Antecedent & Consequence

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  • 7/28/2019 Antecedent & Consequence


    Give clear & direct directionsUse teacher proximity & movementUse cues

    Follow routinesConsider scheduling alternativesHelp students make transitionsEstablish, teach & enforce rules

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    An important role in helping them behaveappropriately. We can also phrase our commands to them to ensure

    that they are:Stated in positive terms and focus on what studentsshould doPresented to students in an appropriate sequence

    when giving multiple commandsPhrased directly rather than indirectly

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    It can promotes good behavior.Example:

    o Standing near students who have behavior problemso Placing students desk near us o Talking briefly with students while walking around the

    classo Monitoring our movement patterns to ensure that all

    students receive attention

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    Verbal and nonverbal cues can be used to promptgroup or individual responses.It also can establish routines or signal to students that

    their behavior is unacceptable and should be changed.Different cues must be used for different cultural andlanguage backgrounds.

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    It means that we must follow a consistent routine foreach day. By that, they will feel like they are in controlof their environment.

    Thus, can reduce instances of misbehavior in theclassroom.The important things is that we must make a schedulethat is suitable with our students.

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    Transitions are used to make sure that students canadapt with classroom routines by themselves. Verbal, musical or physical cues can be used to signal

    students to get ready for a new activity.Rewards can be given to those who makes an orderly and smooth transitions (pair them).Having clear expectations and giving students specific

    directions can help them make the transition.

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    It is to promote students learning, socialization andsafety.It is desirable for students to be involved in developing

    the rules, as it communicates to them that they arealso responsible for their actions.Students also are more likely to follow rules that they help to create.

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    Use positivereinforcement





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    When using this type of reinforcement, we need toconsider several things.

    i. Be consistent

    ii. Reinforcement is delivered after the behavior occursiii. Gradually deliver the reinforcement less often, less

    quickly and raise the standard once that studentsbecome successful

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    This means that we only can use reinforces whennecessary and carefully examining their impact onstudents.Some examples are make rewards more subtle, userewards equitably and for improved performances,fade out the use of rewards and encourage students toreinforce themselves via self-statements.

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    It means that teacher need to ask for studentspreferences via a reinforcement survey.From this survey we can know what are the bestreinforcers to be used.During the survey we must use student languagerather than professional jargon (reward rather thanreinforcer)

    The effectiveness, availability, practicality, culturalrelevance and cost of reinforcers on the survey can beexamined.

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    A contract between students and their teacher.Contracts should give immediate and frequentreinforcement.It must be stated in language that the students can

    read and understand. Generally, contracts include(some of it):a) A statement of the specific behavior(s) the student is

    to increase/decreaseb) A statement of the environment in which the

    contract will be usedc) A list of the types and amounts of reinforcers and

    who will provide themd) A schedule for the delivery of reinforces