AP World History Study Guide Foundations (8000 BCE – 600 CE) Development of Agriculture and Technology Paleolithic Age o “Old stone age,” nomadic period of foraging o Nomadic people are at the mercy of nature o Extended families grew into clans and then tribes with sophisticated organization o Worship of deities o Division of labor assigned by gender: men hunt, women gather Pastoral Society – society characterized by the domestication of animals, still nomadic, constantly moving and searching for new foraging lands The transition from foraging (hunter and gathering) to agriculture arose as groups began returning to same grazing spots This movement began around 8000 BCE and is called the Agricultural Revolution or the Neolithic Revolution (New Stone Age) This transition took place independently around the world, but it began earliest in the middle east, then west Africa, then China, then the Americas Women played a major role in the transition because they understood the growth of plants and became the first farmers Slash-and-burn farming (farming technique that enriched soil for number of years, before rendering it useless) farmers migrated around looking for good soil spread of agriculture 1

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Page 1: AP World Study Guide

AP World History Study Guide

Foundations (8000 BCE – 600 CE)

Development of Agriculture and Technology Paleolithic Age

o “Old stone age,” nomadic period of foragingo Nomadic people are at the mercy of natureo Extended families grew into clans and then tribes with sophisticated

organizationo Worship of deitieso Division of labor assigned by gender: men hunt, women gather

Pastoral Society – society characterized by the domestication of animals, still nomadic, constantly moving and searching for new foraging lands

The transition from foraging (hunter and gathering) to agriculture arose as groups began returning to same grazing spots

This movement began around 8000 BCE and is called the Agricultural Revolution or the Neolithic Revolution (New Stone Age)

This transition took place independently around the world, but it began earliest in the middle east, then west Africa, then China, then the Americas

Women played a major role in the transition because they understood the growth of plants and became the first farmers

Slash-and-burn farming (farming technique that enriched soil for number of years, before rendering it useless) farmers migrated around looking for good soil spread of agriculture

Agriculture food surplus population increases villages and cities specialization of labor civilization

specialization of labor the place of women in society fell People of the Neolithic Period followed religions that celebrated fertility and the

cycles of life (leading to calendars) Neolithic people followed animism, a type of religion that celebrates nature Cities developed a more complex social structure to administer wealth, provide

order, and expand territory

Structure of Early Civilization Civilization – a cultural group with advanced cities, complex institutions, skilled

workers, record keeping, and advanced technology Most early civilizations developed along rivers (except for Olmec and Chavin)


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Mesopotamia “Land between the Rivers” – Tigris and Euphrates Began around 3500 BCE World’s first cities built at Ur, Erech, and Kish (part of Sumer) Sumerians developed first writing system (cuneiform) Trade enhanced by the development of the wheel Sumerians were polytheistic and built ziggurats (pyramid-like temples) to honor

their gods Developed an advanced mathematic system The Tigris and Euphrates were very uncontrollable and unpredictableviolent

gods, development of advanced irrigation, and inability for a single empire to arise (instead prevalence of many small city-states).

Patriarchal society – men could sell wives and children into slavery to pay debt There were a lot of civilizations that emerged, one after another, in Mesopotamia

between Sumer and Persia; as civilizations were conquered, the underlying cultures and technologies remained the same

o Akkad, another city-state, dominated after Sumer (developed code of laws)

o Babylon overran Akkado Babylon fell to invasions of the Kassites and the Hittites, who had learned

to use irono the Assyrians, who had picked up iron technology, defeated the Hittites,

and established a capital at Nineveh (Assyrian conquests play a role in cultural diffusion)

o Assyrians defeated by Medes and the Chaldeans; Chaldean king Nebuchadnezzar rebuilt Babylon as a showplace

Babylonian king Hammurabi made Hammurabi’s Code – the world’s first law code, established distinctions between social classes, genders, and established harsh punishments (eye for an eye)

Egypt Began around 3000 BCE, begins with unification of Upper (southern) and Lower

(northern) Egypt Regular flooding of Nile irrigation, strong centralized government Pharaoh – political and religious king of Egypt, had supreme power as the

descendent of a god. Because the pharaoh was a religious leader, Egypt was a theocracy – a government system run by religious leaders

Polytheists – had multiple gods, built huge pyramids as tombs for pharaohs Used mummification as a way to preserve bodies of people for afterlife Clearly defined social classes Royal women could have some power (emperors, scribes, priestesses) Women could buy and sell / inherit property, dissolve marriages; however, they

were still subservient to men and not educated as well Developed writing system of hieroglyphics Had some trade with Mesopotamia and Kush (in south) but because of geographic

isolation, a unique Egyptian culture developed, and power remained strongly centralized


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Indus Valley Civilization Developed around 2500 BCE Emerged along Indus River in Pakistan Khyber Pass through mountains gave connection to outside world Two major,

well designed cities: Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa Little is known about them because their writing is not deciphered Reasons for destruction is unknown, possibilities include invasions of Aryan

people from north, natural disasters The Aryans were light skinned, the local Dravidians were darker

The Shang Developed around Yellow River (Huang He) in 1766 BCE Very isolated, limited trade Used oracle bones for divination Decimal system and accurate calendar Advanced iron working, irrigation, flood control Strong walled cities, superior military force The Shang Dynasty fell to the Zhou Dynasty (the Zhou claimed this was the will

of the gods – mandate of heaven)Mesoamerica and Andean South America

Developed later than river civilizations (developed around coastlines) Did not develop the wheel, or domesticate animals Olmecs (central America) developed advanced technology, strong authoritarian

government built huge temples and pyramids, famous for giant heads Trade and agricultural productivity lead to urbanization of the Olmec civilization,

including the rise of powerful religious and political elites Olmec was located near the tropical Atlantic coast near the Yucatan peninsula No strong Olmec empire, however the samples of Olmec products and images

suggest the Olmecs did exercise cultural influence of civilizations to come. Chavin civilization rose to power in the Andes Chavin developed advanced irrigation, no real central government (rugged

terrain) Chavin used llamas and had access to the coast (fish) Both the Mesoamerican and Andean civilizations had very limited connections

with other civilizationsThe Rise of Classical CivilizationsThe Maya:

Though usually grouped with the Aztec and Inca, the Maya are contemporary with Rome, Han, and Gupta

Maya –developed system of writing, developed concept of zero, studied astronomy, had an incredibly accurate calendar

The Maya were a collection of city-states Maya warfare had religious significance and was mainly conducted to obtain

human sacrifices Maya were master architects (Tikal, a tremendous city, Chichen Itza, a tiered



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Decline - no one's really sure, but the Maya started to desert their cities in the ninth century C.E. and the civilization fizzled out

Classical China:The Zhou

Replaced Shang dynasty, claimed mandate of heaven Emperors claimed to be “Sons of Heaven” Expanded territory to Yangtze River valley (fertile area) The period in which many Chinese philosophies originated (Confucianism,

Daoism, Legalism) Ended with period of civil unrest (warring states period)

The Qin Replaced Zhou following warring states period Qin Shi Huangdi – first emperor of China, unified the nation and ran an

extremely harsh centralized government Powerful army equipped with iron Built Great Wall of China in the north, expanded as far as Vietnam to the south Forbade Confucianism, used legalism Legalism – a political philosophy that called for a strict, harsh central government

that could control and discipline the people. View that people are inherently evil, and need a strong government to control them.

