"%en"h#n/& the hand& a!e #m'o!tant -$t

    not #nd#('en(a-%e. The#! a-(en"e *#%% not '!e+ent (hoot#n/. The %ea(t #m'o!tant of the(e

     '!#n"#'%e( a!e the d!a*#n/ $'on the mo$th and -!#n/#n/ the a!!o*head to a (to' -et*een the

    t*o n$"%e( of the %eft th$m-. On the othe! hand& the "%en"h#n/ and $n"%en"h#n/ of the hand

    a!e +e!) #m'o!tant (#n"e (hoot#n/ *#%% -e /!eat%) affe"ted #f the) a!e not J$(t !#/ht.

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    Shoot#n/ !e(t( $'on fo$! '#%%a!( ('eed& (t!en/th& a""$!a")& and "a!e #n (e%f6defen(e. W#tho$t

    the(e fo$! '#%%a!( the a!"he! ma) 'e!#(h. If he %a"( ('eed and #( (%o* #n (hoot#n/& h#(

    ad+e!(a!) *#%% de(t!o) h#m -efo!e he "an do an)th#n/. Fo! th#( !ea(on (ome a!"he!( *e!e #n

    the ha-#t of ma#n/ fo! the#! a!!o*( t*o no"(& one "!o((#n/ the othe!. Th#( ena-%ed them to

    #n($!e ('eed #n no"#n/ and (hoot#n/8;.

    A/a#n& $n%e(( the a!"he!3( a!!o*( a!e (t!on/ and 'enet!at#n/& the ad+e!(a!) *#%% d#+e!t them

    *#th h#( (h#e%d. S#m#%a!%)& #f he %a"( a""$!a") #n h#( ma!(man(h#'& h#( ad+e!(a!) *#%% ho%d

    h#m #n "ontem't and *#%% ea(#%) o+e!"ome h#m. F#na%%)& $n%e(( he "an defend h#m(e%f *e%%& h#(

    ad+e!(a!) *#%% fe%% h#m. The(e fo$! th#n/( a!e a( #nd#('en(a-%e to the a!"he! a( a!e the

    fo%%o*#n/ fo$! to (hoot#n/ an a!"he!& a -o*& a (t!#n/& and an a!!o*.

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    %ea+#n/ the m#dd%e f#n/e! and the !#n/ f#n/e! #n that 'o(#t#on and (t!a#/hten#n/ o$t the %#tt%e

    f#n/e!4 f#+e -) %ea+#n/ the m#dd%e f#n/e! a%one #n that 'o(#t#on and (t!a#/hten#n/ o$t -oth the

    %#tt%e f#n/e! and the !#n/ f#n/e!4 (#, -) %ea+#n/ the !#n/ f#n/e! -ent #n the (ame 'o(#t#on and

    (t!a#/hten#n/ o$t the %#tt%e f#n/e! and the m#dd%e f#n/e! on e#the! (#de of #t. Se+en #(

    !e'!e(ented -) -end#n/ the '!o,#ma% Jo#nt of the %#tt%e f#n/e! "h#ef%)& (o a( to '%a"e the t#' of that f#n/e! $'on the mo$nt at the -a(e of the th$m-4 e#/ht -) -end#n/ the !#n/ f#n/e! a%on/

    *#th #t4 and n#ne -) -end#n/ the m#dd%e f#n/e! #n the (ame *a)& a%on/ *#th -oth.

    The #nde, f#n/e! and the th$m- a!e !e(e!+ed (o%e%) fo! the ten(& *h#"h a!e& %#e the d#/#t(&

    n#ne #n n$m-e!. The(e t*o f#n/e!(& the!efo!e& "annot a""o$nt fo! the ten( e,"e't -) +a!)#n/

    the#! 'o(#t#on(. Ten #( !e'!e(ented -) '%a"#n/ the t#' of the #nde, f#n/e! on the 'a%ma! ($!fa"e

    of the d#(ta% 'ha%an, of the th$m-4 t*ent) #( !e'!e(ented -) '%a"#n/ the th$m- -et*een the

    #nde, f#n/e! and the m#dd%e f#n/e!& (o that the "ent!a% 'ha%an, of the #nde, f#n/e! %#e( on the

    na#% of the th$m-4 th#!t) #( !e'!e(ented -) -!#n/#n/ to/ethe! the 'a%ma! ($!fa"e of the t#' of 

    the #nde, f#n/e! and the 'a%ma! ($!fa"e of the t#' of the th$m-4 fo!t) #( !e'!e(ented -)

    t*#(t#n/ the th$m- (o that the 'a%ma! ($!fa"e of #t( t#' !e(t( on the -a" of the -a(e of the

