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By Felicia Barber, Nicole Kennedy, and Hannah Kilroy

Text of Annotated Bibliography

  • THEENCOUNTERSOFTHEUNITEDSTATESAND

    THESOVIETUNIONINTHESPACERACE

    FeliciaBarber,NicoleKennedy,HannahKilroy

  • WebsiteLink:70420810.nhd.weebly.com

    ProcessPaper496WechoseourtopicbybrainstormingoffofthelistofsampletopicsfromtheNHS

    website.Wewereinterestedinthesampletopic"Apollo13:ExplorationinSpace,"anddecidedtopickatopicthathadtodowithspace.Ourgroup'stopicistheSpaceRacetothemoonduringtheColdWar.TheSpaceRacecausedagreatadvancementintechnologyanditallowedhumanstotraveltothemoon.Whenwebeganourresearch,wewerelookingforarticlesaboutthebigideasoftheSpaceRaceanditsmissions.Onceweunderstoodourtopicbetter,webegantodevelopanargumentandfocusinonspecificideastoresearch.WeusedprimarysourcestounderstandmoreofwhatpeoplethoughtoftheSpaceRaceatthetime.Aswegotfurtherintotheproject,wedecidedwhatourargumentwasandbegantoorganizeevidence.Wecreatedaroughdraftwebsiteandputourthoughtsinorder.Afterreceivingfeedbackfromourroughdraft,wereorganizedourargumentlayoutandrewordedourthesis.Weaddedcauseandeffectdiagrams,interactivelinksandpicturestoconveyourargumentinamoreinterestingway.WerealizedthatdemocracyandliberalvaluesallowedAmericatowintheSpaceRace,whichhelpedthemwintheColdWar,andrealizedthatthatwaswhatwewantedtofocusonasourargument.Ourgroupdecidedtocreateawebsitetopresentourproject,whichwechosebecauseitisfuntodesign,easytoorganizeandeditchanges.Weorganizedourprojectbytheeventsandmissionsthathappenedduringthespacerace,andbythereactionsandperspectivesoftheUnitedStatesandtheSovietUnion.Wewantedanappealingwebsitethatprovidedinterestinginformationforviewers.IntheColdWar,thepostWorldWarIIpowerstrugglebetweentheUnitedStatesandtheSovietUnion,thehostileencountersbetweenthetwocountrieswereshownthroughtheSpaceRaceasaproxywar.Theyusedproxywarstoprovethateachwasthesuperiorcountry,andtogainglobalpower.TheSpaceRacestartedsothatthecountriescouldprovethesuperiorityoftheirvaluesusingpropaganda,andtodevelopbettermilitarytechnology.Theirdifferentgovernmentstyles,theU.Shadliberalvaluesofdemocracyandcapitalism,theUSSRhadtraditionalvaluesofcommunism,resultedintheU.Sdevelopingagenuineinterestinspace,alongwiththepropagandabenefits,whiletheSovietUniononlyworriedaboutpropaganda,whichledtheU.Stolandingthefirstmanonthemoon,winningtheSpaceRace.America'sliberalismallowedforNASA,foreignscientists,andaflowofresourcestosupportanddevelopthespacetechnology.TheSpaceRaceissignificanttodaybecauseofthedevelopmentofchangedrelationshipsbetweentheSovietUnionandtheUnitedStates,theideologyshifttomostlydemocracyandveryfewcommunistcountries,andscientificdiscoveriesabouttheuniverseandnewtechnology.

  • AnnotatedBibliographyPrimarySources:27"BigSpaceRace:RockettoMoon."ScienceNewsLetter9Nov.1957:295.JSTOR.Web.12

    Oct.2015.Thisarticleisfromanewspaperthatwaspublishedin1957,twoyearsbeforetheUnitedStateslandedontheMoon.IfoundthisarticleonthedatabaseJSTORfromtheBostonPublicLibrary.ThearticlestatesthatthegoaloftheSpaceRaceistolandamanonthemoon.Thearticleisveryoptimisticaboutlandingamanonthemoon,unlikemanyotherpeopleatthislatepointintheSpaceRacewhenthepublicislosinginterest.ItsaysthattheUnitedStatestechnologyisalmostabletoreachthemoon.ItpredictsthattheUSwillreachthemoonfirst,andthattheUSneedstogiveNASAmoremoneytoreachthemoon.ThisconnectstoPresidentKennedysgoaloflandingamanonthemoonbecausethisarticleacceptsthataswinning.ThisarticlealsoconnectstotheexchangebetweentheUnitedStatesandtheSovietUnionbecausetheUSpublishespropagandaarticleslikethistokeepAmericanspositiveandhopefulthatwewillbeattheSovietUnion.

