Annotated Bibliography

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The Tuskegee Airmen: Soaring Towards a Double Victory Annotated Bibliography

Text of Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources

Articles:

Ransom, Victor. My Story. Asbury Park Press. Print. This article written by Victor Ransom, a Tuskegee Airman interviewed by us, gave us his background story. Not only did this article explain the reasons why Mr. Ransom joined the war, but it also described how he was extremely persistent in fighting racism. By reading this article, we found Mr. Ransoms contact information, and we were able to interview him personally.

Audio:

Crawford, Arthur. The U.S. Air Force Song. The United States Air Force Band, 1938. MP3. We used this song in our Conclusion page. This song is representative of our topic because it sings of the pride of the U.S. Air Force, or what was back then the U.S. Army Air Corps. Also, this is around the time period of the Tuskegee Airmen, since the song was written just before World War II.

Books:

Dryden, Charles W. A-train: Memoirs of a Tuskegee Airman. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama, 1997. Print.These memoirs from a member of the Tuskegee Airmen was one of our most valuable sources; it explained the background of a young African American soldier who had a passion for airplanes and eventually utilized it when given the opportunity to fly at Tuskegee Army Air Field. His insights gave us an understanding about the difficulty of entering the program, the discrimination the Red Tails confronted, and their outstanding escort missions. We also took several quotes from this book.

Motley, Mary Penick. "The Spookwaffe." The Invisible Soldier: The Experience of the Black Soldier, World War II. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1975. 194-257. Print.This book filled with primary interviews of the Tuskegee Airmen was also one of our most valuable sources. The interviews compiled in this book helped us understand all aspects of the Tuskegee Airmens lives, and helped us visualize ourselves as the Red Tails to place our topic in a historical perspective. These sources not only helped us understand about the rights and responsibilities involved with our topic, but also the discrimination and everyday lives of the Tuskegee Airmen.

Documents:

A bill to authorize the President to award a gold medal on behalf of Congress, collectively, to the Tuskegee Airmen in recognition of their unique military record, which inspired revolutionary reform in the Armed Forces, 2005. Library of Congress. 8 January. 2014. This bill issued by Congress summarized the achievements of the Tuskegee Airmen, such as desegregating the military. Other accomplishments similar to these led to the conclusion that the fighter group should be awarded the Congressional Gold Medal. Not only did this document help us with the pages of the website, but also provided interesting information to analyze.

Democracy: Double Victory at Home-Abroad, 1942. Annenburg Learner. Web. 15 January. 2014.This letter written by James G. Thompson to The Pittsburgh Courier about the suggestion to start a Double Victory Campaign was one of our key primary sources. It helped us truly understand the origins of the movement, showing that it served to ensure that democracy was enforced abroad and in the United States. Analyzing this source helped us gain knowledge about the Pittsburgh Couriers motive for getting involved in the campaign.

Five Newspapers Join Double V Campaign, 1942. New York Public Library. Web. 14 January. 2014.This newspaper from The Pittsburgh Courier, the newspaper that started the Double Victory Campaign, provided information about the great efforts of supporters of the movement. The information on the activities the people of the campaign used to encourage others to join the fight for civil rights helped us understand that people were active in attempting to spread the movement everywhere. This was done by selling Double V merchandise such as pins, songs, and stickers, and by holding Double V clubs, picnics, and contests.

Roosevelt, Eleanor. The Tuskegee Airmen, 1942. Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. Web. 14 January. 2014.This collection of letters exchanged by Eleanor Roosevelt and Tuskegee Army Air Field cadet Cecil Patterson showed the First Ladys involvement in the Tuskegee Airmens growth. It also provided us with information on the daily life of Tuskegee cadets.

S.Con.Res.11 - A concurrent resolution honoring the Tuskegee Airmen for their bravery in fighting for our freedom in World War II, and for their contribution in creating an integrated United States Air Force, 2005. Library of Congress. Web. 8 January. 2014.This document honoring the Tuskegee Airmen helped us understand their accomplishments: assisting in the integration of the air force, their outstanding combat record, and their achievement of inspiring numerous African Americans to pursue careers in air and space as well as the army.

