Approaching Adaptation: Parallels and Contrasts between the Climate and Health Communities

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CIS oƒ HDGC Carnegie Mellon. Approaching Adaptation: Parallels and Contrasts between the Climate and Health Communities. Center for Integrated Study of the Human Dimensions of Global Change, Carnegie Mellon University National Science Foundation, ExxonMobil, API and CMU. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Approaching Adaptation: Parallels and Contrasts between the Climate and Health Communities

No Slide TitleParallels and Contrasts between the Climate and Health Communities
Center for Integrated Study of the Human Dimensions of Global Change,
Carnegie Mellon University
CIS oƒ HDGC
Context and Introduction
Public health prevention and climate change adaptation share the goal of increasing the ability of nations, communities and individuals to cope effectively and efficiently with challenges and changes.
Public health researcher approach from the perspective of protecting and enhancing the health and well-being of individuals and communities
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Public Health
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Public health aims to achieve its goals through prevention (adaptation).
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Three Stages of Prevention
Primary prevention is the “protection of health by personal and community wide efforts.”
Secondary prevention includes “measures available to individuals and populations for the early detection and prompt and effective intervention to correct departures from good health.”
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gradual change, if it can be detected, and
variability (or change in variability).
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Public Health and Vulnerability
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The classic approach to evaluating environmental health risks is a four-step assessment paradigm: hazard identification, dose (exposure) cum response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization.
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Comparison
To a climate researcher, vulnerability is a function of exposure and sensitivity; and exposure and sensitivity are themselves functions of adaptive capacity. In general, it is a statement about future conditions after adaptations have been implemented.
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The availability of resources and their distribution;
The structure of critical institutions and the derivative allocation of decision-making authority;
The stock of human capital (e.g. education and personal security;
The stock of social capital;
The system’s access to risk spreading processes;
The ability of decision-makers to manage information; and
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Capability to deal with the problem; and
Political will to control the problem.
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Table 1: Determinants of Adaptive Capacity and the Prerequisites for Prevention
Determinants of Adaptive Cap Prerequisites for Prevention
Availability of Options Capability to control
Resources Capability to control
Access to risk spreading mechanism Capability to control
Managing information Understanding of causes; problem matters
Public perception Awareness; problem matters
*
Table 2: Trends in Selected Health Indicators and Their Determinants in Costa Rica and the former USSR, 1960-1990
Costa Rica Former USSR
Health Indicator 1960 1990 % to Tech 1960 1990 % to Tech
Under 5 Mortality 124 14 55 39 27 40
Female Adult Mortality 203 73 48
Male Adult Mortality 246 122 59
Female Life Expectancy 65 79 59 72 74 43
Male Life Expectancy 62 74 60 65 63 46
Total Fertility Rate 7 3.3 38 2.7 2.2 25
Determinants
Male Education 4.1 5.5 8.5 10.8
*
Table 3: Socioeconomic and Health Services and Finance Indicators for Costa Rica and the Russian Federation, 1960-1990
Socioeconomic Indicator Costa Rica Russian Federation
Malnutrition (children under 5)
Health Expenditure
Public Sector (% of GDP) 6.3 4.1
Public Sector (% of total) 74 87
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Annual River Flow (milliards)
Figure 1b Amplifying the Historical Trend in the Mean Adaptation Baseline Revisited
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Flow
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Figure 1b Amplifying the Historical Trend in the Mean Adaptation Baseline Revisited
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