    #nde, f#n/e!4 f#ft) #( !e'!e(ented -) -end#n/ the th$m- o+e! to the 'a%m of the hand nea!e(t to

    the -a(e of the #nde, f#n/e!4 (#,t) #( !e'!e(ented -) %ea+#n/ the th$m- #n the 'o(#t#on #t tae(

    *hen !e'!e(ent#n/ f#ft) and -end#n/ o+e! #t the #nde, f#n/e! f#!m%) (o that the %atte! a%% -$t

    ($!!o$nd( #t4 (e+ent) #( !e'!e(ented -) '%a"#n/ the t#' of the na#% of the th$m- on the 'a%ma! 

    ($!fa"e of the m#dd%e 'ha%an, of the #nde, f#n/e! and t$!n#n/ the t#' of the %atte! o+e! the (#de

    of the th$m-4 e#/ht) #( !e'!e(ented -) '%a"#n/ the t#' of the #nde, f#n/e! o+e! the na#% of the

    th$m-4 n#net) #( !e'!e(ented -) -end#n/ the #nde, f#n/e! f#!m%) (o that #t( t#' to$"he( #t( -a(e.

    To !e'!e(ent a h$nd!ed the f#n/e!( a!e ('!ead o$t and a'a!t.

    We (ha%% (ee %ate! ho* the no*%ed/e of the(e +a!#o$( 'o(#t#on( of the f#n/e!( #( ne"e((a!) #n

    /!a('#n/ the hand%e of the -o*& d!a*#n/ the (t!#n/& and ta#n/ $' the a!!o*.

    The a!"he! (ho$%d a%(o %ea!n and '!a"t#"e the fo%%o*#n/ fo$! (et( of th#n/( (o that the) ma)

     -e"ome (e"ond nat$!e to h#m. The(e a!e

    Fo$! f#!m a f#!m /!a(' *#th h#( %eft hand4 "%en"h#n/ *#th h#( !#/ht hand4 d!a*#n/ *#th (#,t)6

    th!ee the f#!mne(( of h#( %eft hand& a!m& and (ho$%de!.

    Th!ee %oo(e a %oo(e #nde, f#n/e! #n h#( !#/ht hand4 a %oo(e #nde, f#n/e! and th$m- #n h#( %eft

    hand4 a %oo(e a!!o* *hen the -o* #( d!a*n.

    Fo$! (tead) and mot#on%e(( the head& the ne"& the hea!t& and the feet. The feet (ho$%d -e

    f#!m%) '%anted on the /!o$nd.

    F#+e (t!a#/ht and o$t(t!et"hed the e%-o*& the a!!o*head& the no"  f,& the a#m& and the

     'o(t$!e.

    The a!"he! (ho$%d a%(o no* e,a"t%) ho* (t!on/ #( h#( -o* and ho* hea+) #( h#( a!!o*.

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    To #n($!e the $tmo(t 'o*e! #n the !e%ea(e of the a!!o* fo$! th#n/( a!e ne"e((a!) a f#!m /!a('&

    a d!a* of (#,t)th!ee& a (tead) "%en"h& and an e+en %oo(e.

    What the a!"he! (ho$%d a+o#d a!e the fo%%o*#n/ f#fteen th#n/( d!a*#n/ $' to h#( %eft (ho$%de!&

    d!a*#n/ $' to h#( !#/ht (ho$%de!& d!a*#n/ $' to h#( "he(t& d!a*#n/ 'a(t h#( !#/ht e)e-!o*&d!a*#n/ 'a(t h#( fo!ehead& a %oo(e /!a('& (%a"en#n/ the "%en"h& #/no!#n/ to o'en h#( !#/ht

    hand afte! %oo(#n/& -%o"#n/ the no" of the a!!o*& '!oJe"t#n/ h#( "he(t& -end#n/ h#( %eft a!m&

    ho%d#n/ the /!#' of the -o* a*a) f!om h#( *!#(t the *#dth of t*o f#n/e!( and o+e! -) '%a"#n/

    #t #n the 'a%m of h#( hand& -end#n/ h#( head o+e! h#( (ho$%de!& o'en#n/ h#( %eft hand at o! 

