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Vadnica za predmet Angleski glagol II na FF v Ljubljani
Table of Contents
Table of Contents Conditionality .............................................................................................................................................2 Modality .......................................................................................................................................................7
The Modal Tenses & Subjunctive ............................................................................................................8 The Modal Frameworks. .......................................................................................................................10 The Modal Verbs. .................................................................................................................................11 Final Revision .......................................................................................................................................20
Sentence Analysis ....................................................................................................................................25 Non Finite Verbal Forms ......................................................................................................................29
The Infinitive .........................................................................................................................................31 The Gerund ...........................................................................................................................................34 The Participle ........................................................................................................................................35 Catenative Verbs ...................................................................................................................................38 Final Revision .......................................................................................................................................40
Reported Speech ......................................................................................................................................45 Passive ........................................................................................................................................................54
11 .. EE xxaamm iinnee tthhee cc oonndd ii tt ii oonnaa ll sseennttee nncceess bbee llooww .. DDeecc iiddee ww hhee tthheerr tthheeyy ee xxpprreessss (( aa )) oo ppeenn ccoonndd ii tt ii oonn ,, (( bb)) rr ee jj eecc tteedd ccoo nndd ii tt ii oonn ,, oo rr (( cc )) hh yyppootthhee tt ii cc aa ll cc oonndd ii tt ii oonn ..
1. This world would be a better place if motorists adopted the new wave.
2. For example, if Turkey joined the EU, it should not have the same voting strength as The
3. Obstetricians, who had to take over if complications arose in a delivery by a midwife, were
no longer prepared to take responsibility.
4. If directors held a significant proportion of shares, they were in position to do very
5. Tension would escalate in Townsville unless police pulled out all the stops.
6. I refused to go Bingo at one stage unless I had fifty pound in my purse.
7. The Baker visit cannot be justified unless China makes major concessions.
8. Supposing we've been recognised?
9. If Damon wanted to say something, he should speak out earlier next time.
10. If circumstances had dictated, I would have applied sooner.
11. If she were very honest, she would have told you the truth.
12. If the Day of Judgment had only been ascertained to be a dress day, everybody there would
be eternally correct.
22 .. SS aammee aass aabboo vvee .. IInn aadddd ii tt ii oonn ,, ffoo ccuu ss oonn tthhee iinn ttee rrpp llaa yy bbee ttww eeeenn tthh ee vvee rrbbaa ll ff oo rrmm ss ,, mmeeaann iinn gg aanndd tthhee ccoonntteexx tt .. CCaann yy oouu ddrraaww aannyy cc oonn cc lluu ss iioo nnss??
1. She pointed out that unless cows calve they will not give milk.
2. When we were students, we would go to the Opera if we had the money for the tickets.
3. The reason for her secrecy was that if Brian thought there was any doubt about Jasper and
Bienvida's paternity he would stop paying her the £50 a week child support.
4. Indeed, it now seemed to be the case that men did not marry women unless they had had
sexual relations with them beforehand.
5. I am going to say something I thought of telling Guinevieve but I can’t. I can’t risk her
telling him. If I were going to tell him myself, I should have done so years ago.
33 .. WWhh iicchh oo ff tt hh ee ssuubb oorrdd iinnaa ttoorr ss ll ii ss tt eedd bbee llooww bbee ss tt ff ii tt ss tthh ee ggaapp?? II ff tthhee rree aa rree ttwwoo oo rr mm oo rree ppoo ssss iibb ll ee ssoo lluu tt ii oonn ss ,, dd ii ssccuussss tthh ee dd ii ff ff ee rreenncceess iinn mm eeaann iinn gg .. if unless if only in case on condition
as long as provided/providing suppose/supposing 1. I truly believe ________ men suffered with periods, there would be national holidays every
2. I think he won’t change his team ________ the injury causes him to do so.
3. You must have some ready cash ________ disaster strikes.
4. Britain will face epidemics of child illnesses ________ parents take vaccination scares
5. ________ sinners want to obtain forgiveness of their sins, they must go to God.
6. Liquid supplements are not necessary, ________ children avoid sugar particularly between
7. ________ Edwin gets to know?
8. China also pledged its support of the development of the Pacific Cooperation ________
Taiwan remains excluded.
9. You can use my camera ________ you pay for the films yourself.
10. We better lock up ________ Howard looks in.
11. They argued for neutrality ________ Austria recognized Italian interests by ceding the
province of Trention.
12. Prune it back ________ stems were damaged in winter or ________ it is required as
13. You should insure your house ________ there is a fire.
14. ________ they do not panic, their chances of survival will be beyond 95 per cent.
44 .. EE xxpp llaa iinn tthhee dd ii ff ff ee rreennccee bbee ttwweeee nn tthhee ff oo ll lloo ww iinn gg ppaa ii rr ss oo ff sseenn ttee nncceess :: 1. a) Come tomorrow unless I phone.
b) Come tomorrow if I don’t phone. 2. a) Unless you pay me now, I will sue you.
b) If you don’t pay me now, I will sue you. 3. a) If Josie doesn’t come, let me know.
b) If Josie won’t come, let me know.