Centralized bureaucracy ruled the state Constructed new roads Standardized weights, coinages, measures, written language Short lived because of strict laws and harsh punishments

The Han Brought back Confucianism, blended it with aspects of Legalism Father was the undisputed leader of the family Strong cultural emphasis on loyalty, family, obedience, and education Strong government bureaucracy, used civil service exams Increased trade along Silk Road Built more roads, canals, irrigation systems Society was further stratified, consisting of an elite class (including educated

government bureaucracy) peasants and artisans, and unskilled laborers (some slaves)

Emperor Han Wu Ti (the Warrior Emperor) greatly expanded the territory of the dynasty. Empire included Central Asia, Korea, and Indochina.

This dynasty was so important, Chinese people still call themselves “Han people”The Fall of the Han

High taxes Social unrest, yellow turban rebellion (Daoists) Invasion from Xiongnu and Huns Weak emperors and increased influence of military

Backgrounds of Classical IndiaVedic Age

Small, decentralized villages sprung up around India The Vedas were written, and the caste system began (beginning of Hinduism)


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1. Brahmins (priests)2. Kshatriyas (warriors, rulers)3. Vaisyas (merchants, farmers)4. Sudras (common folk)

Untouchables also developed below the 4 castesMauryan Dynasty

Built by Chandragupta following the fall of Alexander the Great First to unite all of India Ashoka converted to Buddhism, and spread philosophy of tolerance and

nonviolence throughout the empire and along the Silk Roads Ashoka’s Pillars were carved throughout the empire and reminded Mauryans to

live righteously, spread BuddhismGupta Dynasty

Revival of the Mauryans under Chandra Gupta Referred to as a golden age - enjoyed relative peace and stability, saw significant

advances in arts and sciences Hindu dynasty, emphasized caste system Not as centralized as Mauryans, local rulers retained some power Built huge temples to honor Hindu gods Had concept of zero, decimal system, advanced astronomy Growth of Sanskrit as language of the educated Deterioration of status of women – married at younger age, tradition of sati – wife

would throw herself onto husband’s funeral pyre Decline caused by invasions from the White Huns (central Asian nomads)

Persia and the Classical World Cyrus the Great established strong empire from India to Egypt Tremendous tolerance for conquered peoples Bureaucratic system used satraps as local governments Zoroastrian religion – first ever monotheistic religion, concept of good vs. evil,

rewards and punishments after death Huge highway Great Royal Road, connected empire (connections with

Greececultural growth)Lydians, Phoenicians, and Hebrews

These small societies existed and kept their identities within or near the Persian empire

The Lydians came up with the concept of using coined money for trade (rather than the barter system)

The Phoenicians developed powerful city-states along the Mediterranean and developed a simple alphabet that used only 22 letters

The Hebrews were the first Jews - they established Israel and Palestine and managed to maintain their identity despite frequent invasion

Greek CivilizationClassical Greece

Adopted Phoenician alphabet Famous for the Olympics, held every four years No strong central government, instead city-states (polis) dominated


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Two strongest states – Athens, Sparta Athens developed advanced cultural growth (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle) and

democracy; Athens reached its height under Pericles (golden age of science, philosophy, arts) Athens had a powerful navy, and used it to create colonies all around the Mediterranean, ranging from the Ukraine to France

Socrates developed method of questioning aimed at exposing ethics and morality, eventually forced to commit suicide for “corrupting the youth”

Sparta developed a strong military, and had an agriculture based economy; Spartan society depended greatly on control of the slaves (helots)

Athens and Sparta united to fight off Persian invasions, then turned on each other and fought Peloponnesian Wars

Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age Macedonian king Philip conquered all of Greece Philip’s son Alexander the Great created empire reaching from Egypt to India In an effort to blend the cultures’ of Greece and Persia, he promoted Greek

soldiers to marry Persian women He was very tolerant and allowed local governments and religions to remain After his death, the empire was divided, but the strong prevalence of Greek

culture led to the Hellenistic Age During the Hellenistic Age:

1. Trade flourished throughout central Asia, reaching all the way to South Asia and North Africa

2. Greek philosophy spread throughout the Middle East3. The most important city was Alexandria in Egypt, famous for its

massive library and lighthouse4. Incredible scientific and mathematic discoveries occurred, including

the works of Galen (anatomy) Euclid, Pythagoras, and Archimedes (math and physics) and Ptolemy (astronomy)

Roman CivilizationRoman Monarchy

First Roman government, led by seven kingsRoman Republic

Replaced the monarchy, built forum as a political and civic center (similar to the earlier Athenian agora)

Rome originated as a republic run by an oligarchy of aristocrats (senate) The Assembly was a representative body originally made up of patricians, but

later plebeians joined The Assembly would elect two consuls every year who had veto power over the

assembly During a crisis the senate appointed a dictator with emergency powers for 6

months Tension rose between plebeians (lower class) and patricians (aristocracy) Twelve Tables – written out laws of the republic General Julius Caesar came to power, declared himself dictator for life, and took

over the Roman governmentRoman Empire


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Following the assassination of Julius Caesar, his grandnephew Octavian came to power, changing his name to Augustus Caesar

Augustus established Pax Romana (200 year period of peace and prosperity) Cement was invented advanced system of roads throughout the empire Extensive trade throughout the empire, and outwards through the Silk Road Latin promoted unity throughout the empire, common coinage Generally allowed a lot of self rule to conquered lands, unless they rebelled Adopted a lot of culture from the Greeks Originally condemned Christianity, but later Emperor Constantine converted

Fall of the Roman Empire Ineffective later emperors High taxes, inflation Decline in trade Hun (Central Asian nomads) migrated south and west in search of better grazing

lands pressure on Germanic tribes living near the Roman Empire Germanic invasions of Rome

Recruitment of non-Romans into roman army 3rd Century Crisis – period of political turmoil in the 3rd century The West continued to fall, but Eastern Rome (centered in Constantinople) grew Emperor Justinian of East Rome (Byzantine Empire) brought back many Roman

traditions, but the west eventually fell to barbarian tribes After the fall of Rome, Greek and Roman culture would be lost for hundreds of

years, allowing the Middle East and China to far surpass Europe Origins of World Belief SystemsPolytheism

Practiced by nomadic and early agricultural peoples Polytheism is the belief in many gods or goddesses Animism – a type of polytheism that worships gods and goddesses that inhabit

natural features Hinduism

The Vedas are the foundation of Hinduism There are thousands of different gods and goddesses each with their own role People are reincarnated after death, whether or not they move higher or lower in

life depends on that person’s karma Freeing oneself from the reincarnation cycle is called attaining moksha Dharma – moral code people should follow within their caste to get good karma Hinduism remained predominantly in India Hindu strengthened the caste system because it maintained that you are born into

your caste and can only improve if you followed the dharma of your casteBuddhism

Came out of Hinduism, shares Hindu belief in reincarnation The ultimate goal is to attain nirvana (union with divine essence), similar to

moksha in Hinduism Buddhism was a tolerant religion that accepted people from all levels of society Buddhism spread along the Silk Road to East Asia Buddhism follows the Four Noble Truths:


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1. All life is suffering2. Suffering is caused by desire3. One can be freed of this desire4. One is freed of desire by following the Eightfold Path

Two branches exist – Mahayana (modern) and Thervada (more traditional) Individuals who reach nirvana but remain on earth to help others are called

bodhisattvas (similar to saints) Buddhism was popular because it taught tolerance and acceptance for men and

women of all levels of society, and therefore opposed the caste system. Beginning with Ashoka, Buddhism spread along the Silk Road, it became very popular in China, Japan, and Korea