     -efo!e the moment of !e%ea(e #n(tead of h#( !#/ht& and ne/%e"t#n/ to -!#n/ the a!!o* to a f$%%

    d!a*.

    A!"he!( ho%d that -!#n/#n/ the a!!o* to a f$%% d!a* "om'!#(e( ha%f the a!t of a!"he!)& *h#%e the

    othe! ha%f "om'!#(e( the "%en"h& a""$!ate a#m& and a (tead) %eft hand. It ha( a%(o -een (a#d that

    a f$%% d!a* #( ($!e%) f#!e& *h#%e an #n"om'%ete d!a* #( me!e (moe.

    THE PROPRIETIES OF ARCHERY

    Amon/ the '!o'!#et#e( of a!"he!) #( the "o!!e"t de'o!tment #n "a!!)#n/ the -o*. When (t!$n/

    #t (ho$%d -e "a!!#ed #n the manne! #n *h#"h the A'o(t%e of God "ommanded that #t (ho$%d -e

    "a!!#ed& that #(& a( Ga-!#e% "a!!#ed h#( -o* #n the Batt%e of Bad!& and a( A%# #-n6a-#6T  M%#- *a(

    *ont to "a!!) h#(. The A'o(t%e of God a''ea!ed one da) "a!!)#n/ h#( -o* (t!$n/& h#( %eft hand

    /!a('#n/ #t( /!#' and #t( (t!#n/ o+e! h#( %eft a!m. When the -o* #( not (t!$n/ #t (ho$%d -e

    "a!!#ed *#th the %eft hand /!a('#n/ the /!#' and the $''e! si!ah 'o#nt#n/ fo!*a!d a( tho$/hone *e!e a-o$t to -!a"e #t.

    Anothe! #( the manne! of "a!!)#n/ the a!!o*(. The a!!o*head( (ho$%d -e /athe!ed *#th#n the

    !#/ht 'a%m o! #nte!('e!(ed -et*een the f#n/e!( of the !#/ht hand #n o!de! to a+o#d h$!t#n/

    an)one& e('e"#a%%) #n "!o*ded and na!!o* '%a"e(.

    Anothe! !e0$#!e( the a!"he! to -a!e h#( %eft a!m %e(t the (t!#n/ h#t h#( (%ee+e and the!e-)

    #nte!fe!e *#th %oo(#n/. The !#/ht a!m !ema#n( "o+e!ed. The Pe!(#an( ho%d that the !#/ht a!m of 

    the a!"he! "on(t#t$te( naedne(( and the!efo!e (ho$%d ne+e! -e $n"o+e!ed. Con(e0$ent%)& the)

    ha+e made them(e%+e( ('e"#a% (h#!t( to -e *o!n *h#%e en/a/ed #n (hoot#n/. The(e (h#!t( ha+e

    no (%ee+e fo! the %eft a!m -$t ha+e a %on/ (%ee+e fo! the !#/ht a!m. U'on %oo(#n/ and d!o''#n/

    the !#/ht a!m& the %on/ (%ee+e %#e*#(e d!o'( and "o+e!( #t.

    Anothe! demand( that the a!"he! *a% -a!efooted *hen he #( '#"#n/ $' h#( a!!o*( fo! 

    (hoot#n/. Th#( #( #n a""o!dan"e *#th a t!ad#t#on a("!#-ed to the P!o'het& *h#"h !e/a!d( the

    "o$!(e -et*een the a!"he! and h#( a#m a( a (t!#' of Pa!ad#(e.8=

    St#%% anothe! !e0$#!e( the a!"he! to !ema#n e!e"t *h#%e he (hoot(& *hethe! he (hoot( (tand#n/

    o! (#tt#n/4 not to $(e too hea+) a -o* *h#"h #( -e)ond h#( a-#%#t) to "ont!o%4 no! to em'%o) ana!!o* too %on/ fo! h#( -o* o! too (ho!t. He (ho$%d t!) h#( a!!o* -efo!e the (ta!t of an)

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    "onte(t& fo! #t ha( -een (a#d F%et"h#n/ '!e"ede( (hoot#n/. He (ho$%d a%(o no* e,a"t%) the

    *e#/ht of h#( -o*& the e,tent of #t( "a(t& the !an/e of #t( a!!o*(& and the *e#/ht of ea"h a!!o*.

    If the a!!o*( a!e of the (ame *e#/ht the a!"he! (ho$%d ho%d them #n the (ame *a)& othe!*#(e&

    ea"h a""o!d#n/ to #t( !e('e"t#+e *e#/ht.

