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<ul><li><p>1 </p><p>APPENDIX I </p><p>PROPOSAL: </p><p>WIRELESS TOPOLOGY and </p><p>NETWORK ARCHITECTURE </p><p>for FANTSUAM FOUNDATION </p><p>KAFANCHAN, NIGERIA 1 February 2006 </p><p>Version 1.1 </p><p>by </p></li><li><p>Table of Contents </p><p>1 BACKGROUND....................................................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 PARTNER SITES.................................................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS ....................................................................................................................................... 2 </p><p>1.2.1 Centre of Kafanchan (</p></li><li><p>1 </p><p>1 Background </p><p>1.1 Partner Sites For clarity in this proposal, each partner site has been assigned a 2-4 letters unique reference code. The area/zone section of the table gives and indication of the physical presence of the partners. Eight out of 18 sites are marked in column PRI as a priority for Fantsuam Foundation. An estimation of the number of users, the distance in km and the coordinates are also included. The following table digests the information gathered related to the partners sites. Code Area Zone PRI Short Description Type Users km Lat Long FF Fantsuam Foundation Fantsuam 0,00 9,584 8,306 OR City W Okosun Residence Residence 1,37 9,593 8,298 </p><p>BSS City W Baptist Secondary School School 50 2,03 9,595 8,292 </p><p>CoN City W College of Nursing Academic 50 1,14 9,59 8,298 SdS City W Shida da Shida Kiosk 1,38 9,589 8,295 JSC City W Jagindi Street Clinic Health 10 1,74 9,581 8,291 CoE Road E NE College of Education Academic 2,34 9,598 8,321 HSS Road E N Head Start School Academic 60 2,13 9,602 8,311 MH Train N N Madcity Hotel Hotel 9,13 9,663 8,319 CS </p><p>Train N N </p><p> Catholic Seminary Madakiya Academic 100 4,90 9,627 8,305 </p><p>NWM Road X N New World Motel Hotel 1,16 9,594 8,304 GGSS C SW GGSS Takau Academic 1,45 9,575 8,297 KP Road E Kagoro Palace Palace 10 10,24 9,606 8,393 ECWA Road E ECWA Seminary Academic 50 9,49 9,607 8,386 DSS SW+ Daddu Secondary School Academic 22,30 9,552 8,113 </p><p>GCoE S Gidanwaya College of Education Academic 15,68 9,48 8,396 </p><p>KCP SW+ Kwoi Chiefs Palace Palace 10 36,97 9,456 8,008 ATP NE Agwa Tyap Palace Palace 29,25 9,819 8,409 YD NE YOTASSID Office 22,88 9,784 8,296 </p><p> Table 1. Summary Partners </p><p> In summary, from the 18 potential partners studied: </p><p> 9 partners are in the range of 10 km </p><p> A full network topology and deployment plan is proposed in this document. The full topology (NET18) will enable the interconnection of all 18 sites to a central gateway and the Internet. In order to connect all 18 sites, two solar-powered repeaters need to be placed at the top of two identified hills. The inclusion of the repeaters requires a detailed field study. As a result, we have left those sites out of the scope of this initial proposal. This proposal focuses on the partner sites that do not require the use of auxiliary (standalone) repeaters. The network (NET13) is conformed by 13 sites located in the range of 2-10 km. </p></li><li><p>2 </p><p>1.2 Geographical Areas In order to better understand the proposed network topology, we start by giving the necessary information of the different areas where the partners are located </p><p>1.2.1 Centre of Kafanchan (</p></li><li><p>3 </p><p> The railway crosses the city from South (Makurdi) to North (Kaduna) and also branches to the East towards Jos. </p><p> Fig 2. Kafanchan Area </p><p>1.2.2 Kagoro Hills Following the road 10 km to the East (direction Jos), we find the Kagoro Hills. The hills are situated 1100-1200 meters over the sea level and 350-550 meters higher than the central area of Kafanchan. An initial radio simulation analysis revealed that a repeater located at the top of the