ANTIOKSIDAN kimia pangan

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Materi Mata Kuliah Kimia Pangan

Text of ANTIOKSIDAN kimia pangan

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    ANTIOKSIDAN

    By : Dian Windy Dwiasi, M.Sc

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    Antioksidan Antioksidan adalah substansi yang diperlukan

    tubuh menetralisir radikal bebas dan mencegah

    kerusakan yang ditimbulkan o/ radikal bebas

    dengan melengkapi kekurangan elektrolit yg

    dimiliki radikal bebas dan menghambat

    terjadinya reaksi berantai dari pembentukan

    radikal bebas yg dpt menimbulkan stres

    oksidatif

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    RADIKAL BEBAS Radikal bebas merupakan jenis oksigen yg memiliki

    tingkat reaktif yg tinggi dan scr alami ada didlm tubuh

    sebagai hasil dari reaksi biokimia tubuh

    Radikal bebas juga terdapat di lingkungan sekitar kita yg

    berasal dari polusi udara, asap tembakau, penguapan

    alkohol yg berlebihan, bahan pengawet dan pupuk, sinar

    ultra violet, x-rays dan ozon

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    RO, O2-

    HO HOO

    H2O2,

    ROO, 1O2,

    ntioxidantsOxidant: RO, O2

    -

    HO,HOO,H2O2

    ROO ,1O2

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    Effect of Reactive Oxygen Species on

    Degenerative Diseases

    Reactive Oxygen Species

    Dermatitis

    Age pigment

    Heart attack

    JointsArthritis

    LungAsthma

    Hyperoxia

    Multiorgan failureCancer

    VesselsAtherosclerosis

    Vasospasms

    TeethPeriodontis

    Cataractogenesis

    Retinal damage

    Hepatitis

    Liver injury

    BrainTrauma

    Stroke

    Heartastro intestinal Skinye

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    RADIKAL BEBAS Radikal bebas dpt merusak sel tubuh apabila tubuh

    kekurangan zat anti oksidan atau saat tubuh kelebihan

    radikal bebas. Hal ini menyebabkan berkembangnya sel

    kanker, penyakit hati, arthritis, katarak, dan penyakit

    degeneratif lainnya, bahkan mempercepat proses penuaan.

    Radikal bebas dpt merusak membran sel serta merusak dan

    merubah DNA. Merubah zat kimia dlm tubuh dpt

    meningkatkan resiko terkena kanker serta merusak dan

    menonaktifkan protein

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    ANTIOKSIDAN

    Vit A

    Vit C

    Vit E

    Karotenoid

    selenium

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    Vitamins Alpha

    tocopherol

    Breaks lipid peroxidation

    Lipid peroxide and O2

    and

    OH scavenger

    Fat soluble

    vitamin

    Beta

    carotene

    Scavenges OH, O2

    and

    peroxy radicals

    Prevents oxidation of vitamin ABinds to transition metals

    Fat soluble

    vitamin

    Ascorbic

    acid

    Directly scavenges O2, OH,

    and H2O2

    Neutralizes oxidants from

    stimulated neutrophils

    Contributes to regeneration of

    vitamin E

    Water soluble

    vitamin

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    Vitamin E Family of related compounds

    tocopherols & tocotrienols

    tocotrienols less widely distributed than tocopherols -considered of less nutritional importance

    4 major forms based on # & position of methyl groups on

    ring - , , ,

    all-rac -tocopherol

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    Activityroughly

    corresponds to

    number of

    methyl groups

    H O

    CH3

    CH3

    O C H3H3C

    H HH3CH3C

    C H3

    C H3

    -Tocopherol4' 8'2

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    Carotenoids About 600 identified so far

    Most familiar is yellow-orange pigments of carrots, -carotene

    Two major groups: carotenes and xanthophylls

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    Carotene GroupsCaroteniods

    carotenes xanthophylls-carotene -carotene crypto-xanthin lutein zeaxanthin

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    Ascorbic acid Vitamin C) Biochemical function: cofactor for

    at least eight enzymes

    At the tissue level, a major function

    collagen synthesis ( vit C

    deficiency can lead scurvy)

    The antioxidant properties

    protect NO, protect against age-

    related cataract

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    FruitsGrapes

    Berry fruits

    Prunes

    Citrus fruits

    Apples

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    VegetablesTomato Beans

    Broccoli BeetMushroom Corn

    White cabbage Kale

    Cauliflower Spinach

    Garlic Onion

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    Soybean

    Genistein OH OH

    Genistin OH O-glucose

    Daidzein H OH

    Daidzin H O-glucose

    Isoflavone R1 R2

    O

    R1 O OH

    R2

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    Herb and Spice

    C H3

    HO

    O H C H3

    C H3

    H3C

    HO O C

    Carnosoic Acid

    C

    O

    H3C CH3

    HO

    OH CH3

    CH3

    O

    Carnosol

    OH

    OH

    HO

    OH

    O

    O

    HOOC

    Rosemarinic Acid

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    Tea

    Epicatechin

    HO

    OH

    O

    OH

    OH

    OHHO

    OH

    O

    OH

    OH

    OH

    OH

    Epigallocatechin

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    Wine

    Red wine decreases coronary heart disease mortality in some

    part of France. Please drink up to two glasses !!!The coumaric, cinnamic, caffeic, and ferulic acids catechin,epicatechin and quercetin in are good antioxidants.

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    Biological Activities of Phytochemicals

    Antioxidants

    Anticancer Agent s Isoflavones lignans

    DNA repair Agents Vanillin cinnamaldehyde

    coumarin anisaldehyde

    Carotenoids tocopherol

    catechins quercetin

    kaempferol genistein

    daidzein

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    Terima kasih

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