4. a) “Call me tomorrow.” “I will if I can.”
b) “Call me tomorrow.” “I would if I could.” 5. a) Will it be all right if I use your computer to check my e-mails?
b)Would it be all right if I used your computer to check my e-mails? 6. a) If I spoke Portuguese, they would have offered me the job.
b) If I had spoken Portuguese, they might have understood me. 55 .. CCoommpp ll ee ttee tthhee sseenn tteenn ccee ss iinn tthhee ss ii ttuu aa tt ii oonnss bbee llooww bbyy uuss iinn gg aa pppprroopprr ii aa ttee vvee rrbb ff oo rrmm ss .. 1. A: Has Martha arrived yet? B: No. When she called me in the morning she told me that she would try to catch the 5 o’clock train. A: Well, then. If she _________________ (manage / to catch) the 5 o’clock train, she _________________ ( be) here soon. 2. A: Did Peter repair his bike yesterday? B: I don’t know. Why do you want to know? A: Well, if he _________________ (repair) his bike, we _________________ (go) for a ride, when he returns from work. 3. A: I can’t remember the last time we had a nice evening together. B: If you _________________ (not / give) a promotion in your job, we _________________ (spend) many evenings together. 4. A: Did the gardener have a saw? B: No. he didn’t. If he _________________ (have) a saw, he _________________ (prune) the shrubs. I guess he’ll have to do it next week. 5. A: Look! The apples I’ve bought are rotten! B: Do you still have the receipt? A: I don’t know. I have to check. B: If you _________________ (keep) the receipt, you _________________ (be able) to take them back to the greengrocer’s. 6. A: Where on earth are we? B: If we _________________ (bring) the map with us, we _________________ (know) where we are. A: I distinctly remember telling you to take the map. If you _________________ (pay) more attention to what I say to you, the map _________________ (stay) at home.
66 .. TT rraann ss ll aa ttee tthh ee sseenntteenncceess bbee ll ooww iinn ttoo EEnngg ll ii sshh .. 1. Če vrtnic ne obrezujemo redno, podivjajo.
2. Če boš nehala govoriti, ti bom povedal, kaj se je zgodilo.
3. Otrok se lahko okuži samo v primeru, da je okužena mati.
4. Oglasiš se lahko, samo če te kaj vprašam.
5. Dopust za nego in varstvo otroka naj bi bil pravica tako matere kot očeta pod pogojem, da
6. Krščanski škof je postal pod pogojem, da sme obdržati ženo in svoje novoplatonsko
filozofsko prepričanje, da človeške duše obstajajo že pred rojstvom.
7. Recimo, da vas izpustim, skupaj s tem Poljakom. Šli boste ven in spet se boste napili.
8. Hallam pravi, da se verjetno ne bi bil dal operirati, če bi bil vedel, kakšne bodo posledice.
9. Potem pa se mu je zdelo potrebno omeniti še oživitev mirovnega procesa. Ko le tega ne bi
10. Če bi bili ljudje res miroljubni, potem ne bi izumili atomske bombe.
11. Če bi prodal delnice pravočasno, ne bi sedaj imel finančnih težav.
12. Če ne bi bilo tistih bolh, verjetno nikoli ne bi zašel tja.
13. Če pa bi le bilo treba kaj povedati, potem samo dvigni roko.
14. Če je pravočasno odšla k zdravniku, ji ne bo treba čakati predolgo.
15. Če bi pravočasno odšla k zdravniku, bi se izognila operaciji.
77 .. PPuu tt tthh ee ccoonndd ii tt ii oonnaa ll sseenn tt eennccee ss 11 -- 1100 iinn ttoo tthh ee rr eepp oorr tt eedd ssppeeeecchh ,, ss ttaa rr tt iinn gg bb yy GGeeoo rrggee ttoo ll dd MM aa rryy …… .. WWhheenn rr eepp oorr tt iinn gg ,, bbee ccaa rree ff uu ll ssoo tt hh aa tt yy oouu ddoo nn oott cc hhaannggee tthhee ssee mmaann tt ii cc iimm ppll ii ccaa tt ii oonn oo ff tthh ee oo rr iigg iinnaa ll sseenn tteenn ccee ..
1. If there is some cake left, I’ll like to eat it.
2. If you come home early, we may go swimming.
3. If we won the lottery, we could buy a big house.
4. If you had called me earlier, I would have picked you up at the train station.
5. If we were in Paris, we could visit the current exhibition at the Louvre.
6. If I knew the answer to your question, I could help you.
7. If I knew how to operate this machine, I would fix it myself.
8. We won’t go to Steve’s party unless you have bought him a present.
9. If you had seen the doctor, you wouldn’t be coughing so much.
88 .. DD eecc iiddee wwhhee tthheerr tthhee cc oonndd ii tt ii oonn aa ll sseenntt eenn cceess bbee llooww aa rree :: (a) proper conditional sentences, (b) rhetorical conditional sentences, (c) indirect conditional sentences.
1. If you can keep a secret, I’ll tell you all about it.
2. If Paul is guilty, I’m a banana!
3. If she is really Russian, then she will easily translate this letter.
4. I’m not a coward, if that’s what you think.
5. There are some biscuits on the table if you want them.
6. I’m damned if I’m going to break an important appointment on Monday morning to go to
the bank for you!