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    .) Ho! to determine the cast of the bo! its !eight and the limit of the archer:s

    strength in dra!ing

    THIS #( one -!an"h of a!"he!) of *h#"h the no*%ed/e #( #nd#('en(a-%e and #/no!an"e of #t

    *#%% affe"t (hoot#n/ "on(#de!a-%).

    The a!"he! "an dete!m#ne the *e#/ht of h#( -o* #n (e+e!a% *a)(. One *a) #( to tae h#( -o*&

     -!a"e#t& /!a(' the /!#' *#th h#( %eft hand& ho%d the (t!#n/ *#th the #nde, f#n/e!& m#dd%e f#n/e!&

    and !#n/ f#n/e! of h#( !#/ht hand& and then d!a* the (t!#n/ $' to the e%-o* of the %eft a!m. At

    th#( 'o#nt he (ho$%d !e%ea(e h#( !#n/ f#n/e! and "ont#n$e to d!a* $nt#% he ha( d!a*n the f$%%

    %en/th of h#( a!!o*. If he "an ho%d the d!a*n -o* *#tho$t (ha#n/ o! t!em-%#n/ o! (t!a#n#n/&

    th#( *#%% -e the %#m#t of h#( o*n d!a* and the one f#t fo! a#m#n/ and (hoot#n/. If& on the othe! 

    hand& at the !e%ea(e of the !#n/ f#n/e!& h#( hand (ho$%d (hae and t!em-%e and -e $na-%e to

    d!a* the (t!#n/ to the f$%% %en/th of the a!!o*& then the -o* #( a hea+#e! one than he "an

    hand%e.

    Anothe! *a) #( to tae a -o*& -!a"e #t& no" an a''!o'!#ate a!!o* the!eon& '%a"e #t(

    a!!o*head on the /!o$nd& and& ('!ead#n/ the feet a'a!t& d!a* the f$%% %en/th of the a!!o*. If 

    the a!"he! ($""eed( #n d!a*#n/ the f$%% %en/th of the a!!o* #n th#( manne!& the -o* *#%% -e the

    !#/ht *e#/ht fo! h#m. Othe!*#(e #t #( too hea+) and #( $nf#t fo! #( $(e. Ha+#n/ te(ted the -o*

    #n the(e t*o *a)(& the a!"he! "an then '!o"eed to f#nd #t( e,a"t *e#/ht #n 'o$nd(8>.

    Afte! -!a"#n/ the -o*& he (ho$%d han/ #t -) #t( /!#' on an a''!o'!#ate 'e/ #n a *a%% and then

    ($('end f!om the m#dd%e of the (t!#n/ (ome (o!t of -a(et. Ne,t he (ho$%d no" an a!!o* and

    (ta!t f#%%#n/ the -a(et *#th *e#/ht( $nt#% the -o* #( d!a*n to the f$%% %en/th of the a!!o*.

    The!e$'on he (ho$%d em't) the -a(et& "o$nt h#( 'o$nd(& and add to them the *e#/ht of the

     -a(et #t(e%f. The !e($%t *o$%d -e the *e#/ht of the -o* #n 'o$nd(.

    HOW TO DETERINE THE LIIT OF AN ARCHER3S

    STRENGTH IN DRAWING A BOW

    Th#( method& *h#"h #( "a%%ed %#m-e!#n/& ha( -een de+e%o'ed -) e,'e!t( and #( $(ed fo! 

     '!a"t#"e and t!a#n#n/. It !e0$#!e( a '#e"e of *ood t$!ned to the (#5e of the /!#' #n th#"ne((

    and %en/th. Th!o$/h one end of th#( a ho%e #( -o!ed $' to a-o$t an #n"h f!om the othe! end.

    Anothe! ho%e #( -o!ed ho!#5onta%%) f!om the (#de at a 'o#nt one #n"h -e%o* the end *h#"h #(

    (t#%% #nta"t $nt#% #t 'enet!ate( to the ho%e a%!ead) -o!ed +e!t#"a%%) f!om the othe! end. The t*o

    ho%e( meet at a !#/ht an/%e. A hoo #( then atta"hed to the end *h#"h ha( no ho%e& and the

     '#e"e #( ($('ended -) that hoo. A (to$t (t!#n/ #( 'a((ed th!o$/h the end ho%e $nt#% #t "ome(

    o$t th!o$/h the ho%e #n the (#de& *he!e$'on a -a(et #( atta"hed to the (t!#n/ "%o(e to the

    /!o$nd and a %oo' #( fo!med at the othe! end of the (t!#n/. We#/ht( e0$#+a%ent to the n$m-e! 

    of 'o$nd( de(#!ed a!e then '%a"ed #n the -a(et.

