DEPARTEMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
CONVENTIONAL, COMPUTER AND CONVENTIONAL, COMPUTER AND
TYPES AND TECHNIQUES
What is Animation?
Definition: A collection of static images joined together
and shown consecutively so that they appear to move.
Group all the shapes, shrink them and then position them in a
series of slides to test your animation.
Press PAGE DOWN to sequence through the next few slides. You
will see how the bird animates. With just two frames, you can get
pretty cool looking animations.
Animation and Frame Rates
TV video builds 30 entire frames or pictures every second.
Movies are shot at a shutter rate of 24 frames per second, but
using projections tricks the flicker is second, but using
projections tricks the flicker is increased to 48.
On some projectors each frame is shown 3 times before the next
frame, for a total of 72 flickers per second which helps eliminate
the flicker effect.
Cel Animation plays at 24 frames per second.
Computers have taken a great deal of handwork out of the
animation and rendering process.
And commercial films such as Jurassic Park, Beauty and the
Beast, Toy Story, and Shrekhave utilized the power of the
Also called cel animation or hand-drawn animation. Begins with a
storyboard. A preliminary soundtrack is recorded. Penciled drawings
are made by lead animators of Penciled drawings are made by lead
keyframes. Pencil tests are prepared. Artists called
in-betweeners draw the frames between
the keyframes. The drawings are traced onto cels and painted.
Finally, they are photographed.
The computer is used to make the animation process quicker and
Usually involves 2-D images Can be hand-drawn and scanned into
the computer. Can be drawn directly into the computer using
tablets. The images are positioned into keyframes containing
most important movements. Tweening is then performed by the
computer to create
images between keyframes.
Computer Assisted Animation
Even though computers are now used extensively, many traditional
steps are still used. Storyboarding Pencil Testing Keyframes
Computer Generated Animation
All images, objects and animation are created on the
Typically uses 3-D images. Adds two steps to the animation
process. Adds two steps to the animation process.
Modeling process of creating a wireframe structure of the 3-D
objects and scenes.
Rendering process of applying colors, textures, shadows,
transparency, etc. to create the final image or animation.
3-D Graphics and Animation
3-D animations are more complex. Creating 3-D animations
involves modeling, animation,
and rendering. Modeling is creating broad contours and structure
of 3-D Modeling is creating broad contours and structure of 3-D
objects and scenes. Animation is determining the motions of the
objects.. Rendering involves determining colors, surface textures,
amounts of transparency of objects.
Computer Generated Animation
Motion capture can be used to create animation. Actors wear
special suits that allow the
computer to capture their movements.computer to capture their
movements. The movements can then be applied to
computer-generated graphics. Examples:
The Polar Express Avatar
Traditional animation is defined as the process of creating the
illusion of motion by viewing a series of individual drawings
Bridging theTraditional and
Computer animation is creating a digital scene by digitally
recording cells, sorting them on an electronic storyboard, and
displaying them electronically in succession.
Overview: Traditional Animation
Early 2D Animation: Used traditional techniques
Early 3D Animation: Neglected traditional techniques. Early 3D
Animation: Neglected traditional techniques.
Understanding the 11 Fundamental principles of traditional
animation techniques is essential to producing good computer
1. Squash and Stretch
Teaches basic mechanics of animation.
Defines rigidity of material.
Important in facial animation.
Squash and Stretch Cont.
Can relieve the disturbing effect of strobing.
2. Timing and Motion
Gives meaning to movement. Proper timing is critical to making
Examples:1. Timing: tiny characters move quicker than larger
2. Motion: can define weights of objects.
Preparation for an action
Example:Goofy prepares to hit a baseball.
A clear presentation of an idea.
Some Techniques:Some Techniques:
1. Use motion in a still scene or use of static movement in a
2. Use of silhouettes (to the side)
5. Follow Through and
1. Follow ThroughTermination part of an action.
Example: after throwing a ball
2. Overlapping Action
Starting a second action before the first has completed.
Example: after throwing a ball
Example: Luxo Jr.s hop with overlapping action on chord.
6. Straight Ahead Action and
1. Straight AheadAnimator start from first drawing in the scene
draw all subsequent frames until the end of scene.
Animator plans actions, draws a sequence of poses, in between
7. Slow in and Out
Spacing of inbetween frames to achieve subtlety of timing and
1. 3d keyframe comp. Systems uses spline interpolation to
control the path of an object.
2. Has tendency to overshoot at 2. Has tendency to overshoot at
extremes (small # of frames).
Visual path of action for natural movement. Makes animation much
smoother and less
stiff than a straight line. stiff than a straight line.
Accentuating the essence of an idea via the design and the
Needs to be used carefully. Needs to be used carefully.
Example: Luxo Jr. made smaller to give idea of a child.
10. Secondary Action
Action that results directly from another action. Used to
increase the complexity and interest of a
Example:Body movement is the primary action, facial expression
is the secondary action
Refers to what an audience would like to see. Character cannot
be too simple (boring) or too
Examples:Avoid mirror symmetry, assymmetry is interesting.
Animation File Formats
Software File FormatDirector .dir & .dcrAnimator Pro
.fliStudio Max .maxSuperCard and Director .picsWindows Audio Video
Interleaved .aviMacintosh .qt & .movMotion Video
.mpegCompuServe .gifFlash .swfShockwave .dcr