7. You should have said something if you had known all about it.
8. If it's worth a cent it's worth three thousand dollars.
9. In case you missed the recent news, the stocks have plummeted.
10. If I remember correctly, she said she had been ill.
11. He's probably pushing a hundred now if he's a day.
12. If he has murdered once, he will murder again.
13. If you only had a day to live, what would you do?
14. If you must smoke in here, please use at least the ashtray.
11 .. TT oo ss ttaa rr tt ww ii tt hh ,, rreeaadd tthh ee ttee xx tt ss bbee llooww wwhh ii cchh cc oonn ttaa iinn ssoommee dd ii ff ff ee rreenntt ww aayy ss oo ff ee xxpp rree ssss iinngg mm ooddaa ll ii ttyy .. CCaann yyoouu :: (( aa )) ii ddeenn tt ii ff yy tthheemm ,, (( bb)) nn aammee tthh eemm ,, (( cc )) pp aarraa pphhrraassee tthh eemm bbyy uu ss iinn gg aa dd ii ff ff ee rreenntt wwaayy oo ff eexxpp rree ssss iinngg mm ooddaa ll ii tt yy .. Text A:
Lena fetched Stella back a bit before lunchtime. She gave me one of her grins that aren’t smiles.
‘Lady Newland’s been moaning all the way back about my driving,’ she said. ‘Much too fast for
her ladyship, apparently.’
She says these things in a comedienne’s voice and with a bright smile, as if that made every
offensive remark all right. Stella was tired, but she had some spirit left. She sat down in the
lounge, looked up at Lena and said,
‘I am not the widow of a knight or a baronet.’
‘I’d prefer you call me Mrs Newland, but since that seems too difficult or too formal, Stella will
It took courage for her to say it and the effort made her breathless. Lena looked at her open-
‘We’re all on first names here, I hope. Mrs, indeed. That would be too formal these days. Oh,
definitely. You have to go with the flow, Stella, remember, that you have to go with the flow.’ adapted from The Brimstone Wedding by Ruth Rendell; pp.76-77
‘Now,’ Macfarlane said, ‘Enter the payment in your book, and we will both be safe.’
Again Fettes struggled with his conscience before writing in the account book. Above all he did
not want to argue with Macfarlane. The older student terrified him.
‘You can keep the money,’ said Macfarlane. ‘I’ve had my share already. But it is important that
you be careful, don’t buy expensive class-books, or pay off old debts. Borrow, don’t lend.’
‘Macfarlane,’ began Fettes, still rather hoarsely. ‘I could be hanged for helping you.’
‘Helping me?’ cried Macfarlane. ‘You are doing this in self-defence. Suppose I got into trouble?
What would that mean for you? You can’t begin and then stop.’
Fettes took the money. ‘I was a fool before I met you,’ he said. ‘Now I realise that the important
thing is not to be afraid.’
Macfalane felt a little alarmed at these words. Perhaps he had taught his young companion too
‘Now between you and me,’ Fettes continued, ‘I don’t want to hang. But I don’t care about God
or Hell or the Devil. These things may frighten boys, but not men of the world like you and I.’ adapted from The Body Snatcher by Robert Louis Stevenson
The Modal Tenses & Subjunctive
11 .. FFoo ccuu ss oonn tthhee uunnddeerr ll iinneedd vvee rrbbaa ll ff oorrmm ss .. NN aammee tt hheemm aanndd dd ii ssccuussss tthhee ii rr sseemmaanntt ii cc iimmppll ii cc aa tt ii oonnss .. CCaann yyoo uu ddrr aaww aannyy ccoonncc lluuss iioo nn ss?? 1. “It is as if Genghis Khan has returned," whispered one English-speaking Marsh Arab
referring to the devastation.
2. “With each drop," he said, “it is as though God himself were crying."
3. For a while, it looked as if Mr Mclachlan had Mr Tickner.
4. We can only wish that this were true.
5. However, Ms Aldous said it was time an Australian was appointed to the committee.
6. It looks as if I am just making a list of excuses for what I did.
7. I think, Mr Soorley, it is about time you sat up and took notice of your wife.
8. He wished that he had kept his mouth shut.
9. It is high time the two families patched up.
10. It was as if Elvis were back in the White House.
11. I wish that I'd brought the wife along now.
12. The liver tastes as though it has been protractedly soaked in milk to get rid of bitterness.
13. She would rather that people respected her for what she is.
14. I wish that some people would be a little more patient.
15. She glared angrily, as though Orphan had failed her is some way.
16. The novel reads as if Morrow has been crushed by the weight of the grand piano.
17. I wished that there were simpler answers.
18. It is as though God had crowded into these lands the great majority of mankind.
19. It is time that ethics were introduced into the politics.
20. It looks as though Thacker will achieve his aim by the end of the week.
21. It now looks as if `Captain Marvel' will have to miss two games at the beginning of the new
22. It was as if Armstrong had been expecting him.
23. It's almost as if Bjork is seizing back the Rock Orgasm.
24. Therefore, it is about time the Asian community stops looking through rose coloured
25. You don’t look as though you needed to sell pictures.
26. They wished that the day would never end.
27. It was as if he had willed me the dream and acted in it.
28. When one of them talked, it sounded as if Pearl Jam had discovered economics.
29. Why are you standing there as if you’ve seen a ghost?
22 .. TT rraann ss ll aa ttee iinn ttoo EEnn gg ll ii sshh .. 1. Tako je bilo, kot da bi kapela rasla iz zemlje.