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    The a!"he! (ho$%d no* '%a"e the th$m- of h#( !#/ht hand #n the %oo' and a!!an/e h#( f#n/e!(

    the!eon #n a d!a* of (#,t)6th!ee& #n the meant#me ho%d#n/ the '#e"e of *ood *#th h#( %eft hand

    a( tho$/h he *e!e /!a('#n/ the /!#' of a -o*. He (ho$%d then d!a* the (t!#n/ #n the (ame *a)

    a( he *o$%d d!a* that of a -!a"ed -o*. If the -a(et (ho$%d '!o+e too hea+) he (ho$%d

    !emo+e (ome of the *e#/ht( and #f #t (ho$%d '!o+e too %#/ht he (ho$%d add the!eto. In th#(manne! an a!"he! "an dete!m#ne the "a'a"#t) of h#( d!a*.

    S$"h '!a"t#"e #( of /!eat +a%$e to the a!"he! *ho& th!o$/h (ome !ea(on o! othe!& ha( -een

     '!e+ented f!om a"t$a% (hoot#n/ *#th the -o*. Th!o$/h #t he !ema#n( #n t!#m and t!a#n#n/. I

    ha+e 'e!(ona%%) t!#ed th#( o'e!at#on and fo$nd #t e,t!eme%) $(ef$%& tho$/h !athe! (t!en$o$(

    and d#ff#"$%t. Atta"h#n/ a '$%%e) J$(t a-o+e the (#de ho%e !ende!( the d!a*#n/ (moothe! and

    ea(#e!. W#tho$t the '$%%e) I *a( not a-%e to d!a* mo!e than ha%f of *hat I "o$%d d!a* *#th the

    a"t$a% -o* -$t *#th #t I "o$%d mat"h that *e#/ht *#tho$t an) d#ff#"$%t).

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    ) 'n testing the bo! before bracing

     NO ARCHER (ho$%d e+e! -!a"e a -o* that #( $nno*n to h#m. He (ho$%d f#!(t e,am#ne #t"a!ef$%%) and %oo #t o+e! +e!) tho!o$/h%) fo! f%a*( #n #t( "on(t!$"t#on and fo! #nJ$!#e(

    !e"e#+ed f!om $(e. F#!(t he (ho$%d e,am#ne the (#ne*( on #t( -a" and te(t them -) (t!##n/

    them %#/ht%) *#th a (ma%% '#e"e of #!on o! a (tone. If the) !e(o$nd *#th +#-!at#on& the) a!e

    *ho%e and f#t -$t #f the) fa#% to !e(o$nd and (eem (a//#n/& the) a!e %oo(e and $nf#t.

    He (ho$%d a%(o e,am#ne the si!ahs fo! an) 'o((#-%e f%a*(& ($"h a( -e#n/ *a!'ed o! d#(to!ted.

    Th#( he doe( -) ho%d#n/ the -o* -) #t( /!#'& *#th #t( -a" to*a!d h#m& and "a!ef$%%)

    e,am#n#n/ the "onfo!m#t) of #t( "$!+e(. If the -o* (ho$%d 'a(( a%% the(e te(t(& he (ho$%d not

     -e #m'at#ent to -!a"e. He (ho$%d f#!(t ho%d #t *#th #t( -e%%) to*a!d h#m and /!a(' a si!ah *#th

    ea"h hand. He (ho$%d then '%a"e h#( nee( a/a#n(t the -o* on e#the! (#de of the /!#' and

    /ent%) d!a* the si!ahs to*a!d h#m. If the o'e!at#on '!o"eed( (mooth%) and -oth %#m-( -end

    e+en%)& the -o* #( f#t and ($#ta-%e.

    He (ho$%d then %et #t (tand a*h#%e -efo!e -!a"#n/ #t. Afte! -!a"#n/ #t he (ho$%d (t!a#/hten o$t

    an) -$m'( o! t*#(t( that *e!e not e+#dent -efo!e. Then he (ho$%d e,am#ne *hethe! o! not the

    (t!#n/ "!o((e( the /!#' at the +e!) "ente!. If #t doe( not -#(e"t the /!#' he (ho$%d %et #t /o and

    not $(e #t. If& ho*e+e!& #t doe( (o -#(e"t the /!#'& he ma) $(e #t& fo! #t #( (t!a#/ht and& -) the

    *#%% of God& effe"t#+e.

