Aplastic Anemia

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Aplastic anemiaAplastic anemia is a condition where bone marrow does not produce sufficient new cells to replenish blood cells.[1] The condition, per its name, involves both aplasia and anemia. Typically, anemia refers to low red blood cell counts, but aplastic anemia patients have lower counts of all three blood cell types:red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, termed pancytopenia.

Sickle cell anemiaSickle cell anemia is a disease passed down through families in which red blood cells form an abnormal crescent shape. (Red blood cells are normally shaped like a disc.)

Causes, incidence, and risk factorsSickle cell anemia is caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin called hemoglobin S. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen. Hemoglobin S changes the shape of red blood cells, especially when the cells are exposed to low oxygen levels. The red blood cells become shaped like crescents or sickles. The fragile, sickle-shaped cells deliver less oxygen to the body's tissues. They can also get stuck more easily in small blood vessels, and break into pieces that interupt healthy blood flow. Sickle cell anemia is inherited from both parents. If you inherit the hemoglobin S gene from one parent and normal hemoglobin (A) from your other parent, you will have sickle cell trait. People with sickle cell trait do not have the symptoms of sickle cell anemia. Sickle cell disease is much more common in people of African and Mediterranean descent. It is also seen in people from South and Central America, the Caribbean, and the Middle East.

Anti-Counterfeiting Trade AgreementThe Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) is a multinational treaty for the purpose of establishing international standards for intellectual property rights enforcement. The agreement aims to establish an international legal framework for targeting counterfeit goods, generic medicines and copyright infringement on the Internet, and would create a new governing body outside existing forums, such as the World Trade Organization, the World Intellectual Property Organization, or the United Nations. The agreement was signed in October 2011 by Australia, Canada, Japan, Morocco, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea and the United States. In January 2012, the European Union and 22 countries which are member states of the European Union signed as well, bringing the total number of signatories to 31. No signatory has approved (ratified) the agreement, which would come into force after ratification by 6 countries. Supporters have described the agreement as a response to "the increase in global trade of counterfeit goods and pirated copyright protected works". Large intellectual property-based

organizations such as the MPAA and Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America were active in the treaty's development. Opponents say the convention adversely affects fundamental rights including freedom of expression and privacy. The secret nature of negotiations has excluded civil society groups, developing countries and the general public from the agreement's negotiation process and it has been described as policy laundering by critics including the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and the Entertainment Consumers Association. The signature of the EU and many of its member states resulted in the resignation in protest of the European Parliament's appointed chief investigator, rapporteur Kader Arif, as well as widespread protests across Europe.

United Nations Convention against CorruptionThe United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) is the first legally binding international anti-corruption instrument.[1] In its 8 Chapters and 71 Articles, the UNCAC obliges its States Parties to implement a wide and detailed range of anti-corruption measures affecting their laws, institutions and practices. These measures aim to promote the prevention, criminalization and law enforcement, international cooperation, asset recovery, technical assistance and information exchange, and mechanisms for implementation.

[edit] Signatures, Ratifications and Entry into ForceThe UNCAC was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in Mrida, Yucatn, Mexico, on 31 October 2003 by Resolution 58/4. The convention was signed by 140 countries. Ecuador became the thirtieth country to ratify the Convention on 15 September 2005, and in accordance with Article 68 (1) of Resolution 58/4, it entered into force on 14 December 2005. As of 13 December 2011, the convention had been ratified, accepted, approved or acceded to by 158 countries (which became thus States Parties to the convention) as well as the European Union[2] and applies to most of the world population. The countries with a population of over 1 million, that had of 15 May 2011 not ratified were:

[edit] BackgroundThe UNCAC is the most recent of a long series of developments in which experts and politicians have recognized the far-reaching impact of corruption and economic crimes, including money laundering that undermine the value of democracy, sustainable development, and rule of law[3]

also the need to develop effective measures against it at both the domestic and international levels. International action against corruption has progressed from general consideration and declarative statements to legally binding agreements. While at the beginning of the discussion, measures were focused relatively narrowly on specific crimes, above all bribery, the definitions and understanding of corruption have become broader and so have the measures against it. The Conventions' (not only the UNCAC, but the Inter-American Convention against Corruption, the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention, the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption) comprehensive approach and the mandatory character of many of its provisions give proof of this development. The UNCAC deals with forms of corruption that had not been covered by many of the earlier international instruments, such as trading in official influence, general abuses of power, and various acts of corruption in the private sector. A further significant development was the inclusion of a specific chapter of the Convention dealing with the recovery of assets, a major concern for countries that pursue the assets of former leaders and other officials accused or found to have engaged in corruption.

[edit] Conference of the States PartiesA Conference of the States Parties (CoSP) to the UNCAC was established to improve the capacity of and cooperation between States Parties to achieve the objectives set forth in the Convention, and to promote and review its implementation. The first session of the CoSP took place on 1014 December 2006 at the Dead Sea, Jordan. At this meeting, government representatives discussed how to follow-up on the UNCAC and they committed themselves to establishing a formal monitoring system. An inter-governmental working group was established to start working on the design of such a review of implementation mechanism.[4] Two other working groups were set up to promote coordination of activities related to technical assistance and asset recovery, respectively,.[5][6] The second CoSP was held in Bali, Indonesia, on 28 January to 1 February 2008. As for the mechanism for review of implementation, the States Parties decided, inter alia, to take into account a balanced geographical approach, to avoid any adversarial or punitive elements, to establish clear guidelines for every aspect of the mechanism and to promote universal adherence to the Convention and the constructive collaboration in preventive measures, asset recovery, international cooperation and other areas. The CoSP also reiterated its support for the Working Group on Asset Recovery, requested donors and receiving countries to strengthen coordination and enhance technical assistance for the implementation of the UNCAC, and dealt with the issue of bribery of officials of public international organizations.[7] The next session of the CoSP took place in Doha, Qatar, from 913 November 2009. Pursuant to the resolutions and decisions taken by the CoSP at its second session, the CoSP was expected to concentrate on key issues regarding review of the implementation of the Convention, asset recovery and technical assistance. The CoSP also offers an opportunity to anti-corruption policymakers and practitioners to exchange views on practical matters. Furthermore, it will be preceded and accompanied by numerous side events, such as the last Global Forum (in cooperation with businesses) and a Youth Forum.[8]

[edit] Measures and ProvisionsThe UNCAC covers five main areas: prevention, criminalization and law enforcement measures, international cooperation, asset recovery, and technical assistance and information exchange. It includes both mandatory and non-mandatory provisions.[edit] General Provisions (Chapter I, Articles 1-4)

The opening Articles of the UNCAC include a statement of purpose (Article1), which covers both the promotion of integrity and accountability within each country and the support of international cooperation and technical assistance between States Parties. They also include definitions of critical terms used in the instrument. Some of these are similar to those used in other instruments, and in particular the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, but those defining "public official", "foreign public official", and " official of a public international organization" are new and are important for determining the scope of application of the UNCAC in these areas. The UNCAC does not provide for a definition of corruption. In accordance with Article 2 of the UN Charter, Article 4 of the UNCAC provides for the protection of national sovereignty of the States Parties.,[9][10][edit] Preventive Measures (Chapter II, Articles 5-14)

The First Conference of t