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Animation [Compatibility Mode]

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    ASST.PROF (Sr.G)








  • What is Animation?

    Definition: A collection of static images joined together

    and shown consecutively so that they appear to move.

  • Group all the shapes, shrink them and then position them in a series of slides to test your animation.

    Press PAGE DOWN to sequence through the next few slides. You will see how the bird animates. With just two frames, you can get pretty cool looking animations.

  • Animation and Frame Rates

    TV video builds 30 entire frames or pictures every second.

    Movies are shot at a shutter rate of 24 frames per second, but using projections tricks the flicker is second, but using projections tricks the flicker is increased to 48.

    On some projectors each frame is shown 3 times before the next frame, for a total of 72 flickers per second which helps eliminate the flicker effect.

    Cel Animation plays at 24 frames per second.

  • Animation Techniques

    Computers have taken a great deal of handwork out of the animation and rendering process.

    And commercial films such as Jurassic Park, Beauty and the Beast, Toy Story, and Shrekhave utilized the power of the computers.


    Also called cel animation or hand-drawn animation. Begins with a storyboard. A preliminary soundtrack is recorded. Penciled drawings are made by lead animators of Penciled drawings are made by lead animators of

    keyframes. Pencil tests are prepared. Artists called in-betweeners draw the frames between

    the keyframes. The drawings are traced onto cels and painted. Finally, they are photographed.


    The computer is used to make the animation process quicker and easier.

    Usually involves 2-D images Can be hand-drawn and scanned into the computer. Can be drawn directly into the computer using graphics

    tablets. The images are positioned into keyframes containing the

    most important movements. Tweening is then performed by the computer to create

    images between keyframes.

  • Computer Assisted Animation

    Even though computers are now used extensively, many traditional steps are still used. Storyboarding Pencil Testing Keyframes Tweening

  • Computer Generated Animation

    All images, objects and animation are created on the computer.

    Typically uses 3-D images. Adds two steps to the animation process. Adds two steps to the animation process.

    Modeling process of creating a wireframe structure of the 3-D objects and scenes.

    Rendering process of applying colors, textures, shadows, transparency, etc. to create the final image or animation.

  • 3-D Graphics and Animation

    3-D animations are more complex. Creating 3-D animations involves modeling, animation,

    and rendering. Modeling is creating broad contours and structure of 3-D Modeling is creating broad contours and structure of 3-D

    objects and scenes. Animation is determining the motions of the objects.. Rendering involves determining colors, surface textures, and

    amounts of transparency of objects.

  • Computer Generated Animation

    Motion capture can be used to create animation. Actors wear special suits that allow the

    computer to capture their to capture their movements. The movements can then be applied to

    computer-generated graphics. Examples:

    The Polar Express Avatar

  • Traditional animation is defined as the process of creating the illusion of motion by viewing a series of individual drawings successively.

    Bridging theTraditional and

    Computer Eras

    Computer animation is creating a digital scene by digitally recording cells, sorting them on an electronic storyboard, and displaying them electronically in succession.

  • Overview: Traditional Animation

    Early 2D Animation: Used traditional techniques

    Early 3D Animation: Neglected traditional techniques. Early 3D Animation: Neglected traditional techniques.

    Understanding the 11 Fundamental principles of traditional animation techniques is essential to producing good computer animation.

  • 1. Squash and Stretch

    Teaches basic mechanics of animation.

    Defines rigidity of material.

    Important in facial animation.

  • Squash and Stretch Cont.

    Can relieve the disturbing effect of strobing.

  • 2. Timing and Motion

    Gives meaning to movement. Proper timing is critical to making ideas


    Examples:1. Timing: tiny characters move quicker than larger ones.

    2. Motion: can define weights of objects.

  • 3. Anticipation

    Preparation for an action

    Example:Goofy prepares to hit a baseball.

  • 4. Staging

    A clear presentation of an idea.

    Some Techniques:Some Techniques:

    1. Use motion in a still scene or use of static movement in a busy scene.

    2. Use of silhouettes (to the side)

  • 5. Follow Through and

    Overlapping Action

    1. Follow ThroughTermination part of an action.

    Example: after throwing a ball

    2. Overlapping Action

    Starting a second action before the first has completed.

    Example: after throwing a ball

    Example: Luxo Jr.s hop with overlapping action on chord.

  • 6. Straight Ahead Action and

    Pose-to-Pose Action

    1. Straight AheadAnimator start from first drawing in the scene and

    draw all subsequent frames until the end of scene.

    2. Pose-to-Pose

    Animator plans actions, draws a sequence of poses, in between frames etc.

  • 7. Slow in and Out

    Spacing of inbetween frames to achieve subtlety of timing and movement.

    1. 3d keyframe comp. Systems uses spline interpolation to control the path of an object.

    2. Has tendency to overshoot at 2. Has tendency to overshoot at extremes (small # of frames).

  • 8. Arcs

    Visual path of action for natural movement. Makes animation much smoother and less

    stiff than a straight line. stiff than a straight line.

  • 9. Exaggeration

    Accentuating the essence of an idea via the design and the action.

    Needs to be used carefully. Needs to be used carefully.

    Example: Luxo Jr. made smaller to give idea of a child.

  • 10. Secondary Action

    Action that results directly from another action. Used to increase the complexity and interest of a


    Example:Body movement is the primary action, facial expression is the secondary action

  • 11. Appeal

    Refers to what an audience would like to see. Character cannot be too simple (boring) or too


    Examples:Avoid mirror symmetry, assymmetry is interesting.

  • Animation File Formats

    Software File FormatDirector .dir & .dcrAnimator Pro .fliStudio Max .maxSuperCard and Director .picsWindows Audio Video Interleaved .aviMacintosh .qt & .movMotion Video .mpegCompuServe .gifFlash .swfShockwave .dcr