Confucianism Established in late Zhou dynasty (warring states period) by scholar Confucius Emphasizes filial piety and veneration for ancestors Government stability comes from having wise, scholarly officials Promotes loyalty, honor, respect, and the virtues of education Anyone can rise up into a higher social class Strong patriarchal traditions

Daoism Arises at the same time as Confucianism Focuses on balance in nature: yin and yang Belief that human understanding comes from following Dao “The Way” in nature Man is inherently bad, so action just messes up nature, man needs to be part of

nature’s flow to resolve problemsJudaism

Monotheistic religion of the Hebrew people The Hebrews were a Semitic people who wandered around the Arabian desert Jews follow the Torah, and believe in the Ten Commandments brought by Moses

Christianity Recognizes Jesus Christ as the son of god Christ’s new religion was viewed as a threat by the Romans, and the early

Christians were persecuted heavily Paul (Saul) of Tarsus was the greatest Christian missionary, and he travelled

throughout the Roman empire to spread the word of Christ and the New Testament

In the Edict of Milan, emperor Constantine permitted the practice of Christianity, and later himself converted

The leader of Christianity developed as the pope in RomeTrade ContactsSilk Road Trade

Far reaching trade system that linked China to Mesopotamia and Europe Connected the Classical Han and Roman Empires Following the fall of the Han and Rome, the Silk Road was revived by the Tang

and Song, and later the Mongolians Silk was a major export, but the Silk Road also exchanged cultures, religions, and



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Indian Ocean Trade Included South China, South East Asia, East Africa India, Europe, and Persia Sailors learned how to use monsoon winds for faster travel The lateen sail and junk dominated the trade

Trans-Saharan Trade Across the Sahara desert Arrival of camel from Arabia and the development of the camel saddle boosted


Period Two (600-1450)

The Rise and Spread of Islam Ka’aba – holy cubic structure that houses a sacred rock, the ka’aba was always

recognized as holy by the animist polytheists, located in Mecca Muhammad – Arabian orphan, experienced revelations in which Gabriel told

him truths about Allah, Muhammad compiled this revelations into the Qu’ran Many Meccans were furious at Muhammad, and forced him and his followers to

flee to Medina (known as the hijrah) Muslims were taught to follow the Five Pillars of Islam:

1. Confession of faith2. Prayer five times per day3. Charity to the needy4. Fasting during Ramadan5. At least one pilgrimage to Mecca

Umma – community of Muslim believers Hajj – religious pilgrimage to Mecca Muslims are supposed to do Hadith – book of Muhammad’s sayings Shariah – moral law that established political order, provided for criminal justice In Islam, men are allowed up to four wives, as long as they can take care of them. Sunni – believe that umma should choose leader of Islam, Shi’ite – believe

leadership should remain in Muhammad’s family. Shiites live primarily in Persia (Iran) and Iraq. Most other areas are dominated by Sunnis.

The leader of Islam is the successor to the prophet, the caliph Islam quickly spread from Iberian Peninsula to Central Asia (Dar-al-Islam) Islam also spread to northern India, but failed to catch on in southern India The Franks, a Germanic Tribe in Europe, fought the spread of Islam under the

leadership of their king, Clovis Charles Martel stopped the advance of the Muslim armies, and established the

Carolingian Dynasty, a kingdom that united much of France. Ummayad Caliphate – capital at Damascus, tolerated dhimmi – “people of the

book” (Jews, Christians) also known as Children of Abraham, encouraged conversion to Islam

Abbasid Caliphate – Originally Shiites, it became increasingly Sunni. Capital at Baghdad, brought back Greek learning, culture, advanced science, literature, math, architecture (minarets) Sufis (mystics, missionaries) began spreading Islam, employed Mamluk mercenaries. Abbasid period known as Golden Age of Islam


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Women originally held significant economic power like owning property, men were allowed to have up to four wives, and gradually women lost power as society became more and more patriarchal. Women became expected to be loyal to the husband and raise the children

Ibn Battuta – Muslim scholar who travelled through Africa, China, Mid. EastOther Islamic Empires

Ghana (land of gold) was the earliest African Islamic nationo In 1240, kingdom of Mali was established. Mali’s economy rested on

agriculture and was supplemented by control of regional and trans-Saharan trading routes and by control of the gold mines of the Niger headwaters

o Mansa Musa – famous Malian king who took hajj to Mecca and demonstrated his tremendous wealth When he returned to Mali, Mansa Musa established new mosques and Quranic schools

Delhi Sultanate – Islamic kingdom in India established by Turkish conquerors.o Delhi sultans ruled by terror and were a burden on their subjects, always

tension between them and the local Hinduso Non-Muslims forced to pay taxes, there was frequent violence between

Muslims and HindusThe Byzantine Empire

Built off of Eastern Roman Empire Spoke Greek, practiced Orthodox Christianity The government held a complete monopoly over all business and economics, they

monopolized industry like silk production Emperor Justinian tried to restore the glory of Rome to Constantinople, trade

flourished, the major church Hagia Sophia was built, and the Justinian Code kept Roman law and legal principles alive

Russia Used Cyrillic alphabet Vladimir, a prince from Kiev, converted to Orthodox Christianity, had close

relationship with the Byzantines

The Expansion of ChinaSui Dynasty

After centuries of turmoil following the fall of the Han, the Sui rose to power Built a strong central government with work from peasants Extensive public works programs like the Grand Canal, a massive series of

canals linking northern and southern ChinaTang Dynasty

Strong civil service exams scholar-gentry government Buddhism grew popular, eventually banned Chinese junks were among the world’s best ships, Chinese dominated Indian

Ocean trade Extensive trade, contacts with Muslims, credit developed (flying money) Fell because of internal rebellions, pressure from nomadic peoples Developed tribute empire from independent countries: Tibet, Korea, Vietnam


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Song Dynasty Neo-Confucianism – revival of Confucianism, blended it a little with Buddhism.

Neo-Confucianism further strengthened existing gender and class distinctions Chinese junks dominated trade, nvented moveable type, which bolstered literacy Introduced Champa Rice from Vietnam, combined with agricultural technology

advancements population boom Continued civil service exams, began foot binding, continued naval trade The Song Dynasty suffered from having a huge bureaucracy, and because of its

emphasis on the scholar gentry, it had few capable generals Weakened military increased pressure from nomadic tribes (Khitan, Jurchens) The Song eventually were forced to pay constant tribute to the Khitan, this

economic cost eventually led to a breakdown of the Song economy and government

Japan Combined Confucianism, Buddhism, and Shinto religion Puppet emperor, local bushis led local government, served by samurai Samurai followed the strict Bushido Code, a code that described how honorable

men should live, fight, and die Eventually families grew powerful, controlled military leaders (shoguns) Japan split into 300 small kingdoms, each run by their own daimyos, samurai

pledged support to their daimyoChanges in European Institutions Middle Ages

Early on Charlemagne (grandson of Charles Martel) established the Holy Roman Empire, the first attempt at an empire since the fall of Rome

Charlemagne never had complete control over his empire, and with his death it was quickly divided up

No real central government, feudalism – nobles gave fiefs to vassals in return for military service, serfs served lords (vassals) on manor

Manors had no connection with the outside world, existed as self-sufficient communities

The proper code of etiquette was known as the Code of Chivalry, an honor system that strongly condemned betrayal and promoted mutual respect

Women were largely limited to the traditional roles of homemaker and childcare provider, women served as a reflection of their husbands

Eventual rise of universities, monarchies grew stronger over time, power grew centralized

Papacy held tremendous power through the church, individuals began to challenge this