2. "Ko le ne bi bilo teh hokejistov iz Montreala!" so potarnali privrženci moštva Ottawa
3. Čas je, da se začneš pripravljati na spremembe.
4. "Prodal bi vse skupaj, ko bi le kupca dobil!"
5. "Raje bi videla, da bi mu sodili," je dejala švicarska pravnica.
6. Carmen je pri vedenju zadržana, kot da bi hotela poudariti svojo samostojnost.
7. Čas je, da dobiš novega otroka.
8. Kljub njegovim pomirjujočim besedam me je bilo še vedno strah. Ko le ne bi prebrala opisa
poti v vodiču Lonely Planet: "Kailash je težko delo in veliko se jih ne vrne."
9. Na noge, zaspanci! Čas je, da se očedimo, zbistrimo misli in se pripravimo na dnevna
10. Počutil se je, kot da bi na ekranu gledal akcijski film.
11. Raje bi delala v Angliji, ker tam snemajo veliko boljše filme. Sicer pa, kdo sploh želi iti v
12. Skrajni čas je, da se bogati in močni naučijo biti dobrodelni.
13. Ko bi le ne izpustila vesla. Potem bi bili že zdavnaj doma.
14. Počutim se, kot da bi ga jaz ubila.
15. Strašno je zavpil, kot da bi zares imel dušo, ki je nekam odhajala.
16. Z rezultati se nikoli ne obremenjujem. Ko le ne bi bilo poškodb in da bi bila po koncu
tekme zadovoljna s svojim plezanjem.
17. Zaslišalo se je, kot da bi nekdo zakašljal.
18. Zdelo se je, kot da bi tudi reka čutila, da se je v tej noči zgodilo nekaj resnično hudega.
19. Ko bi le vedela, kje so.
20. Skrajni čas je, da se soočimo z njimi.
The Modal Frameworks.
11 .. PPaarraapphhrraassee tthhee sseenn tteennccee ss bbee lloo ww bbyy uuss iinngg mm ooddaa ll ff rraamm eeww oorrkk ss .. 1. People must be working today.
2. You have to drink a lot of water.
3. She may be ill.
4. He could have done it.
5. They are nice, so I think.
6. She seems to be nice.
7. Apparently the girls are not amused by the whole business.
8. His car allegedly struck the two as they were crossing the street.
9. Her grandfather, a dentinst, was supposedly drowned on the ship Yongalla in 1911.
10. The White House probably won’t make this plan public until June.
11. She has murdered, so they say.
12. You cannot be serious.
13. She had to do it.
14. She needn’t have cleaned the flat.
15. They are believed to have robbed the post office.
The Modal Verbs.
11 .. RR eeaadd tthh ee tt eexx tt bbee llooww aanndd iiddeenntt ii ff yy aa ll ll mm ooddaa ll vvee rr bbss .. DD eecc iiddee ww hhee tthh eerr tthhee yy ee xxpp rree ssss eepp ii ss tt eemm iicc ,, dd eeoonntt ii cc oorr ddyynn aamm iicc mm oodd aa ll ii tt yy .. JJ uuss tt ii ff yy yyoouurr dd eecc ii ss ii oonn .. My dear Adam,
I know that you must be very busy but I would very much welcome a visit from you as there is a matter on which I
would be glad of your professional advice. It isn't really urgent, except that my heart seems to be wearing out before
the rest of me so that I ought not to rest too confidently on the thought of tomorrow. I am here every day, but
perhaps a weekend would suit you best. I ought to tell you, so that you will know what to expect, that I am
Chaplain to Toynton Grange, a private home for the young disabled, and that I live here in Hope Cottage on the
estate through the kindness of the Warden, Wilfred Anstey. Usually I eat my midday and evening meal at the
Grange but this may not be agreeable to you and it would, of course, lessen our time together. So I shall take the
opportunity of my next visit to Wareham to lay in a store of provisions. I have a small spare room into which I can
move so that there will be a room for you here.
Could you send me a card to let me know when you will arrive? I have no car but if you come by train, William
Deakin, who has a car hire service about five minutes from the station (the station staff will direct you), is very
reliable and not expensive. The buses from Wareham are infrequent and don't come beyond Toynton Village.