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    ). 'n bracing !hich is the same as stringing

    BRACING ma) -e a""om'%#(hed #n man) *a)( and d#+e!(e fa(h#on(. Some a$tho!( a((e!ted

    that #t "o$%d -e done #n no %e(( than a h$nd!ed *a)(& *h#%e a-$6afa! $hammad #-n6a%6H  a(an a%6Ha!a*# '%a"ed the n$m-e! at one h$nd!ed and t*ent) and de("!#-ed them #n a -oo 

    *h#"h he *!ote fo! that '$!'o(e. o(t of them& ho*e+e!& a!e !e'et#t#o$( and $(e%e((.

    The!e a!e th!ee '!#n"#'%e( that /o+e!n -!a"#n/. The f#!(t #n+o%+e( mo+#n/ the ent#!e -o* f!om

    one 'o(#t#on to anothe!& e#the! +a!)#n/ the !e0$#(#te a"t( o! e+en #/no!#n/ (ome of them4 the

    (e"ond #n+o%+e( om#tt#n/ "om'%ete%) (ome of the #m'o!tant e%ement( of -!a"#n/& *#th o! 

    *#tho$t mo+#n/ the ent#!e -o* f!om one 'o(#t#on to anothe!4 the th#!d #( to mo+e the -o* to a

     'o(#t#on *he!e #t #( #n dan/e!.

    The f#!(t '!#n"#'%e #( to -!a"e *#th one hand and one foot '%a"ed e#the! on the -a" o! on the

    ne". The (e"ond #( to d!o' one of the th#n/( $($a%%) "on(#de!ed e((ent#a% to -!a"#n/4 name%)&

    the '%a"#n/ of the dust*r  Pe!(#an t$!-an& o! the ed/e of the dust*r & o! the end of the hand%e&

    a/a#n(t the nee. The th#!d #( to (t!#e the %o*e! end of the -o* a/a#n(t the /!o$nd and

    the!e-) -!a"e #t *h#%e one #( #n f%#/ht. Th#( enta#%( /!eat dan/e! of #nJ$!#n/ the -o* and

    (ho$%d -e attem'ted on%) -) e,'e!t(.

    The(e '!#n"#'%e( a!e the nea!e(t a''!o,#mat#on to a /ene!a%#5at#on *h#"h "o+e!( a%%

    ne+e!the%e((& the) a!e not -e)ond o-Je"t#on o! "!#t#"#(m. We (ha%%& ho*e+e!& en$me!ate and

    de("!#-e #n th#( (e"t#on t*e%+e d#ffe!ent *a)( of -!a"#n/. An a!"he! *ho '!a"t#"e( the(et*e%+e method( (ho$%d ma(te! the#! te"hn#0$e *#tho$t fee%#n/ the need of an #n(t!$"to!.

    The f#!(t method of -!a"#n/ #( "a%%ed '!e(($!e -!a"#n/. It "an -e a""om'%#(hed #n t*o *a)(.

    The f#!(t "on(#(t( of ta#n/ the (t!#n/& (%#''#n/ #t( t*o e)e( on the -o*& fa(ten#n/ one of the

    e)e( #nto the no" of the %o*e! %#m-& and '$(h#n/ $' the othe! e)e the f$%% %en/th of the

    (t!#n/. The 'o#nt on the $''e! %#m- *he!e the e)e th$( !ea"he( #( the ne" un of the -o*.

    Yo$ (ho$%d then ho%d the -o* -) the /!#' *#th #t( -a" to*a!d )o$& ('!ead )o$! feet a'a!t&

    and '%a"e the %o*e! si!ah of the -o* a/a#n(t the -a(e of the toe( of the %eft foot #f )o$ ha''ento -e -a!efooted& othe!*#(e a/a#n(t #t( ho%%o*& fo! #t ma) (%#' off #f )o$ '%a"e #t a/a#n(t the t#'

    of the (hoe. Then %a) the $''e! dust*r  o!& a""o!d#n/ to othe!(& the $''e! end of the /!#' *#th

    the dust*r & a/a#n(t the !#/ht nee& t$!n )o$! h#' f#!m%) and (mooth%)& #n"%#ne )o$! head to the