Pope Gregory IX established the Inquisition, a formal interrogation and persecution process for alleged heretics

Scholasticism – progression that began to allow Europeans to study philosophy, law, medicine, and science from the Muslim cultures. This allowed the Europeans to bring back ancient Greek and Roman thought. Scholasticism came into conflict with the church because it relied on reason rather than faith


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Thomas Aquinas was a famous Christian theologian who argued that faith and reason are not in conflict, both are gifts from god and can be used to strengthen each other

The Crusades – pope called for good Christians to fight to retake the Holy Land, exposed Europeans to Islamic products, culture, philosophy, Europe began to open up trade (cities like Venice). European nations also began to gain more power at the expense of feudal nobles and the papacy

Since William the Conqueror, England had a relatively strong monarchy, the Magna Carta limited this power by establishing the British Parliament, made up of the House of Lords and the House of Commons

Europe gradually began to revive trade, the Hanseatic League dominated northern European commerce and the burghers (middle class merchants) became politically powerful

The Hundreds Year War between France and England ended with England’s withdrawal from France

The Vikings The Vikings were Scandinavian who raided European settlements. They amassed

tremendous fortunes, and terrified European monarchs and peasants. Some Viking explorers reached the Americas and founded colonies in Canada and Greenland. Vikings also played a major role in European politics, as one branch the Normans successfully conquered all of England. Migrated throughout Continental Europe

Interregional Trade and ExchangeThe Mongols

Developed under Genghis Khan on the central steppes of Asia Shamanist religion, Khan was ultimate leader (political and spiritual) Superb Horsemanship, created empire from China to Persia The Mongols oversaw the Pax Mongolica (Mongol Peace) which promoted the

exchange of products that brought increased wealth and enriched the exchange of ideas between east and west

Golden Horde Mongol dynasty in Russia, established by Batu, converted to Islam but remained

tolerant of Orthodox Church Established tribute empire Moscow benefitted from being the tribute collector of the Mongols, the Muscovite

princes gradually added to their power The Golden Horde fell to Ivan III

Il-Khan Horde Overthrew Abbasids, originally tension with Muslims (including Golden Horde),

eventually converted to IslamYuan Dynasty

Established by Kublai Khan, no civil service exam, took away from Confucianism, welcomed foreigners, more naval trade, used Muslim merchants, failed invasions of Japan (due to kamikaze storms), fell to Ming dynasty

Foreigners like Marco Polo were invited to the Yuan Court The Yuan did not have religious tolerance Chinese were still allowed to hold positions in the government


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Merchants were valued more than they were under the Confucian system Mongols were eventually somewhat sinofied (adopted Chinese ways) Many Chinese resented their foreign occupiers

The Impact of Mongol Rule on Eurasia Mongol Peace – period of extensive cultural and commercial exchange between

East and West, new highways, trading posts, also spread diseases Bubonic Plague (the Black Death) spread across the steppes from Central Asia to

China, where it contributed to the fall of the YuanBantu Migrations

Bantu people migrated southward and eastward throughout sub-Saharan Africa, spreading Bantu culture, language, no written language, no strong central governments, animistic religion

Contacts with Arabs led to the creation of a new language, Swahili Village was the basis of Bantu society, politically, they were stateless societies Jenne-Jeno is believed to be the first sub-Saharan city Jenne-Jeno unusual because it was not hierarchically organized Result: similar culture throughout sub-Saharan Africa

China and Europe in the Indian Ocean Ming Dynasty general Zheng He led major maritime missions, established trade

contacts, these were eventually shut down, China returned to traditional isolationThe Rise of Western Europe

The arrival of gunpowder lessened the importance of knights, took power away from the lords, and gave power to centralized states

Spain unites in 1469 with the marriage of Isabella (Castille) and Ferdinand (Aragon). Together they fought Muslims. They worked to purify the country of non-Christians by establishing the Spanish Inquisition, which forced non-Christians to either convert or flee

American EmpiresAztecs

Based in modern Mexico, capital at Tenochtitlan, used chinampas (floating platforms used for farming)

Complicated polytheistic religion, many temples honoring gods, sun god most important

The role of the military was to capture prisoners for religious sacrifices Because of so many sacrifices, sometimes referred to as “cannibal kingdom” Warriors were the elites in the social structure Developed their own system of hieroglyphics Dominated Mexico, demanded tribute from conquered peoples, allowed for self-

governance Built a massive system of roads to connect the empire Aztec society was divided into clans (calpulli) that began as kinship groups, but

expanded to include neighboring people Women were subordinate to men, but were allowed to inherit and will property

The Incas Located in the Andes Mountains


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Required defeated kingdoms and clans (ayllus) to do mita (tribute system demanding labor on government land)

Polytheistic, economy based on potato, used terraced farming, capital at Cuzco, major leaders retreat at Machu Picchu

Sun god center of religion and politics Little long-distance trade, no separate merchant class

Period Three (1450-1750)

Philosophical Changes in Europe Renaissance – a major rebirth of cultural and artistic styles brought from

exposure to Islam, Italian city states became exceptionally wealthy and powerful Major urbanization movements, people left the manor Church lost a lot of power, states grew more centralized, rise of secularism Jews were persecuted throughout Europe New emphasis on the individual, humanism Major revival of the arts facilitated by rich families like the Medicis in Florence Major artists:

1. Michelangelo2. Leonardo da Vinci3. Donatello4. Rafael

Guttenberg invents printing press increase in literacy, spread of Islamic philosophy and science

Protestant Reformation – led by individuals like Martin Luther, movement against corruption of Church (sale of indulgences), boosted by invention of the printing press (Guttenberg) strengthened power of monarchy over papacy (Henry VIII). Critical of catholic practices of indulgences (priests sell slips of paper that guarantee going to heaven to people). Demanded that the bible be translated and church services be conducted in local languages

Catholic Reformation – the Catholic church abandoned sale of indulgences, established Jesuits (missionaries who established centers of learning) and tried to spread Catholicism

Scientific Revolution – Movement in the renaissance that established the scientific method and maintained that phenomenon could be explained using reason and not faith. Further weakened the power of the papacy. Copernicus and Galileo argued that the earth and planets circled the sun. Newton developed laws of physics, found gravity. Many people influenced by the scientific revolution became atheists and deists (believed that God played a passive role)

The Enlightenment – political movement inspired by the Scientific Revolution, challenged monarchy’s right to divine rule, major thinkers and beliefs include

1. Hobbes – government needed to use war and violence to maintain power2. Locke – all men are born equal with natural rights (life, liberty, property)3. Rousseau – argued social contract that government was responsible to its

people, and that the people have the right to overthrow unjust governments4. Montesquieu – argued for separation of powers (3 branches)


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5. Voltaire – argued for religious freedom and toleranceEmpires and New Political Systems

European Exploration – the Portuguese caravel, the astrolabe, the lateen sail, and the compass dominated exploration

Columbus reaches America 1492 Dias– reached tip of Africa (Cape of Good Hope) De Gama – reached India Magellan – first to circumnavigate the globe

Spain’s Empire The Spaniards recaptured former Spanish territory from the Muslims, and

expelled Jews In 1492 the Isabella and Ferdinand funded Columbus’s expedition to America Aztecs thought the Spaniards were the arrival of the god Quetzalcoatl, and gave

them treasure and power Hernan Cortez led conquistadors to Aztecs, defeated them with help of guns,

smallpox, and Mallinche Francisco Pizarro led conquistadors against the Incas The Spanish were spurred on by thirst for gold, land, catholic converts Unique Encomienda social class system:

1. Peninsulares – Colonists born in Europe2. Creoles – Colonists born in Americas with European parents3. Mestizos – people of mixed European and Indian ancestry4. Mulattos – people of mixed European and African ancestry

Portugal colonized Brazil, the first ever plantation economy Treaty of Tordesillas – Pope divided Spanish and Portuguese land in New World Mercantilism – economic arrangement between colonies and mother nations in

which colonies produced raw goods, mother nations produced manufactured goods, sold things back to colonies (relies on a favorable trade balance)

Columbian Exchange Major system of exchange between Africa, Europe, and Americas Brought horse, sugar to Americas Brought potato, tomato, maize to Europe more nutrients, longer lifespan Brought guns, liquor to Africa Diseases also spread much more to the Americas, where cleaner cities weakened

immune systems The silver trade was a major factor in world trade China motivated the silver trade by demanding it in such large quantities

European ConflictEngland

King Henry VIII transformed England into Protestant nation Queen Elizabeth oversaw golden age, boosted commercial expansion and

exploration and colonization in the New World, established England as major European power

British East India Company – joint-stock company that colonized much of the world for England

Established colonies in America, allowed a lot of self-rule


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France Major conflict between Protestants (Huegenots) and Catholics First Bourbon King Henry IV issues Edict of Nantes, establishing tolerance Constantly going to war to expand empire (loses badly at the War of Spanish

Succession) Established colonies in America, fought Seven Years War (French and Indian

War) against Britain over North AmericaRussia

Independent of Mongols under Ivan III of Moscow Ivan IV establishes absolute rule, becoming known as Ivan the Terrible, he takes

the title of czar (Russian for Caesar) Michael Romanov elected czar by nobles (boyars) following turmoil in 1600s,

establishes Romanov Dynasty Romanovs took control of Russian Orthodox Church Peter the Great reigns from 1682-1725. Works to modernize Russia, establishes

new western capital at St. Petersburg, builds Russian navy, forces western clothes on his subjects

Catherine the Great rules 1762-1796. Known as enlightened despot, works to bring western culture and education systems. Limited growth of the merchant class, further expanded Russia’s territory

Other Empires and NationsMing Dynasty

Pushed Mongols out, brought back Confucian values and traditions Re-emphasized state dominance, civil service exam Led multiple expeditions under Zheng He, spreading influence around the world,

trading goods, these expeditions were shut down because they were too costly to maintain

Allowed some foreigners to stay at the court (Matteo Rici) Created new, standard currency made of silver as a hedge against inflation

further motivated silver trade from South America, Japan Eventually defeated by Manchus, a nomadic northern people who established the

Qing dynastyJapan

The Tokugawa Shogunate further centralized Japanese government Government persecuted Christians, kicked out western missionaries Became completely isolationist, only traded silver to China. Maintained limited

contact with Dutch Contacts with Dutch allowed Japanese to keep informed about Western

developments (Dutch Learning) and adopt those they considered appropriate to Japanese goals

Capital moved to Tokyo (Edo) also known as the Edo period Ottoman Empire

Islamic empire Founded by Osman Bey in Anatolia (Turkey) to challenge the Byzantines Conquered Constantinople in 1453, converts Hagia Sophia into a mosque


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Uses soldiers called Janissaries – Christian boys from the Balkans who were captured and enslaved (process known as devshirme)

Most powerful sultan – Suleiman the Magnificent. Presides over Ottoman Golden Age. Ottomans expand into Europe, defeated at Battle of Vienna

Women were subordinate to men, given little opportunity to get an education, forced to wear a veil, and sometimes forced into seclusion into the harem

Mughal India Founded by Babur, a Mongol descendent, Muslim empire Greatest leader – Akbar Akbar increased control over India, established bureaucracy, patronized the arts,

encouraged cooperation between Hindus and Muslims, encouraged widows to remarry, outlawed the sati, attempted to create new religion (Sikhism)

Built the Taj Mahal Later leaders began persecuting and taxing Hindus British East India Company arrived in the 17th century, established complete

control over the Bombay region, founded Calcutta as a trading outpost Britain began taking more and more control over India

Period Four (1750 – 1914) “Age of Revolution”Industrial RevolutionIndustrialization

Period of drastic change in the production of manufactured goods from the home to the factory

Began in England with the textile trade, England was particular apt for industrialization because of:

1. Land (natural resources like coal)2. Labor (thousands of dispossessed farmers because of the enclosure

movement)3. Capital (banking and investment interests capable of funding factories

and machinery)4. Entrepreneurship (groups of individuals with knowledge of

combining land, labor, and capital to establish factory production) Also brought on from innovations in agriculture like new farming methods, crop

rotation, scientific breeding, application of fertilizers Increased agricultural enclosure movement – a movement in which large

landowners fenced off pastures that previously were left open for common use, creating a surplus of landless laborers

Social ChangesAt First:

Long hours of work separated families Factories required workers to arrive on time and follow specific rules Women returned to traditional roles of homemaker and childcare provider Social status began to be determined by wealth rather than by family position Industrial cities were crowded, unsanitary, poorly lit, with massive slums

After 1850:


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Workers began earning higher wages, shorter hours leisure activities new interest in sports and theater

Additional jobs arose in secretary work and sales taken by many single women Mass production of clothing made it more affordable mass advertisements

Socio-Political Changes Capitalism – a new economic philosophy set forth by Adam Smith in his book,

The Wealth of Nations. Calls for a free market system that allows individuals to own the means of production and sell their products and services. When governments remove themselves from regulation it is called laissez-faire capitalism

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels challenged capitalism in their book, The Communist Manifesto. Communism maintained that the working class (proletariat), who were living in terrible poverty under capitalism, should rise up and take control of the means of production, and work for a class-less society

The economic successes from industrialization led to nationalism throughout Europe. Nationalism was both a uniting and divisive force. Nations like Germany and Italy were unified largely by intense nationalistic spirit. Other diverse nations like the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary were weakened by nationalist groups demanding their independence and autonomy

Spread of the Industrial Revolution After England industrialized, other Western nations soon followed 1820s – Belgium, France, US, and Germany all began industrialization A common characteristic of industrialization was the development of railroads

Industrialization in Russia Russia remained largely backwards in technology Serfs emancipated 1861, aiding Russia to become somewhat more industrialized Government support for industry led to the mass trans-Siberian railroad that

linked European Russia with Eastern Russia Government sponsored programs improved the Russian banking system, and used

high tariffs to protect industryIndustrialization in Egypt

Under Muhammad Ali, Egypt began to industrialize in the early 19th century Ali lessened dependence on Ottomans by:

1. Building a western style military2. Brought European advisors to help build up industries3. Forcing peasants to grow cotton (a cash crop) to fund industrialization

Ali’s high tariffs on imports led to tension with England, which forced him to discontinue duties, hurting Egyptian industries, and making Egypt dependent on Great Britain

Meiji Japan In the first half of the 19th century, Japan was still under the control of the

isolationist Tokugawa Shogunate Commodore Matthew Perry from America arrived in 1854 and forced Japan to

open up ports Some young Japanese intellectuals ended Japanese isolationism, and put in power

a new emperor named Meiji or “Enlightened One”


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The Meiji Restoration was the period beginning 1868 in which a young oligarchy of educated intellectuals ended Japanese feudalism, and centralized its government

Meiji Japan sent students to Western Europe and the US to study Western technology, government and economics