There is then a mile and a half to walk, which is quite pleasant if the weather is good but which you may wish to
avoid at the end of a long journey. If not, I have drawn a map on the back of this letter. adapted from The Black Tower by P. D. James; p.5
11 .. CCAANN .. TToo ss ttaa rr tt ww ii tthh ,, mmaattcchh tthhee mm ooddaa ll mmee aann iinn ggss ss ttaa tteedd bbee llooww ww ii tthh tthh ee aapppprroopprr ii aa ttee eexxaammppll ee ,, nnuumm bbeerree dd 11 -- 11 22 .. aa )) dd eeoonntt ii cc //pp eerrmm ii ss ss iioonn// bb )) dd yynnaammiicc //aabb ii ll ii tt yy :: pp ootteenntt ii aa ll ppee rr ff oorrmmaann ccee (( ii .. ee .. ““ppoosssseessss iioonn”” oo ff aabb ii ll ii tt yy ))// cc )) dd yynnaammiicc // aabb ii ll ii tt yy :: ssppeecc ii ff ii cc ,, aacc ttuu aa ll ppee rr ff oorrmmaann ccee// dd )) dd yynnaammiicc //(( zzee rr oo)) aabb ii ll ii ttyy –– wwii tthh vvee rrbbss oo ff sseennssaa tt ii oonn aanndd tthh iinnkk iinn gg// ee )) ee ppii ss tt eemm iicc //pp oossss iibb ii ll ii tt yy// 1 She can play the piano.
2 I can understand French better than I can speak it.
3 I can give you the answer tomorrow.
4 You are the only one who can talk her into not going to the party.
5 My daughter can stay out until midnight.
6 You can see that he is a block-head.
7 I can’t open this parcel.
8 The walls are so thin that you can overhear just anything.
9 She could be hiding somewhere.
10 Her house can be behind those trees.
11 I can well understand how you felt when you were betrayed.
12 I can’t write the prescription now, but I could do it by next Friday.
22 .. CCAANN .. AA ll ll oo ff tthhee sseenntteenncc eess bbee llooww hhaa vvee tthhee pp aass tt tt iimm ee rr ee ff ee rree nnccee .. CCoomm ppll ee ttee tthh ee sseenn tteenn ccee ss bb yy uuss iinngg tthhee ssaammee cc oonnccee pptt eexxpprreesssseedd bbyy tthh ee sseenn tteennccee ss ww ii tthh tthh ee ssaammee nnuummbbeerr ff rr oomm eexxee rrcc ii ssee 11 .. DD oonn ’’ tt ff oo rrggee tt ttoo mm aakkee aannyy oo tthheerr nn eecceessssaa rryy cchhaann ggeess .. CCaa nn yyoouu ggee nneerraa ttee aannyy ggrraamm mmaatt ii ccaa ll rruu llee (( ss )) ?? 1. When she was ten, _______________________________________________________.
2. When I first arrived in France, ______________________________________________.
3. Last week ______________________________________________________________.
4. Yesterday ______________________________________________________________.
5. When she was eighteen, ___________________________________________________.
6. Last week, at the conference, _______________________________________________.
7. Last week I was so week that _______________________________________________.
8. At the hotel we stayed ____________________________________________________.
9. Yesterday afternoon ______________________________________________________.
10. For all I know, __________________________________________________________.
11. At that time ____________________________________________________________.
12. Yesterday morning _______________________________________________________.
33 .. MM AA YY.. RR eeww rr ii ttee tthh ee sseenntteenncc eess ,, uu ss iinngg mm aayy oorr mmiigghh tt .. DDoonn ’’ tt ff oorrggee tt ttoo mm aakkee aannyy oo tthheerr nn eecceessssaa rryy cchhaann ggeess ..
1. Although the writer is well-known, the book reads terribly.
2. Perhaps he will come tomorrow.
3. Let your marriage be blissful!
4. Even though other dancers are on the floor, my eyes see only you.
5. I’m angry that you didn’t tell me the truth.
6. It is possible that she is not a professional singer after all.
7. Although he was tired, he played magnificently.
8. If you want a second opinion, you are welcome to do so.
9. Nobody cares for me; perhaps I will simply disappear.
10. I believe she should have at least called the ambulance.
11. Even though his style has improved, his books still don’t sell well.
12. It would be advisable if you re-read the contract again before you sign it.
13. Doctors should always listen to the patients, whoever they be.
14. She resigned. That made it possible for him to take over the company.
44 .. MM UUSS TT//MMUU SS TTNN ’’TT//HHAA VVEE (( GGOOTT)) TTOO.. MM aattcchh tthhee mm ooddaa ll mm eeaann iinnggss ss ttaa tteedd bb ee llooww ww ii tthh tthhee aapppprroopprr ii aa tt ee eexx aammppll ee ,, nnuummbbeerr eedd 11 -- 1155 .. aa )) dd eeoonntt ii cc // iinn tteerrnnaa ll oobb ll iiggaa tt ii oonn// bb )) dd eeoonntt ii cc //ee xx tteerrnnaa ll oobb ll ii ggaa tt ii oonn// cc )) dd eeoonntt ii cc //pp rroohh iibb ii tt ii oonn// dd )) dd eeoonntt ii cc // ll aacckk oo ff nn eecc ee ssss ii ttyy// ee )) dd eeoonntt ii cc // iinn vv ii tt aa tt ii oonnss ,, oo ff ff ee rr ss// ff )) ee ppii ss tt eemm iicc // lloo ggii ccaa ll dd eedduucc tt ii oonn ,, ll oogg iicc aa ll nn eecceessss ii tt yy ,, cc oonn cc lluu ss iivvee jjuuddggeemm eenntt
oo rr cc eerr tt aa iinnttyy // 1 I must have been selfish and unkind; I must be more careful next time.