    %eft %e(t the -o* (na' -a" and h#t )o$& '%a"e the 'a%m of the !#/ht hand $'on the ne" of the

    $''e! %#m-& t$!n the %#tt%e and !#n/ f#n/e!( of the !#/ht hand f#!m%) and (mooth%) o+e! the

     -e%%) of the -o*ta#n/ "a!e that the) -e not "a$/ht -et*een the (t!#n/ and the si!ah and

    (t!et"h o$t the th$m- and #nde, f#n/e! #n o!de! to (t!a#/hten o$t the e)e and '$(h #t #nto the

    no". Othe! a$tho!#t#e( -e%#e+e that a%% the f#n/e!( of the !#/ht hand (ho$%d -e (t!et"hed o$t

    (t!a#/ht. Then -!a"e the -o* -) '!e((#n/ *#th )o$! %eft foot a/a#n(t the %o*e! si!ah *h#%e the!#/ht 'a%m '!e((e( a/a#n(t the $''e! ne" and )o$! %eft hand d!a*( the /!#' to*a!d )o$. W#th

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    the !#/ht #nde, f#n/e! and th$m- )o$ *#%% f#na%%) (t!a#/hten o$t the e)e and '$(h #t #nto the

    no".

    A%% th#( (ho$%d -e "a!!#ed o$t *#th 'o*e! and f#!mne(( e,"e't that the #nde, f#n/e! and th$m-

    *h#"h (t!a#/hten o$t the e)e and '$(h #t #nto the no" (ho$%d !ema#n '%#ant& f%e,#-%e& and f!eeof a%% !#/#d#t) and (t!a#n. Th!o$/ho$t the ent#!e o'e!at#on a%% the mem-e!( #n+o%+ed and the

    a"t( 'e!fo!med (ho$%d -e #n 'e!fe"t "oo!d#nat#on& %e(t the -o* (na' o! -!ea. On"e )o$ ha+e

     '$(hed the e)e #nto the no"& ee' )o$! !#/ht hand '!e((ed a/a#n(t the si!ah of the $''e! 

    %#m-& )o$! %eft foot '!e((ed a/a#n(t the %o*e! si!ah& and )o$! %eft hand on the /!#' $nt#% )o$

    ha+e a("e!ta#ned that the -o* #( f#!m and f!ee of an) f%a*4 fo! #f )o$ !e%ea(e )o$! hand(

     -efo!e a("e!ta#n#n/ that e+e!)th#n/ #( #n o!de!& the -o* ma) -!ea and "a$(e )o$ (ome #nJ$!).

    Th#( method of -!a"#n/ ha( *on the "on(en($( of a!"he!( fo! -e#n/ the -e(t and (afe(t fo! 

     -oth the a!"he! and the -o*. Fo! th#( !ea(on #t ha( -een "$(toma!) not to ho%d the a!"he! 

    !e('on(#-%e fo! -!ea#n/ a -o* #f he -!a"ed #t #n th#( fa(h#on. Rathe!& #t *a( he%d that the -o*

    #t(e%f m$(t ha+e -een fa$%t). On the othe! hand& #f& -) an) of the othe! method( of -!a"#n/& the

     -o* (ho$%d -!ea& the a!"he! *a( he%d !e('on(#-%e and *a( e,'e"ted to 'a) an #ndemn#t).

    The (e"ond method of -!a"#n/& *h#"h #( the (e"ond *a) of '!e(($!e -!a"#n/& #( e,a"t%) %#e

    the f#!(t #n e+e!) deta#% e,"e't that the dust*r  o!& mo!e ('e"#f#"a%%)& -oth the end of 

    the dust*r  and the end of the /!#'& #( not '%a"ed a/a#n(t the nee. Ho*e+e!& the f#!(t *a) #(

     '!efe!!ed& fo! the nee offe!( a /ood ($''o!t.

    The th#!d method #( "a%%ed "on"ea%ed -!a"#n/. It #( ($#ta-%e fo! the $(e of -oth the man on foot

    and the mo$nted ho!(eman a( *e%% a( fo! the a!"he! *ho de(#!e( to "on"ea% h#( -o* f!om theenem). It "on(#(t( of '%a"#n/ the %o*e! si!ah at the !oot of )o$! !#/ht o! %eft th#/h& o! )o$! 

