Applying Behavioural Theories to Practise

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    Applying Behaviour

    theories to Practice

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    Learning theoriesapplicationLearning theories propose that overall complex

    behaviour arise from very small simple behaviours .These theories propose that it is possible to shape thedesired behavior by reinforcing partial behaviors

    and modifying cues in the environment.. Shaping involves setting a series of intermediate

    goals that lead to a long-term goal.

    Shaping is especially appropriate when:1) pplied to increasing frequency, intensity,duration, or types of activities.

    !) "nitiating exercise programs in which the longtermgoals may be too di!cult for a novice

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    "einforcement is the positive or negativeconsequence for performing or notperforming a behaviour.

    #einforcement can ta$e several forms: 1) %erbal encouragement. !) &aterial incentives 'based on speci(c

    contingency contracts).

    ) *+atural, reinforcements 'e.g. stress reliefself-praise)

    Antecedent control uses techniques that

    prompt the initiation of behavior. Suchprompts include:

    1) sing telephone reminders. !) /ac$ing a gym bag for the next day before going

    to bed.

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    "0 of /roblem solving #2 "dentify the problem

    $20etermine the extent of problem%2 valuate the possible solutionsA2ct on the solution.

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    Application of socialcognitive theory&ognitive restructuring techniques involve changing

    thought processes about a particular situation. These areparticularly important for adoption and maintenance of anactivity, as 'ell as for relapse prevention.

    "elapse prevention strategies include helping theparticipant to identify high-ris$ situations that may lead to alapse. /lans are

    developed before a lapse occurs. Then if the lapse does

    occur a plan is in place and a relapse is less li$ely.%limination of allor none thin(ing Participants 'hohave a momentary lapse in a regular exercise routine

    often label themselves as a failure subse3uently leading toelimination of the exercise routine altogether. 4hanging this to

    view it as a temporary disruptionand encouraging to start again can be helpful.

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    Self e!cacy "t is the con(dence in indulging in exercise

    behaviour. Strategies to improve self e5cacy areListing Performance Accomplishments )

    #ealistic speci(c short and long term goals are set

    and accomplishments listed once goals are achieved.*bserving through +icarious %perience )

    6elping the client to socialise and observe clientssimilar to him7her who has achieved the results.

    -sing +erbal Persuasion 2 4ontinuous

    reinforcements and feedbac$ given to any change inbehaviour in positive direction

    -nderstanding physiologic states ) Selfmonitoring techni3ues can help the client feel and see

    any changes due to the exercise lifestyle.

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    Application of selfdetermination theory

    &8T"%T"8+

    "t should move from

    motivation 9 xtrinsic &otivation 9 "ntrinsic&otivation

    or this shift in motivation the psychological

    needs of the client should be satis(ed li$eAutonomySelf determination&ompetency/asterySocial liberation

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    Application of 0S1 2 S&/

    S%L3 /*4#1*"#40 - Self-monitoring refers to thepractice of trac$ing one;s own behavior for thedual purpose of increasing awareness andmonitoring progress.

    Self-monitoring is an important tool in increasingphysical activity because

    "ncreases awareness of behavior 8

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    S%11#40 0*ALS )=oals are more e

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    AAchievable2 The goals shouldtarget behaviour as opposed to

    outcomes leaving no uncertaintyabout goal achievement.""ealistic2 The goals should be

    within the clients current physicalcapacity to achieve.

    1 ) 1ime oriented 2 The goals are

    time bound to create urgency in the

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    3%%$BA&62 "t is a valuable tool forma$ing the client aware about howhe7she is faring in pursuit of the goals.

    #ecordsitness testsollow-ups

    eedbac$ not only is necessary fore

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    Application of 11/

    $ecisional Balance 2 "t is a tool which helps the clientto ta$e a decision for changing his7her behaviour.

    The important component of this tool is to write on oneside all the positives the client will achieve with

    healthy exercise behaviour and on the other side thenegatives or barriers the client has in pursuing thehealthy exercise behaviour.

    The counselor with the help of the client would try tochange the negatives associated with the behaviourand substitute it with positive and tilt the decisionalbalance in the favour of pursuing healthy exercisebehaviour.

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    &*-4S%L#40 tips according to 11/

    7 function /odel of counselling1)"nformation gathering!)0eveloping helping relationship

    ) /articipant education and counselling

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    #nformation gathering

    ccess fora. 4urrent level of $nowledge.b. ttitudinal beliefs intentions and

    readiness to change.c. /revious experiences with exercise or

    physical activity s$ills.

    d. >ehavioural s$ills.e. vailable social support

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    $eveloping helpingrelationship

    s$ 3uestions to the participant central to theissue and evaluate willingness to changebehaviour.

    xhibit feelings of acceptance.0evelop a supporting relationship by%hibiting empathy 2 by restating expressed

    emotion g)8hh you are worried about [email protected]

    Legitimi8e concerns 2 Letting $now that uunderstand how he7she is feeling

    "espect one9s abilities and positivee:orts

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    Support by providingreinforcement and follo'up.

    Partner 'ith the individualPay attention to non verbal

    communication

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    Participant education andcounselling; A9s of &ounselling1) Address the agenda 'e.g. *";d li$e to tal$

    to you about . . . ,).

    !) Assess 'e.g. *Ahat do you $nowabout. . . @, *6ow do you [email protected], *Ahat are youconsidering . . . @,).

    ) Advise 'e.g. *";d li$e you to perform.. . ,).

    B) Assist 'e.g. *6ow would you li$e for me tohelp [email protected], *Ahat problems do you [email protected],).

    C) Arrange follo'up 'e.g.*Ae will set up atime for you to let me $now how you did . . .

    ,).

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    $ealing 'ith di!cultpatients

    $issatis5ed client -is never pleasedregardless of all e

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    4eedy client Aants more support than can begiven and may be an attention see$er.

    Solution )

    &a$e it clear about how much of support ispossible.

    #emain focused on the exercise or physicalactivity issues and the participant;s behavioral

    s$ills.#emind the participant of the exercise goals.#efer the participant for additional help 'e.g.

    professional counseling from a psychologist orphysician) if necessary.

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    Shy client is usually pleasant but not tal$ative

    SolutionTry as$ing probing and openended

    questions instead of those that =ustrequire yes or no answers.

    &hronic complainerhas a negative outloo$on life and may have legitimate medicalconcerns 'e.g. chronic Doint or bac$problems) that cause pain during exercise.

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    Solution )This individual may undermine e

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    *vereerters or noncompliers consistentlywor$ too hard during exercise sessions whichmay lead to inDury.

    Solution )a. "nstruction on how to pace themselves to avoid

    counterproductive excessive e

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    &lass disrupter or comedian feels the need forextreme attention from the exercise professional or theclass members.

    Solution )This need for attention may be channeled into a

    productive leadership role within the group 'e.g. ta$ingattendance).

    ny disrupter or comedian who is intimidating to others

    'either physically or verbally) or distracts from theprogram;s goals should be dealt with directly by theexercise professional or program director and may beas$ed to leave the program if the situation remainsunresolved.