The Japanese westernized their army and navy Meiji abolished the position of samurai, and created a bicameral parliament The government supported industrialization efforts, building state-sponsored

railroads, steamships, textile mills, and factories Advanced textile mills and factories were then sold to private investors who

formed zaibatsu – large conglomerates Industrialization was paid for from heavy taxes on the people Japan needed new resources to support industrialization sought to establish an

empire Sino-Japanese War ended in victory against China Japan’s desire for empire in Korea led to the Russo-Japanese War, a major

victory in which Japan defeated a western power and was launched onto the global stage as a major player

Political MovementsAmerican Revolution

Product of the Enlightenment Britain’s North American colonies gradually developed their own identity Higher taxes were imposed on the colonies after the Seven Years War (French

and Indian War) leading to resentment in the colonies Declaration of Independence – document by Jefferson that justified the

revolution on the basis of man’s natural rights (earlier argued by Locke) America developed a government with a constitution that guaranteed the

separation of powers, checks of balances, and a Bill of Rights (all principles that were earlier argued by Enlightenment thinkers

French Revolution French society was divided into 3 estates (classes)

1. First Estate – the clergy, 1% of population, no taxes2. Second Estate – the nobility, 2% of population, very few taxes3. Third Estate – everyone else, 97% of pop, burdened with heavy taxes

and labor requirements. Led by the middle class – bourgeoisie – merchants, artisans, and professionals.

Huge class discrepancies between the upper and lower classes Representatives from all three estates met in the Estates General, rarely used, but

Louis XVI was forced to call a meeting in order to raise new taxes to support the bankrupt economy

The Bourgeoisie formed the National Assembly, which produced the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

The revolution broke out as mobs attacked the Bastille in Paris and stormed the royal family’s palace at Versailles

Women helped bring about the revolution by hosting political discussion in their salons, but quickly lost power after and during the revolution

In 1792 the Revolution became more radical during the Reign of Terror


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Reign of Terror – period of the revolution led by the radical Jacobins under their leader Robespierre. The revolutionaries executed 40,000 people viewed as “political enemies.” Eventually even Robespierre was executed. European nations were shocked at the violence invaded to restore the monarchy new wave of nationalism spread throughout France

Napoleon Napoleon ended the republican gains of the French Revolution with his rise to

power as a general in 1799 Napoleon limited the power of the assembly, and ruled as a despot. He:

o Censored speech and the presso Codified laws in the Code Napoleono Granted religious freedomo Established universitieso Denied women basic rights

Napoleon established a massive empire, his campaign was weakened by a failed invasion of Russia during the winter

Napoleon was defeated in 1815, and in the Congress of Vienna the European powers tried to restore a balance of power in Europe by bringing back the French monarchy

Liberalism – movement that sought protection for the rights of the propertied classes

Radicalism – demanded broader suffrage and reforms on behalf of the lower classes manifested itself in the Revolutions of 1848, a series of liberal revolutions throughout Europe that failed to bring permanent reform, but did begin stirring nationalistic movements

Haitian Revolution Largely a slave rebellion that took power during the French Revolution Large slave island increasing tensions between rich whites and black slaves

Toussaint L’Overture led a rebellion and established the republic of HaitiMexican Independence

Priest Miguel de Hidalgo called on Mestizos, Indians, and Creoles to unite against Spanish. Creoles feared they would lose rights in a revolution Hidalgo failed and was executed

Jose Morelos picked up where Hidalgo left off and successfully led the revolutionaries, established independent Mexican state

The Mexican revolution didn’t see a democratic government, instead it saw the rise of strong-men caudillos who ruled as dictators

Mexican Revolution President Diaz ruled for 35 years and brought about extensive economic growth Peasants remained extremely poor and grew restless Diaz arrested and executed political opponents, and rigged elections to remain in

power 1910 the middle class began the Mexican Revolution, which successfully brought

about land reform, limited foreign investments, restricted church ownership of property, and reformed education

South American Independence


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Napoleon’s invasion of the Iberian Peninsula weakened Spanish rule over its colonies

Northern South American independence movements led by creole Simon Bolivar Goal was to unite all of Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela into Gran Colombia Gran Colombia failed, and eventually small nation-states formed their own

governments Argentinean independence movement led by Creole Jose de San Martin Joined with slaves to liberate Rio de la Plata (Argentina) and Chile

Independence in Brazil When Napoleon invaded the Iberian Peninsula, the Portuguese government

moved to Brazil When the king returned to Portugal, he left his son Pedro in charge of Brazil Pedro declared independence and peacefully transitioned into a constitutional

monarchy Pedro II reformed much of Brazilian society, abolished slavery, and turned

Brazil into a chief exporter of coffeeUnification of Germany

The German states hadn’t been united since the decline of Charlemagne Prussia and Austria dominated all the German states Prussian king William I appointed Otto von Bismarck prime minister with the

goal of building up the Prussian military and controlling the German states Bismarck united the German states together with nationalism during the Franco-

Prussian War The Prussian victory consolidated Prussian control over all the German states The unified Germany quickly industrialized and became one of Europe’s

strongest nationsThe Ottoman Decline

The Ottoman decline began in the 16th and 17th centuries The Ottomans were constantly fighting Russia over the Balkans and Black Sea The Greeks won independence in 1820 with the help of the Russians, French, and

British. Serbia also won independence in 1867 At this point, the Ottoman Empire was known as “The Sick Man of Europe” Part of the Ottoman’s decline was their failure to industrialize The Ottomans still stood in the way of Russian expansion, and Russia invaded in

1853 in the Crimean War. France and England supported the Ottomans and won. This war is considered the first modern war because of the advanced weaponry

The Tanzimat Reforms brought about increases in trade and some modernization. These reforms eliminated the janissaries and reduced the power of the religious elite. These reforms were too little, too late, and were defeated by the janissaries, ulama, and nobles

Further reforms were led by the Young Turks who tried to industrialize and bring about greater secularization and modernization in the Ottoman Empire. This movement would eventually be successful, and establish the national Turkish state


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The Ottoman economy continued to falter. Europe gave big loans to the Ottomans, and reduced it to a state of economic dependency. The privilege of extraterritoriality allowed Europeans in Ottoman commercial centers to live according to their own laws

Qing China and the West After the Ming fell, they were replaced by the Qing Dynasty, ruled by Manchu

people from the north Over time the Qing government grew corrupt and inefficient The Taiping Rebellion sought to bring about social reforms, rights for women,

and land redistribution At first, Europeans were only allowed to trade with China through the port of

Canton China traded tea, silk, and porcelain for silver; and did very well economically at

first Great Britain tried to end the trade imbalance by importing opium, an Indian drug When the Chinese emperor tried to block the spread of opium, Great Britain and

China went to war in the Opium War in 1842. Great Britain won, and in the Treaty of Nanking Hong Kong became a British colony and China opened up five new ports to international commerce. Opium continued to flow through

Foreign spheres of influence emerged in China. These gave the controlling nations special trade privileges, as well as extraterritoriality

Later Qing leaders tried to carry out a self-strengthening movement that encouraged western investment in factories and railroads, and modernized the Chinese army. Reforms were killed by the Dowager Empress Cixi

The Boxer Rebellion in 1899 was a sensationalist, nationalist, anti-western movement that sought to bring back classical Chinese philosophy and culture, and kick out the Westerners. This rebellion was put down by a coalition of European states, Japan, and America

Western Imperialism Imperialism was partially a result of the Industrial Revolution Mechanization of industry required raw materials like palm oil and rubber European nations established empires in order to get these resources The philosophy of Social Darwinism also contributed to imperialism, by

maintaining that the white man was genetically superior to all other races, and it was his responsibility to spread knowledge and technology to the rest of the world