2 You must come and visit us when you are in Yorkshire!
3 I have to get up at six in the morning to catch the early train.
4 Someone has to be stealing from the joint account.
5 Candidates must pass an examination by the end of the fourth semester.
6 The car broke down and we had to have it towed to the nearest garage.
7 You mustn't speak your opinion unless it's asked for.
8 Going through a divorce must have been really difficult for such a sensitive person as Alan.
9 You must see The Bourne Ultimatum, it's a great film!
10 You'll have to see The Bourne Ultimatum this week or you'll miss it.
11 No one likes having to get up early every single day.
12 You don't have to be crazy to work here, but it helps.
13 You must be really tired after working late last night; let me give you a massage.
14 I'll tell you Jane's little secret. You mustn't tell anyone else though.
15 I must get that girl's number tonight; I'll be miserable for the rest of my life if I don't.
55 .. WWIILL LL//WWOOUU LLDD .. MMaattcchh tthhee mm oodd aa ll mm eeaann iinnggss ss ttaa ttee dd bbee llooww ww ii tthh tthh ee aapppprroopprr ii aa ttee eexxaammppll ee ,, nnuumm bbeerree dd 11 -- 11 55 .. aa )) ee ppii ss tt eemm iicc //ssuupppp ooss ii tt iioo nn ,, pprr oobbaabb ii ll ii tt yy oo rr rr eeaassoonn aabb llee ccoonncc lluuss iioonn// bb )) dd eeoonntt ii cc //ccoommmm aanndd ,, tthhrreeaa tt ,, pp rroo mm iissee ,, cc oommmm aanndd// cc )) dd yynnaammiicc //vvoo ll ii tt ii oonn ,, iinn ss ii ss tteennccee ,, rr ee ffuussaa ll// dd )) dd yynnaammiicc //cchhaa rraacc tteerr ii ss tt ii cc bbeehhaa vv iioouurr ,, ppooww eerr ,, ii nn ffee rreennccee ,, dd ii ssppooss ii tt ii oonn// ee )) dd yynnaammiicc //hh aabb ii tt ss// 1 Looking for John? He'll be at the gym at this time of the day.
2 My son loves to play with LEGO blocks. He will spend hours constructing cars, planes and
3 This classroom will seat thirty people and you won't find a bigger one in this building.
4 Mother: "You will eat up the porridge!"
5 Child: "No, I won't! I'd rather starve to death."
6 You won't have heard the morning news, I suppose?
7 When I was a child I would always hide under a desk or a table if there was a storm outside.
8 And now if you'll excuse me, I'd like to take my afternoon nap.
9 After bathing, the elephant will usually use its trunk to blow dirt on its body.
10 You will be familiar with the subject, I'm sure.
11 The charming young lady you met at the party yesterday – that would have been George's
12 You will bring the money tomorrow if you ever want to see your wife again.
13 The damn car wouldn't start and we had to walk all the way to the next gas station.
14 If the nuclear war breaks out, every living thing except the cockroach will be wiped off the
face of the Earth.
15 If someone was in captivity for a long time, he will have changed as the result of his
16 My husband will leave his dirty socks in the drawer where I keep my bras and it drives me
mad. 66 .. WWIILL LL//WWOOUU LLDD .. RReewwrr ii tt ee tthhee ssee nntteenncceess ,, uuss iinngg mm ooddaa ll vveerrbbss ww ii ll ll oo rr ww oouu lldd .. DD oonn ’’ tt ff oo rrggee tt ttoo mm aakkee aannyy oo tthh eerr nneeccee ssssaa rryy cchh aannggeess .. 1. This is what you probably need to complete the task.
2. Look at those dirty shoes. I should think they are Stephen’s. He’s a keen gardener.
3. I believe you understand that their privacy must not be violated in any way.
4. When Jane worked as a secretary, she used to spend hours working with the computer.
5. I suppose they have already seen the new premises.
6. Children are required to stay still.
7. You probably haven’t been to the doctor’s, I presume?
8. He’s always been very ambitious. He has become a manager, no doubt.
9. Lavender, rosemary and thyme attract bees.
10. You haven’t found the answer to my riddle, I guess?
11. This barrel holds over 1,000 litres.
12. Don’t be nervous! I’m certain they have received the news by now.
77 .. SS HHOOUU LLDD// OOUU GGHHTT TT OO.. RR eewwrr ii tt ee tt hhee ssee nntteenncceess ,, uuss iinngg sshhoouu lldd oorr oouugghh tt ttoo .. DD oonn ’’ tt ff oo rrggee tt ttoo mm aakkee aannyy oo tthh eerr nneeccee ssssaa rryy cchh aannggeess .. 1. The conference is expected to be held next Friday.