    !#/ht o! %eft -$tto"& *h#%e )o$! %eft hand ho%d( the /!#' and )o$! !#/ht hand /!a('( the ne" 

    of the $''e! %#m-4 then.& *#th the #nde, f#n/e! and th$m- of the !#/ht hand& (t!a#/hten o$t the

    e)e and '$(h #t #nto the no". The -!a"#n/ #( "om'%eted -) d!a*#n/ the /!#' to*a!d )o$ *#th

    )o$! %eft hand and '!e((#n/ *#th the 'a%m of )o$! !#/ht hand a/a#n(t the ne" of the $''e! 

    %#m-. Th#( #( (#m#%a! to the (e"ond a%te!nat#+e of the '!e(($!e -!a"#n/ e,"e't fo! the a-(en"e

    of an) '!e(($!e a/a#n(t the %o*e! si!ah. It #( concealed  -e"a$(e #f the enem) *e!e on the !#/ht

    of the a!"he!& the %atte! *o$%d '%a"e h#( -o* on h#( %eft and -!a"e a""o!d#n/%)& o! +#"e +e!(a&

    the!e-) h#d#n/ h#( -o* f!om the enem).

    Some d#+#de th#( method #nto th!ee ($-d#+#(#on(& a""o!d#n/ to the d#!e"t#on of -!a"#n/6e#the! 

    to the %eft& o! to the !#/ht& o! #n f!ont of the a!"he!. The o'e!at#on doe( not& ho*e+e!& d#ffe! #n

    an) of the 'o(#t#on(. The on%) +a!#at#on #n+o%+e( the 'o(#t#on of the %o*e!  si!ah e#the! at the

    !oot of3the %eft o! the !#/ht th#/h& o! the %eft o! the !#/ht -$tto". The(e +a!#at#on( a!e of no

    !ea% "on(e0$en"e to *a!!ant ('e"#a% "%a((#f#"at#on(.

    The fo$!th method of -!a"#n/ #( "a%%ed the -!a"#n/ of the f!#/htened and f%ee#n/ a!"he! and #(

    amon/ the mo(t #nte!e(t#n/ *a)( of (t!#n/#n/ a -o*. If )o$ ha''en to -e fa"#n/ an a((a$%t -)

    (*o!d o! ('ea! o! the %#e& !$n a*a) f!om )o$! a((a#%ant '%a"#n/ )o$! %eft hand on the /!#'

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    and the 'a%m of )o$! !#/ht hand on the ne" of the $''e! %#m- *h#%e the %o*e! (#)ah #(

    d#!e"t%) #n f!ont of )o$ and the $''e! (#)ah #n"%#ned to*a!d )o$. Then (t!#e the %o*e! (#)ah

    a/a#n(t the /!o$nd& d!a*#n/ at the (ame t#me the /!#' to*a!d )o$ *#th )o$! %eft hand and

     '!e((#n/ *#th the 'a%m of )o$! !#/ht hand a/a#n(t the ne" of the $''e! %#m- to the fo!e a*a)

    f!om )o$. W#th the #nde, f#n/e! and the th$m- of )o$! !#/ht hand (t!a#/hten o$t the e)e and '$(h #t #nto the no". A%% th#( )o$ do *h#%e on the !$n. Yo$ m$(t -e ($!e& ho*e+e!& that )o$

    (t!#e the /!o$nd *#th the %o*e! si!ah *#th /!eat "a!e& %e(t )o$ -!ea the -o*. Con(e0$ent%)

    )o$ (ho$%d not attem't th#( method of -!a"#n/ $n%e(( )o$ a!e a%!ead) ade't at #t o! ha+e -een

    "om'e%%ed to !e(o!t to #t. If )o$ (o de(#!e& )o$ ma) a%(o /!a(' the -o* *#th )o$! %eft hand

    *#th #t( -e%%) to*a!d )o$ and )o$! !#/ht hand on the ne" of the $''e! %#m- *h#%e #t(

    %o*e! si!ah %#e( -et*een )o$! feet. Then '$(h the /!#' to the fo!e a*a) f!om )o$ *#th )o$! 

    %eft hand and d!a* the ne" of the $''e! %#m- to*a!d )o$ *#th the !#/ht& a%%o*#n/ )o$! hand

    to (%#de $' the ne" *h#%e the #nde, f#n/e! and the th$m- (t!a#/hten o$t the e)e and '$(h #t

    #nto the no". The f#!( of the(e t*o method( #( 0$#"e! to 'e!fo!m *h#%e the (e" and #( (afe! fo! the -o*.

    The f#fth method of -!a"#n/ #(