    Bille,Matt.Telephoneinterview.28Oct.2015.MattBillegrewononCapeCanaveral,FloridawatchingtheApollomissionstakeoff.HethengrewuptobeanAirForceofficerintheheightoftheColdWar.Now,heworksasanauthor,publishingbooksonspaceexplorationhistory,includingtheNASApublishedbook,TheFirstSpaceRace:LaunchingtheWorldsFirstSatellites(2004),agroundbreakingaccountoftheearlySpaceAge.HetoldusabouthowtheSovietsdidnotrealizewhatagroundbreakinginventionSputnikwasuntilothercountriesstartedtocongratulatethem.Thentheyrealizedhowtheycouldharnesstheiraccomplishmentforpropaganda.WelearnedthathethinksthattheUnitedStateswontheSpaceRacebecausewelandedamanonthemoonfirst.Thatwasthebiggestaccomplishmentofthetime,andtheSovietscouldnotmatchit.HealsoemphasizedhowintertwinedtheSpaceRaceandtherestoftheColdWarwerewitheachother.HeagreedwithourargumentthattensionsfromtheColdWarwereaninitialmotivationofspaceexploration,butthatastheUnitedStatesstartedlearningmore,theyquicklybecamemoreinterestedinthescientificknowledgeandtechnologyinsteadofjustthepropagandafactor.HehelpedusunderstandtheencountersbetweentheUnitedStatesandtheSovietUnionintheColdWarandhowthateffectedspaceexploration.

    Eberhart,Jonathan."SpaceRacePaceQuickens."TheScienceNewsLetter87(19June1965):387397398.SocietyforScience&thePublic.Web.

  • JonathanEberhartexplainsthescientificaspectsbehindtheSpaceRaceandwhattheaverageAmericanperspectiveswereduringthetimeoftheColdWar.Thisprimarysourceshowsthemathematicalcomponentsofthesatellitesandflight,andthedifferentdatesofeachremarkableevent,comparingthetimebetweeneachsidesachievingwhathasalreadybeenaccomplished.Welikedhowthissourcewascompletelyfactualandhadnoopinions,exceptforgivingapossibleideaofwhatwasbelievedbybothsides,butthatwasclearlystated.Itrelatestoourtopicbecauseitisaboutspaceexploration

    Greenberg,D.S."SovietSpaceFeat:ItProvidesNewArgumentsforLargerMilitaryRole,UndercutsLunarLandingCritics."Science,NewSeries137.3530(1962):59092.JSTOR[JSTOR].Web.12Oct.2015.ThisarticlefromtheSciencemagazinethatIfoundthroughtheJSTORdatabasedescribestheeffectsoftheSputnikaccomplishmentsoftheSovietUnionontheUnitedStatesmilitary.ManypeoplebelievedthattheSovietUnionnowhadabettermilitarybecauseoftheirrockettechnology,andthattheUnitedStateshadnohopeofcatchingup.ItstatesthatitcreatedpotentialforanintensifiedarmsracebetweentheUSandtheUSSRinthenewterritoryofspace,buttheUSdidntwantthat.ItquestionstheUnitedStatesspendingandwhetheritshouldspendthatmuchonthespaceprograminsteadofcatchingbackupinthespaceprogramintheAirForce.ItsaysthatNASAatthatpointwasstillconfidentthattheywouldwinthemoonrace,butthattheirprogramcannotberushed.ThisarticleconnectstotheexchangebetweentheUnitedStatesandtheSovietUnionbecauseofthecommentsmadebackandforthandthepossibilityofanarmsrace,andwhattheUStriedtodotopreventthat.SputnikgavetheUSSRamilitaryadvantageovertheUSandtheyhadtorespondtothatwhiletryingtokeeppeace.

    Goodpaster,A.J.,Gen."MemorandumofConferencewiththePresident."Letter.08Oct.1957.