2. Why don’t you go camping next week. The weatherperson says it will probably be sunny.
3. The magistrate ordered the visitors to leave the courtroom.
4. I’m shocked! She didn’t help him a bit when he needed her most.
5. It is advisable that keen theatre-goes purchase their tickets months.
6. Sportsmen will probably need to practise hard all year round.
7. The Bishop directed the faithful to stay at home.
8. It is advisable that extra boiling water is kept at hand in case it is needed.
9. It’s appalling! All those nice animals have been slaughtered for nothing.
10. The prisoner demanded to see the doctor.
11. They didn’t publish the document. They didn’t want the public to panic.
12. It’s unbelievable! People accept his inhumane policy.
88 .. TT rraann ss ll aa ttee iinn ttoo EEnn gg ll ii sshh bbyy uuss iinngg mm ooddaa ll vvee rrbbss .. 1. Morda si me izdal, morda me nisi, vseeno, jaz verjamem, da ne boš izdal.
2. Dati ti ne morem ničesar, da bi ti vrnil desetino tega, kar sem ti vzel.
3. Vas smem obenem spomniti, da so nekateri naši državni rekordi stari že desetletje in več?
4. Evropska unija zahteva, da inflacija v času pristopa ni višja od 1,5 %.
5. Že kot mlado dekle je z lahkoto preplezala Triglav.
6. Ta torta je tako dobra, da preprosto ne moreš ne vzeti še enega kosa.
7. V naši družbi velja, da je biti povprečen podobno kot biti normalen, karkoli pač to je.
8. Včasih si lahko hodil po tem parku več ur, ne da bi med tem kogarkoli srečal.
9. Nočem verjeti, da je to res.
10. Domnevam, da mojih rokavic najbrž niste nikjer videli.
11. Prav smešno je, da nihče izmed britanskih opozicijskih voditeljev ni zmogel poguma, da bi
12. Ko je bila mlajša, je z lahkoto plezala po gorah.
13. Ni nobene potrebe, da si tako žaljiv.
14. Tako pač mora biti.
15. Čeprav sem bil odsoten, sem napisal esej.
99 .. PPaarraapphhrraassee tthhee ffoo ll ll ooww iinn gg sseenn tteennccee ss bbyy uu ss iinn gg mm ooddaa ll vveerrbbss ..
1. I think this is probably Tom on the phone. (Tom usually calls at 10. a.m. It’s 10 a.m.)
2. It’s very likely that Tom is in his office. (You are walking past his office, and you see the lights on).
3. She didn’t want to give away her accomplice until the police offered her a deal.
4. The Greeks living on this island were probably very rich. (Said by an archaeologist, after having
excavated many luxurious objects)
5. Tourists are advised to avoid this city area after 8. p.m.
6. It is hardly necessary for me to say how much we need you.
7. There is a possibility that even an insignificant cold develops into pneumonia.
8. Storms are sometimes dangerous.
9. Although he is known to only a few, his reputation is great.
10. I advise you to be careful. Since your immune system is almost non-existent, there is a
possibility that even a slightest cold develops into pneumonia. (A doctor to a patient)
11. I demand that she be employed immediately.
12. The Greeks probably used amphoras for storing oil and wine.
13. It is typical of young boys to tease girls that they like.
14. I can understand that you were angry, but there was no need for you to make such a fuss
1100 .. CCoommpp aarree tthhee ff oo ll lloo ww iinn gg pp aa ii rr ss oo ff sseenn tt eennccee ss .. PPrr oovv iidd ee mm oorree ccoonnttee xx tt ttoo ii ll lluu ss tt rraa ttee yy oouu rr ee xxpp llaa nnaa tt ii oonnss ..
1. a) John must be home.
b) John will be home. 2. a) She couldn’t have done it.
b) She mightn’t have done it. 3. a) He didn’t have to read the novel.
b) He needn’t have read the novel. 4. a) I was surprised that she shouldn’t have invited him to the party.
b) They have never got on very well. She shouldn’t have invited him to the party. 5. a) You could have stolen my purse if you had wanted to.
b) For all I know, you could have stolen my purse. 6. a) Tina might have told her mother this, but it had never occurred to her.
b) Jasper's father might have been the man who came in for a cup of tea. 7. a) This is where the key must be.
b) This is where the key should be. 8. a) Need I read this paper?
b) Do I need to read this paper? 9. a) The windows needn’t be cleaned today.
b) The windows don’t need to be cleaned today. 10. a) This machine can be operated by children.
b) Even children can operate this machine. 11. a) John won’t meet Mary.
b) Mary won’t be met by John.
11 11 .. FF ii ll ll iinn tthhee ggaapp ss bbyy uu ss iinn gg pp aass tt tt ee nnssee ff oorr mm ooff tthh ee mm ooddaa ll ee xxpprree ssss iioonn iinn ii tt aa ll ii ccss .. DD oonn ’’ tt ff oo rrggee tt tthh aa tt iinn ssoommee ccaassee ss mm ooddaa ll ssuubb ss tt ii ttuu tteess aa rree nneeeedd eedd .. DD oonn ’’ tt ff oo rrggee tt ttoo mm aakkee aann yy oo tthh eerr nneecceessssaa rryy cchh aann ggeess .. IInn aadddd ii tt iioonn ,, ddee ttee rrmm iinn ee tthh ee tt yyppee oo ff mmooddaa ll ii tt yy (( ii .. ee .. eepp ii ss tt eemm iicc ,, ddee oonntt ii cc aanndd dd yynnaammiicc)) aanndd tthhee mm oodd aa ll (( ssuubb-- )) mmeeaann iinngg ((ee ..gg .. cceerr tt aa iinn ttyy ,, pp oossss iibb ii ll ii tt yy ,, oo bb ll iiggaa tt ii oonn ,, vvoo ll ii tt ii oonn ,, ee ttcc .. )) 1. a) He can swim very well.
