AP World History: English Absolutism Period 4. Buckingham Palace

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Aim: Does Machiavellis ideas make sense in 2009?

AP World History: English AbsolutismPeriod 4

Buckingham Palace

Quotes from Prince Philip, Husband of Queen Elizabeth IIReported by Deutsche Press Agentur (DPA), August, 1988.In the event that I am reincarnated, I would like to return as a deadly virus, in order to contribute something to solve overpopulation.

Prince Philip, in his Foreward to If I Were an Animal; United Kingdom, Robin Clark Ltd., 1986.I just wonder what it would be like to be reincarnated in an animal whose species had been so reduced in numbers than it was in danger of extinction. What would be its feelings toward the human species whose population explosion had denied it somewhere to exist.... I must confess that I am tempted to ask for reincarnation as a particularly deadly virus.

I Early English Government1215 the Magna Carta was signed, limiting the rights of Kings.1295 1st parliament (law-making body) met. Made decisions on spending & taxesKing Henry VIII created the Anglican Church 1536II Queen Elizabeth IDaughter of King Henry VIII. Ruled 1558-1603.Increased the power of the British navy. Her navy defeated the Spanish Armada (fleet of ships on an attack mission) in 1588!Gave aid to France & the Netherlands to keep Spain from gaining power.

III King Charles ICharles I believed in the divine right of kings and did not want to listen to parliament. He refused to let Parliament even meet for 11 years! 1642 he tried to arrest 5 members of Parliament for daring to criticize him. Led to a civil war.- supporters of Charles I were called Cavaliers, due to their plumed hats- supporters of Parliament were called Roundheads, due to their short hairOliver Cromwell, a parliament member, convinced parliament to raise a professional army. He soon became its leader and led parliament to victory.Charles I was executed in 1649.*He was the 1st English monarch ever executed! Sent a message that no king was above the law.

IV Oliver CromwellAfter the Civil War, Oliver Cromwell refused to be named the new monarch. Instead, in 1653 he made himself lord protector of the new English Commonwealth.Cromwell and Parliament were Puritan; they believed hard work is rewarded in heaven; entertainment is pointless. The English Revolution had led to the Puritan Revolution: Inns and theatres were shut, most sports were banned and swearing was fined.

Our Puritan HeritageDecades before the Puritans gained power in England, Puritans (including the Pilgrims of the Mayflower) came to the Massachusetts Bay colony. As soon as they arrived they built schools, including Harvard in 1636.Puritan ideas remain a part of American society, including the closing of liquor stores on Sundays and a conservative view of sex.V The English RestorationCromwell died 1658.1660 Parliament asked the exiled Charles II (son of Charles I) to return to England and bring back the monarchy.Charles II reopened theatres and taverns.He secretly had Catholic sympathies.

Charles II had Oliver Cromwells body dug up, put on trial and symbolically hung!VI The Glorious RevolutionCharles IIs brother, James II inherited the throne in 1685.James II practiced Catholicism openly. Parliament feared he would restore the Catholic Church to England.1688 parliament invited James IIs Protestant daughter Mary Stuart and her Dutch husband William III to become rulers of England. When Mary and William III landed in England, James II fled to France.This bloodless revolution became known as the Glorious Revolution.

King James II

VII The English Bill of RightsBefore they could be crowned, William and Mary had to accepted the English Bill of Rights, that was passed by Parliament in 1689.The English Bill of Rights ensured the superiority of Parliament over the monarchy.1. Required monarch to summon Parliament regularly2. Gave the House of Commons power over spending 3. Barred any Catholic from becoming monarch4. Monarch could no longer suspend laws 5. Renewed trial by jury6. Affirmed habeus corpus: no person can be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crimeC) The Glorious Revolution created a limited monarchy, where Parliament limited the powers of the monarch.How Similar are These?English Bill of RightsThat the freedom of speech and debates or proceedings in Parliament ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of ParliamentThat the subjects which are Protestants may have arms for their defense suitable to their conditions and as allowed by law

American Bill of RightsCongress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press (1st Amendment)A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed. (2nd Amendment)

Will William become the next King of England? Should he? What kind of power should he have, if at all?

Focus Questions1. How did absolutism in England differ from Spain, France, and Russia?2. Why do you think England returned to a monarchical system?3. How similar is the English Bill of Rights to our Bill of Rights?