    Www.archives.org.TheU.S.NationalArchivesandRecordsAdministration,n.d.Web.27Sept.2015.ThisisamemorandumofaconferencewithPresidentDwightD.Eisenhower,writtenbyBrigadierGeneralA.J.Goodpaster.Thedocumentwasonlydeclassifiedtenyearsafteritwastakenbecauseofthesensitivematerialinit.TheconferencewasdiscussingonhowtheUnitedStatesshouldreacttotheSputniklaunching.ThisconferencetookplaceassoonasthePresidentheardthenewsthattheSovietshadlaunchedtheveryfirstsatelliteintospace.WelearnedabouttheinitialreactionstothenewsandtheperspectiveofAmericansinthetimeperiod.TheconferencedecidedhowtheU.S.wouldreacttothelostbattleandwasapinnaclemomentofdiplomaticexchange.ItshowedhowtheUnitedStateshadtoputonastrongfacadetoreassurethepublicandconvincetheSovietUnionthattheyhadthesituationundercontrolandwouldemergeasthesuperiorcountry.

  • Herter,ChristianA."CircularTelegramFromtheDepartmentofState."LettertoAllDiplomaticMissions.10Oct.1957.History.state.gov.OfficeoftheHistorian,BureauofPublicAffairs,UnitedStatesDepartmentofState,n.d.Web.27Sept.2015.ThisisthetelegramthatwassenttoalldiplomaticmissionsregardinghowtheyshowbehaveinresponsetotheSputniklaunching.TheUnitedStateskeptuptheirstrongfaceandreassuredtheothercountriesthattheyarestilltechnologicallyadvanced.TheyalsowentontosaythatSputnikposednorealdangerandthattheU.S.hadthesituationundercontrol.ThistelegramwasusefulinseeingtheexchangesbetweenAmericaandheralliesinatimewhentheyhadbeenbeatenbytheSovietUnionatatimeoftenserelationshipsandonthevergeofwar.TheUnitedStateshadtoappearasasturdy,unyieldingforceintheirexchangeswithothercountriestoreassurethemthattheyaresuperiortotheSovietUnion,despitetheirinferiorityintechnology.

    "ImpactofU.S.andSovietSpaceProgramsonWorldOpinion:ASummaryAssessment."

    NASA.U.S.InformationAgency,OfficeofResearchandAnalysis,7July1959.Web.6Dec.2015.TheU.S.InformationAgencywantedtogiveanupdateontheimpactsofthecompetitionbetweentheUnitedStatesandSovietUnionoftheirspaceexplorationasthedecadewascomingtoaclose.TheirOfficeofResearchandAnalysis,areliablegovernmentagency,gatheredthefactsandaskedpeoplewhattheythoughtabouttheraceforspacebetweenthesetwosuperpowers.Theygaveninecriteriafortheirsummeryandaskedtheresidentsfromthedifferentcontinentsaroundtheworld.thisarticlewasveryhelpfulandverydetailedinexplainingwhatdifferentpeoplethoughtaboutthebeginningsoftheSpaceRace

    Kennedy,JohnF."WeChoosetoGototheMoon."TheSpaceEffort.RiceUniversity,Houston.

    12Sept.1962.TheHistoryPlace.Web.13Sept.2015.JohnF.Kennedy'sspeechconfirmsthespaceraceandstatesAmerica'sgoaloflandingamanonthemoonbeforetheendofthe1960's.HetalksabouthowAmericaandhumansneedtolearnaboutspacebecauseitisthereandunknown.Healsodefendsthegreatexpenseofthespaceprogram.Whenthespeechwasdelivered,theUnitedStateswaslosingtherace,andhemotivatedpeopletowanttowin.KennedysucceedingincausingthebudgetofNASAtoberaisedsotheycouldadvanceinthespacerace.ItwasusefulinseeinghowPresidentKennedymotivatedtheUnitedStatestomakeanationalefforttolandamanonthemoon.ItconnectstotheexchangebetweentheSovietUnionandAmericaandhowKennedyhadtoremotivatethecountrytogetbackintherace.

    Kennedy,JohnF.,President."Kennedy'sCubanMissileCrisisSpeech."22Oct.1962.

    Historywiz.Web.10Nov.2015.

  • KennedymadethisspeechovertheradiototheAmericanpeoplewhenhegainedknowledgeoftheSovietmissilesonCuba.ThespeechwasmadeintheheightoftheColdWar,andthisevent,whichisknownastheCubanMissileCrisis,wasamajorturningpoint.Thespeechinformedthepublico