Kagaro Hill(s) can enable long distance backhaul links in the order of 30-40 km to the East. If the repeater is facing South, it can enable even longer links up to 40-50 km. An optimal position of a repeater is in the South West part of the Kagoro Hills. Such a repeater could provide service area to both (Far) South and East sites. </p></li><li><p>4 </p><p>Fig 3. Line of Sight from Kagoro Hills to DSS, KCP (East) and GCoE (South) For example, a repeater placed at the top of the Kagoro Hills will enable the connection of two of the remote East sites (DSS and KCP) and the southern site of GCoE (lower South Valley). In Figure 3, the yellow circles indicated the three sites GCoE, KCP and DSS (from left-to-right) that will be reachable by such a repeater (Rep1) in place. Unfortunately a repeater in the Kagoro Hills will require a separate viability study. A repeater in the hills needs to be powered by solar energy and physical security must be guaranteed. </p></li><li><p>5 </p><p>1.2.3 Radio Simulation from Kagoro Hills Figure 4 shows the results of a radio link simulation from the Kagoro Hills. The simulation shows a link between the repeater (Rep1) and the Kwoi Chief Palace (43 km distance). </p><p> Fig 4: Link Rep1 and Kwoi Chief Palace (KCP) (43 km) </p><p>1.3 Network Requirements </p><p>The following aspects have been taken into consideration in the proposal of the network topology/design. </p><p> Minimize the number of hops to the central gateway to minimize delay and jitter for real time services. If possible, all nodes of the network should be in less than 2 hops-range from the gateway. </p><p> Minimize the radio interference. Optimizing the radio channel allocation. If possible, use a maximum of three non-overlapping channels in every site. </p><p> Minimize the number of nodes that are part of the routing infrastructure. Reduce the sites that need remote network management and power backup. </p><p> Provide a stable and dedicated bandwidth to the backhaul nodes. </p><p> Provide a stable backbone design that allows scalable growth. The investment should focus on long term planning and expec growth of the network. </p><p> Careful radio planning and simulation of all links, especially those longer than 5 km. The topography of many areas do not guarantee easy line of sight. There is big difference in elevation data between sites. </p><p> The use of (dynamic) mesh topology in Kafanchan has been discarded. In this concrete scenario, a dynamic mesh topology does not provide extra benefits but </p></li><li><p>6 </p><p>adds extra complexity to the radio planning. The backbone/haul of the wireless network will be composed by a set of initial nodes with stable routes and guaranteed bandwidth. </p><p>2 Network Topology The simulation diagram below (Fig. 5) shows how all the 18 notes will be interconnected. Starting by a first phase that connects the 13 initial sites (NET13) and expanding the backhaul network to 5 more sites (NET18) that are connected with the help of two solar-powered repeaters (Rep1 and Rep2) . NET18 is the result of adding Rep1 (orange) in Kagoro Hills (NET18-1 , south-east extension) and Rep2 (white) 10 km North of Kagoro Hills (NET18-2, north extension) to NET13. </p><p> Fig 5: Network Topology (NET13 and NET18)</p></li><li><p>7 </p><p>2.1 Routability NET13 11 out of 13 partners sites will be one-hop away from the gateway. </p><p>1 hop to the gateway: CoN, OR, JSC, SdS, BSS, CoE, HSS, NWM, GGSS, MH, CS (11 partners) </p><p>2 hops to the gateway: KP (KP is connected via CS 10 km) </p><p>3 hops to the gateway: ECWA (EWCA is connected via KP 1 Km) </p><p>2.2 Routability NET18 All extended partners sites in NET18 will be two hops away from the gateway. </p><p>NET18 is the result of adding NET18a and NET18b networks to NET13 by means of two repeaters. </p><p>Repeater 1 Name: Rep1 Network: NET18-1 Place: Kagoro Hills (SW) Sites: GCoE (7 km), KCP (43 km), DSS (30 km) Repeater 2 Name: Rep 2 Network: NET18-2 Place: 10 km North of Kagoro Hills Sites: YD (16 km), ATP (18 km) </p></li><li><p>8 </p><p>3 Network Description The following section describes in detail the proposed backhaul network for the 13 partners sites in the 10 km vicinity (NET13). </p><p>3.1 Network Operation Centre (NOC) We propose starting by an initial star-topology from Fantsuam Foundation VSAT gateway. For that purpose, the central site needs to host a 150 ft (45 meter) central tower. The Network Operation Center of the Wireless ISP will also be responsible of running four common services: </p><p>1. Data: Mail and Web caching Local mail server able to work after long offline periods. Web Caching of frequent web requests </p><p>2. Voice: VoIP PBX Local Voice over IP exchange and Voice Mail. </p><p>3. Traffic: Bandwidth management Internal and External Bandwidth Management </p><p>4. Security: AAA (Authorisation, Authentication and Accounting) Access Control and Billing System </p><p> Fig 6: NOC Services </p></li><li><p>9 </p><p>3.2 Tower and Service Area The central tower will host a total of three wireless rugged outdoor units named: </p><p>1. SECT1 (Channel 1) 2. SECT2 (Channel 5) 3. OMNI (Channel 10) </p><p> Both SECT1 and SECT2 provide an horizontal area service of 70 using a vertically polarized panel antenna of 14 dBi gain. Placed carefully both antennas can jointly serve 180. The third non-overlapping radio channel available in 2.4 Ghz is assigned to OMNI. The OMNI hosts an 6 dBi omnidirectional antenna with a service area of 360. </p><p>3.2.1 City of Kafanchan (SECT1) SECT1 provides coverage to the city of Kafanchan (west). Five sites will be connected to SECT1 serving as the Kafanchan wireless backhaul infrastructure. Each of the sites will be a client of the network and a point of presence (POP) for the network expansion. Each of the sites will receive a guaranteed 1/3 T1 (8 channels of 64 Kbps) over the wireless media (Intranet). The suggested sites are: CoN, OR, JSC, SdS and BSS. </p><p>3.2.2 North Sites (SECT2) SECT2 provides coverage to the North and North East backhaul sites. Five sites will be connected to SECT2 serving as backhaul infrastructure to the North Area. Each of the sites will be a client of the network and a point of presence for the network expansion to the North. Each of the sites will receive a guaranteed 1/3 T1 (8 channels of 64 Kbps) over the wireless media (Intranet). The suggested sites are: CoE, HSS, NWM, MH and CS. One of the sites in this sub network will serve as a intermediary (routing) node for the East sites in Kagoro. </p><p>3.2.3 OMNI OMNI provides coverage to the sites that can not connect via any Point of Presence (POP) in SECT 1 and SECT2. Initially one site is expected in this service area: GGSS </p></li><li><p>10 </p><p>Fig 7: Central tower service sectors (&lt; 2 km) </p><p>Fig 8: Central Tower Equipment (FF) </p></li><li><p>11 </p><p>3.3 Kagoro Sites (CS-KP PtP link) The radio simulations show that a connection from the central tower to the 10 km east sites (EWCA and KP) in the Kagoro area, might not be possible due to the presence of a a set of hills and slopes. </p><p>An alternative connection via the CS site has been simulated. The KP site will connect to CS via a point-to-point dedicated link (10 km). Two 21dBi parabolic antennas horizontally polarised will be used for that purpose. </p><p>By connecting KP via CS, the KP site will become a new POP of the wireless network. Partners in the proximity, as ECWA (1 Km), can be connected to KP using conventional equipment. </p><p> Fig 9. NET13 (orange=PtP, CS-KP) </p></li><li><p>12 </p><p>4 Network Map </p><p>The layout of NET13 looks like following: </p><p> Fig 10: Network Topology (NET13) </p><p> NET13 is composed of 13 radio links using a total of 17 radios.