Truman, Harry. Executive Order 9981, 1948. Truman Library. Web. 19 May. 2014. We used an excerpt of this document in our Final Move to Integration page. This primary source helped show what the executive orders purpose was and what Trumans goals were in desegregating the military. This document was a very valuable source, as it showed us how revolutionary integrating the military was.

Interviews (not self-conducted):

Barland, Herbert. The Invisible Soldier: The Experience of the Black Soldier; World War II. By Mary Penick Motley. 1975. Web January. 21. 2014.Explaining the travels of the Tuskegee Airmen around countries such as Italy, this interview helped us understand a different perspective from the Tuskegee Airmen. Not only were they segregated, but in several locations, they were honored as members of the best escort group in the business. This offered a new aspect of the Tuskegee Experience.

Bowman, James E. Interview by Ann Carothers. Veterans History Project. November 11, 2010. This interview of a Tuskegee Airman in the Veterans History Project gave us great insight into life as a cadet in Tuskegee Institute and various other locations in which the Red Tails were stationed. This flight officer recounted the horrible discrimination the Tuskegee Airmen faced from his personal experience, showing that almost everyone around at the time did not believe that these African American soldiers would succeed. James E. Bowman also spoke about the great achievements of the Tuskegee Airmen, and provided interesting quotes for us to utilize in the website.

Brown, Harold Haywood. Interview by Rebecca Wiggenhorn. Veterans History Project. May 15, 2010.This Tuskegee Airman told of his experiences as a cadet training for combat. As a young man in the air force, he explained the various stages of training (primary, basic, advanced) and the knowledge he acquired about piloting as he continued to learn in Tuskegee. He also explained the types of planes the airmen flew and the different locations in which cadets were stationed, helping us understand about the personal life of a pilot in Tuskegee.

Bryant, Warren. The Invisible Soldier: The Experience of the Black Soldier; World War II. By Mary Penick Motley. 1975. Web January. 21. 2014.This engineer from Tuskegee elaborated on the Tuskegee Airmens experience in North Africa in locations such as Benghazi. He explained how many white people there were controlling, and the level of discrimination increased drastically. The physical and verbal abuse they received was described in this interview. In addition, Warren Bryant explained the effects of segregation in North Africa.

Cargill, Gilbert. The Invisible Soldier: The Experience of the Black Soldier; World War II. By Mary Penick Motley. 1975. Web January. 21. 2014. This civilian instructors interview gave us an overview of the admission and training processes the Tuskegee Airmen had to pass. It also provided us with a description of the number of soldiers eliminated from the program, since the officials were critical in their selection of soldiers. The interview provided insight into how this selective process actually helped the Tuskegee Airmen succeed, since each individual had to have a substantial education and qualifications.

Downs, Walter. The Invisible Soldier: The Experience of the Black Soldier; World War II. By Mary Penick Motley. 1975. Web January. 21. 2014.Lieutenant Colonel Walter Downss interview introduced us to the Tuskegee Airmens combat abroad. The interview contained accounts of the the battles of the fighter squadrons. In this interview, we sensed the pride of a Tuskegee Airmen who stated that the Red Tails were the first to sink a German destroyer. Also, the soldier explained the qualifications needed to enter the Tuskegee program.

Fuller, Samuel. The Invisible Soldier: The Experience of the Black Soldier; World War II. By Mary Penick Motley. 1975. Web January. 21. 2014.This interview provided lots of information on Tent City and an interesting description of it through eloquent language. Additionally, it gave information on the Tuskegee Airmens entrance into Detroit, where the Tuskegee Airmen faced great discrimination. It described one of the riots going on in one of the segregated army bases, showing us the violence that occurred at the time. Samuel Fuller also offered information on the missions the Tuskegee Airmen went on to escort bomber planes in Italy, which helped us understand the risks they took.

Hill, Charles A. The Invisible Soldier: The Experience of the Black Soldier; World War II. By Mary Penick Motley. 1975. Web January. 21. 2014.This interview from Charles A. Hill was mainly about the Tuskegee Airmens experience overseas. He explained their missions in detail, as well as small details about daily life on the base. Charles A. Hill explained numerous facts about how the Air Force was segregated, and how the Tuskegee Airmen were called the Spookwaffe to mock the German Luftwaffe. Overall, this intervie