Imperialism in India Over time the Mughal Empire broke up into small kingdoms India had always been extremely valued by the west for its luxury goods The British East India Trading Company (BEITC), a joint-stock company,

raised an army that defeated the French in Southern India, and took control of Eastern India (remember these were private, company men known as sepoys; not a professional army)

Over time the BEITC expanded to take control of and establish administrative units throughout much of modern day India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan

In 1857 the BEITC began using rifles that used pork and beef fat, offending both the Muslim and Hindu Sepoys Sepoy Mutiny


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The rebellion failed miserably, but the British government took direct control over India, and made it a crown colony

India was the model of British Imperialism, raw materials flowed to Britain, finished products went to India destruction of Indian industries

The upper castes learned English and western traditions, and adopted English attitudes

Railroads and canals connected the country, there was a massive movement of urbanization, and western education was brought to many people

These advancements came at the expense of Indian culture In 1885, a group of Indian elites established the Indian National Congress that

fought for political independence from England Imperialism in Africa

Prior to Industrialization, only northern Africa and the coast were opened up for trade (especially the slave trade)

With industrialization, the Europeans ended the slave trade, and began looking for African colonies

South Africa The first European colonists were the Boers, Dutch people who settled Cape

Town in the Transval, and became known as Afrikaners The British arrived and saw South Africa as a strategic location on the way to

India the Boers moved inland Boers found gold and diamonds the Boer War over the resources South Africa became part of the British Empire

Britain invested heavily in building up the infrastructure and institutions in South Africa, and continued northward into Rhodesia (named for imperialist Cecil Rhoades)

By 1910 South Africa was gaining more and more self rule, but was ruled almost completely by the white elites

1912 educated black Africans organized the African National Congress to try and gain more rights for Africans

Egypt Earlier, Muhammad Ali had tried to gain more control from the Ottomans Egypt was still technically part of the Ottoman Empire, but in fact Ali had almost

complete control In 1869 the Suez Canal was constructed, the canal was very important to Britain

which controlled a massive empire around the world Egypt’s debt forced it to start selling stock in the canal England stepped in and

controlled not only the Canal but effectively much of EgyptThe Berlin Conference

In 1884, Bismarck called for a conference of European powers to resolve colonial disputes in Africa

Countries demanded certain regions for their resources and strategic importance Colonies were divided up based on political and economic advantage, NOT

African ethnicities or cultures The Europeans began building up infrastructure to the continent like railroads,

dams, canals, and roads. Africa attracted adventurers, business investors explorers, and missionaries


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Every government except for England had direct control over the colonies (England used indirect control)

By the end of the 19th century, there were only two independent states left in Africa – Liberia (founded by freed slaves from America) and Ethiopia (which was historically Christian)

US Foreign Policy In 1832, President Monroe’s Monroe Doctrine declared that America would not

become involved with European affairs, and Europe should not become involved with American (North and South) affairs

President Teddy Roosevelt added the Roosevelt Corollary which allowed America to intervene in Latin America to maintain peace

TR used this power by inciting a Panamanian revolution in Columbia so as to build the Panama Canal

America also gained control of the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam after the Spanish-American War, and reserved the right to intervene in Cuban affairs

Unit Five (1914 – 2010)

World War One “The War to End all Wars” The main causes of WWI can be summarized as MAIN:

1. Militarism – the maintenance of huge European standing armies2. Alliances – a complex system of alliances arose throughout Europe3. Imperialism – the acquisition of colonies tension between parent

countries4. Nationalism – an intense pride in one’s nation and people

The Pan-Slavic movement aimed at uniting the Slavic world with Russia at its head, this led to independence movements by ethnic Slavs in Serbia, a territory controlled by Austria-Hungary

The immediate cause of the war was the assassination of archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary by a Serbian nationalist

Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary, and two very clear sides quickly rose:1. Central Powers – Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire2. Allied Powers – Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and later the US

Originally the Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy were called the Triple Alliance (Italy switched sides and the Ottomans joined)

G.B, France, and Russia were referred to as the Triple Entente All of the combatant nations’ colonies joined in on their side In the early years, America sold arms and lent money to the Allies America entered the war in 1917, and help turn the tide

Russian Revolution In 1917, in the middle of the war, Russia underwent a communist revolution The revolution, led by the Bolsheviks and Lenin Lenin decided to leave the war and signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which

was a national embarrassment, cost Russia vast amounts of land and a huge chunk of its population


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Russia dealt with a civil war between the communist reds and the western backed whites. Trotsky trained and led the Red Army

The Soviet Union instituted the New Economic Policy (NEP) under Lenin NEP had some capitalistic influences and allowed farmers to sell their goods After Lenin died, Stalin took over leadership of the Communist party Stalin imposed several Five Year Plans which aimed at taking over private

farms and turning them into government owned enterprises This process of collectivization targeted many wealthy landowners known as

kulaks, who were persecuted and executed en masse by Stalin Stalin also renewed emphasis on industrialization and modernization by building

factories and industries. By the end of the 1930s, Russia had surpassed most of Europe in terms of industrial capacity

Outcomes of the War The war ended in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles

o War Guilt Clause forced Germany to take responsibility for the waro Germany was forced to pay reparations to Franceo Germany lost much of its territory, and lost access to its most important

economic areas (Rhineland)o A League of Nations was established to work for international peace.

This was President Wilson’s goal, and he outlined it in his famous Fourteen Points

Italy did not received any territory anger at Europe, intense nationalism rise of fascism under Mussolini

Austria-Hungary dissolved into Yugoslavia, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia (same ethnic conflicts remained)

Japan continued to expand into China and other parts of East Asia The Ottoman empire was divided into mandates with G.B controlling Iraq and

Palestine, and France controlling Syria and Lebanon A secular government was instituted in the new nation of Turkey, under the

leadership of Mustafa Kemal, also known as Ataturk (father of the Turks) The Great Depression

Germany couldn’t pay its reparations, G.B and France couldn’t pay debt to USA, and agricultural surpluses and falling prices led to massive inflation

Global trade diminished, massive unemployment in Europe, the Americas, and Asia

Depression in Europe brought on the rise of fascism with Hitler’s Nazi Party in Germany and Franco in Spain

Prelude to War Japanese invaded Manchuria to try and create a buffer between Soviet Union and

Japan Mussolini invaded Ethiopia Japan invaded China Hitler annexed Austria and then the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia At the 1938 Munich Conference, the British and French used the policy of

appeasement by which they promised not to reprimand Germany, as long as Hitler promised not to take any more land (didn’t work out so well)


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Hitler signs a non-aggression pact with the USSR The war begins in earnest with the joint attack on Poland by Hitler and the USSR

World War II The two sides were:

1. Axis Powers – Germany, Italy, Japan2. Allied Powers – Great Britain, France, USSR, later USA

Just as with WWI, at first the US didn’t join in There were two fronts: Europe and Pacific The US imposed an embargo on Japan as a result of its militant actions in the

Pacific Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor America joined in the war At first the Axis powers were winning, this changed in Europe with Hitler’s failed

invasion of Russia (same defeat as Napoleon) and in the Pacific with the battles of Midway

America ended the war in the Pacific with the atomic bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Over the course of the year, Hitler massacred 6 million Jews in the Holocaust in a movement to purify Europe. The total life toll from the war was about 35 million people

After the War Germany was divided up into four zones of occupation, three by Allies, one by