</p></li><li><p>13 </p><p>5 Network Backhaul Extension NET18 is a backhaul extension of the proposed NET13 Network Topology. The network extension will require two solar-power repeaters to connect the South and Far East Sites and the Far North Sites. Due to the need of a viability study, this proposal has not budgeted for this extension but details about the proposed network topology is included here for future reference. </p><p>5.1 South and Far West sites (NET18-1) The simulation (Fig. 11) shows that three of the proposed sites DSS and KCP in the West and GcoE in the South will require a repeater at the top of Kagoro Hills (Rep1). </p><p>5.2 Far North Sites (NET18-2) Similarly, a second repeater (Rep2) needs to be placed in the north hills of Kagoro to connect the YD and ATP sites. Both repeaters require dedicated field studies. </p><p> Fig 11: Network Topology (NET18-1 and NET18-2 backhaul extension) </p></li><li><p>14 </p><p>6 Equipment SECT1 and SECT2 are served by two Proxim Tsunami MP11 24111 outdoor units (BSU). The units support a proprietary polling technique known as Advanced Wireless Outdoor Routing Protocol (WORP) that uses all the features existing in IEEE 802.11 plus a set of add ons to enable link level QoS. Although the technology does not interoperate with other vendors, it is the most cost-effective way to build a wireless backhaul infrastructure for a wireless ISP (WISP) if Quality of Service is required in the radio channel. Each of the clients connected to SECT1 and SECT2 uses an indoor Tsunami MP11 residential subscriber unit (RSU). A cabinet in each of the clients sites needs to be procured to protect the indoor equipment. The dedicated point-to-point link equipment between CS and KP in the East (Kagoro) does not require support for dynamic polling. This link can be implemented by means of conventional outdoor wireless equipment as the Complex Outdoor Unit WPP54G or similar. </p><p>7 Network Growth Three basic mechanisms are planned to expand this network: </p><p>1. Adding a new backhaul client to any of the two sectors SECT1 and SECT2 (with QoS). </p><p>2. Adding new clients to OMNI by means of standard IEEE 802.11 outdoor clients (no QoS) </p><p>3. Connect any new client to any of the existing POP's using wired infrastructure or conventional IEEE 802.11 gear. The later requires an extra access point in each of the POP. In this scenario, the POP acts as: </p><p> A backhaul client of the common wireless infrastructure A server (access point) for other IEEE 802.11-equipped nodes. </p><p> With the current design, we expect to be able to support: </p><p> A maximum of 10 (polling) wireless clients per sector (ref: 128 kbps/site). </p><p> A maximum of four (conventional) wireless clients per POP connected via conventional outdoor access points (ref: 32 Kbps/site). </p><p> 1 Tsumani MP11 Technical Spec. </p></li><li><p>15 </p><p>Fig 12. Potential future service areas </p></li><li><p>16 </p><p>8 Site Summary Table This table summarizes all partner sites data and the proposed wireless network topology. </p><p> Table 2. Site Summary </p><p> P O P </p><p>C O D E </p><p>A R E A </p><p>Z O N E </p><p>R A D I O </p><p>N O T E S </p><p>P R I </p><p>Short Description </p><p>T Y P E </p><p>U S E R S </p><p>D I S T </p><p>[km] </p><p>L A T </p><p>L O N G </p><p>A N G L E </p><p> FF Fantsuam Foundation Fantsuam 0,00 9,584 8,306 </p><p>1 OR City W SECT1 Okosun Residence. Residence 1,37 9,593 8,298 132 </p><p>2 BSS City W SECT1 </p><p>Baptist Secondary School School 50 2,03 9,595 8,292 142 </p><p>3 CoN </p><p>City W SECT1 College of Nursing Academic 50 1,14 9,59 8,298 143 </p><p>4 SdS City W SECT1 Shida da Shida Kiosk 1,38 9,589 8,295 156 </p><p>5 JSC </p><p>City W SECT1 Jagindi Street Clinic. Health 10 1,74 9,581 8,291 191 </p><p>6 CoE Road E NE SECT2 College of Education....</p></li></ul>


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