USSR Soviets took control of Eastern Poland and Germany, Allies got West Germany Korea was divided into US and Soviet zones Much of eastern Europe came under Soviet control The United Nations was created to maintain international peace and cooperation The world was left with two major superpowers – the US and USSR

The Cold War Winston Churchill declared after the war that an “iron curtain” had fallen over

Europe separating free states and communist states The United States fought the spread of communism with its policy of

containment This meant that the US would not initiate conflict, but would act in order to limit

the growth of the USSR This policy was seen in the Marshall Plan (gave money to rebuild western

Europe) and the Truman Doctrine (supported Greece and Turkey fighting communism)

Two sides quickly came about:1. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) – an alliance of free

states led by the US which united the US, Canada, and Western Europe against Soviet aggression

2. The Warsaw Pact – the alliance between the USSR and its eastern European satellites

The first real conflict of the war was the Korean War, in which soviet supported North Korea invaded US backed South Korea. The conflict ended with the establishment of two separate Koreas


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The Soviet Union expanded its rule into Eastern Europe. This led to conflict in many satellite states. The Berlin Wall was built to stop the spread of refugees leaving East Germany for West Germany. In Prague Spring Czech nationals stood up against Soviet oppression, bringing on full out invasion. In the 1970s, the Polish labor movement Solidarity brought about some political and religious reforms

Soviet Rule after Stalin After Stalin’s death, Khrushchev rose to power in the USSR Khrushchev was very critical of Stalin’s ruthless methods Khrushchev engaged President Kennedy in the Cuban Missile Crisis, a nuclear

confrontation that almost ended in nuclear war The crisis ended with a success for Kennedy, and the USSR’s withdrawal However, the crisis is an example of brinkmanship – the tendency for the US

and USSR to be on the brink of war without ever going to war, partly because of the assurance of mutual destruction

Later Soviet Reforms Soviet Leader Mikhail Gorbachev reduced Soviet armaments His reforms revolved around the concepts of glasnost (“openness” allowing for

free political discussions about the government) and perestroika (an economic reform program that permitted some private ownership and control over agriculture and industry)

Gorbachev oversaw the USSR’s dissolution into many smaller statesDecolonizationIndia

In the 1920s Gandhi led up the independence movement with his philosophy of passive resistance (civil disobedience)

The independence movement had two major groups, the Indian National Congress which was largely Hindu, and the Muslim League which demanded a Muslim state – Pakistan

In 1935 Britain passed the Government of India Act which increased suffrage and gave Indian leaders more power

In 1947, a Hindu India was given independence, as was a Muslim Pakistan that included modern day Pakistan and Bangladesh

After independence, there was great bloodshed between Hindus and MuslimsSouth Africa

In South Africa, the 20% white minority dominated the 80% black majority in a political system of segregations known as apartheid

This system was challenged by the African National Congress led by Nelson Mandela

Mandela followed Gandhi’s model of non-violence, but gradually transitioned into a position supporting guerilla warfare

As global pressures grew, apartheid ended in the 1990s, and Mandela was elected the first ever black president in 1994

Egypt Egypt was technically independent since 1922, but still largely controlled by



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Gamal Nasser, a general, overthrew the king and created a republic (more of a dictatorship)

Nasser nationalized industries and emboldened other Islamic nationalists to take power

Africa Following Egypt’s example, African independence movements sprung up

throughout the continent By 1990, almost all of Africa was granted independence, but still was forced to

deal with the consequences of imperialismThe Middle EastIsrael/Palestine

Since the late 19th century, a strong Zionist movement had developed in Jewish communities throughout the world that demanded a new Jewish homeland in Palestine

Britain’s foreign secretary issued the Balfour Declaration in which he stated the right for a Jewish state (this land was also promised to the Arabs)

In 1948 the United Nations established two Palestines, one for Jews (Israel) and the other for Muslims (Palestine)

Israel was instantly under attack from Arab nations, but Israel clearly one and came out occupying most of the area originally designated for Palestine

Later conflicts in the Six Days War and Yom Kippur War further emphasized Israel’s dominance in the region

In 1979, Israel and Egypt ceased hostilities with the signing of the Camp David Accords

The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) under Yasser Arafat was established to reclaim the land and establish a Palestinian state

Terrorist attacks led by Hamas (from Gaza) and Hezbollah (from Lebanon) have been common against Israel

Conflict between Israel and Palestine over two areas – the Gaza Strip and the West Bank remain extremely delicate, and violence is very common

Iran The western backed Reza Shah Pahlavi took power in 1925 The shah brought about western reforms, including rights and education for

women Islamic fundamentalists overthrew the government and took power in the

Iranian Revolution of 1979. The Ayatollah Khomeini took power, and retains it to this day. End of western reforms, return to Shariah law and a decline in the status of women

Iraq King Faisal was put in power by the westerners Discontent at his government led to his overthrow in 1958, and the rise of the

dictator Qasim Qasim was later overthrown by the Baath Party Saddam Hussein became the head of the Baath Party, and the authoritarian

dictator of Iraq Latin America


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In Argentina, fascist sympathizer Juan Peron and his wife ruled as dictators. After Peron’s death, the country remained ruled by dictators until the 1990s

Until 1959 Cuba was ruled by US backed dictator – Batista. The US exercised a lot of influence over Cuba. Communist Fidel Castro rose to power in 1959, collectivized the nation, allied with the Soviet Union, and cut ties with the US

The US often supported coups in Latin America to undermine communist or socialist governments

AsiaCommunist China

China overthrew the Qing Dynasty under the leadership of Sun Yat-sen in 1911 Sun Yat-sen established the nationalist party – Kuomintang (KMT) to build a

democratic nation After Sun’s death, Chiang Kai-Shek took control of the party Frustrated at the extremely corrupt KMT government, the communist party under

Mao Zedong rallied millions in the 1940s In 1949, the Communists won and the KMT fled to Taiwan In the 1950s Mao implemented his Great Leap Forward, designed to match

Western industrial output in just a few years. This ended in a dismal failure with millions dead

In 1966, Mao began the Cultural Revolution, a revolution against all western ideas, reforms, and Chinese intellectuals who were a potential risk to the revolution. During this period, thousands of students were sent to the fields to labor, and many universities were shut down.

Following Mao’s death, Deng Xiaoping became the new leader Deng brought about massive educational and economic reforms, and opened up

China to the world economy Deng’s reforms launched China onto the world stage as a major economic power Deng is also remembered for the Tiananmen Square Massacres in which

hundreds of students protesting for democratic reforms were killedThe Globalized World

The Helsinki Accords called for contacts between nations on both sides of the Iron Curtain, and addressed the issue of human rights

The globalization of trade was established to protect and facilitate international commerce

The International Monetary Fund and the World Bank were established to provide monetary assistance to developing nations

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) brought about free trade between Canada, the US, and Mexico

The European Union is a coalition of European nations working together by banding as a single market. The EU has also instituted its own currency, the euro

The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was formed in the 1960s to regulate international oil prices and distribution. While once extremely powerful, this organization has lost power over the years

The McDonaldization of trade has spread everywhere, as symbols of America’s free market economy even reached the Soviet Union


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Europe’s population declines arrival of many guest workers to Western Europe from North Africa, Turkey, and Pakistan. These guest workers receive low wages and are often subject to discrimination

The Green Revolution in developing nations is a program that has increased crop yields through the use of high-yield, disease-resistant crops and fertilizers

The global economy has produced serious environmental problems like the ozone depletion crisis of the 1970s and the climate change crisis the world now faces