b) He ____________ very well when he was eight. 2. a) I can complete the task by Sunday but it will be difficult.
b) I ____________ the task by Sunday but it was difficult. 3. a) The Smiths can’t live here. It’s the wrong neighbourhood.
b) Sir Christopher Wren ____________ in that mansion.. It was built in 1880s. 4. a) May I go to the party? All my school friends are going.
b) I ____________ to the party, because all my school friends were going. 5. a) I must check the post before I leave.
b) I ____________ the post before I left. 6. a) She must be drunk. She looks silly.
b) She ____________ drunk. She looked silly. 7. a) Thank you very much for your kind offer. You needn’t help me, but it is very kind.
b) You ____________, but it was very kind. 8. a) She needn’t meet me at the airport. I’ll take a taxi.
b) She ____________ at the airport. I took a taxi. 9. a) Why don’t you ask her out? She might accept.
b) Why didn’t you ask her out? She ____________. 10. a) Peter should stop fooling around before it’s too late.
b) Peter ____________ fooling around before it was too late. 11. a) I could take her to the dentist’s.
b) I ____________ her to the dentist’s. Why didn’t she ask me? 12. a) There’s the mail. There will be Mary’s letter.
b) Was it in a lavender envelope? It ____________ Mary’s letter. 13. a) Samantha will watch TV for hours.
b) Samantha ____________ TV for hours.
1122 .. PPuu tt tthh ee uunndd eerr ll iinneedd pp aarr tt ss oo ff tt hhee sseenn tteenn ccee ss bbee llooww iinn ttoo tthhee aapppp rroopprr ii aa ttee pp aass tt ff oo rrmm ss ww ii tthhoouutt cchhaann ggiinn gg tthh ee ii rr mmoo ddaa ll mm eeaann iinn gg .. IInn ssoommee ccaa ssee ss ,, tthh eerree aa rree mm oorree pp oossss iibb ii ll ii tt ii ee ss ss iinnccee aa mm oodd aa ll vvee rrbb mmaayy hhaavvee tt ww oo oorr mm oorree dd ii ff ff ee rree nntt mm eeaann iinn ggss .. DD oonn ’’ tt ff oo rrggee tt ttoo mmaakkee aannyy ootthh eerr nnee cceessssaa rryy cchh aann ggeess .. IInn aadddd ii tt iioonn ,, ddee ttee rrmm iinn ee tthh ee tt yyppee oo ff mmooddaa ll ii tt yy (( ii .. ee .. eepp ii ss tt eemm iicc ,, ddee oonntt ii cc aanndd dd yynnaammiicc)) aanndd tthhee mmee aann iinn gg ((ee ..gg .. cc ee rr tt aa iinn ttyy ,, pp oossss iibb ii ll ii tt yy ,, oobb ll iiggaa tt ii oonn ,, vvoo ll ii tt ii oo nn ,, ee ttcc .. )) 1. I must admit I cannot understand this guy. He speaks way too fast.
2. Whatever you say to her, she won’t do it.
3. George may leave the house.
4. You could be wrong, you know.
5. These games may be interesting to your boys, but they leave me cold.
6. You needn’t worry. I always take care of everything.
7. I’m appalled that you should know so little about modality.
8. The students must be pleased with their grades.
9. She will be in the garden.
10. Mary can go to the party.
11. I cannot see how the accident is to be avoided.
12. It is imperative that the application forms should be received by tomorrow 5 a.m.
13. The books will easily fit into this corner.
1133 .. MM aarrkk tt hhee uu ssee oo ff mm oodd aa ll vvee rrbb ss iinn tthhee ff oo ll ll ooww iinngg sseenntteenncc eess aass ee ii tthhee rr aacccceeppttaabb ll ee (( )) oorr nn oott (( )) .. GGii vvee rr ee aassoonnss ff oo rr yyoouurr ddee cc ii ss iioo nn ,, aa nndd ccoorr rr eecc tt tthh ee mm ii ss tt aakkeess ..
1. You must have finished your homework before you go out to play.
2. It is very sad that people should drink themselves to death with alcohol.
3. I mustn’t lock my front door when I go out; this is a very honest neighbourhood.
4. I was shocked that she shouldn’t have invited Philip to the party.
5. It is important that you must understand the rules before we go on.
6. I hear Helen gave a party yesterday. Well, she should invite us considering we had invited
her to ours. I need to say that I’m a bit disappointed.
7. I didn’t write the letter, because I needn’t have written it.
8. 'I've been having to let Mrs Strickland in. She told me ten days ago that she had lost her
keys. I said we'd better wait a week or so before issuing a duplicate set.'
1144 .. IInn tthhee sseenntteenncceess bbee llooww ddee tteerrmm iinnee tthhee ssccooppee oo ff nnee ggaa tt iioonn (( ii .. ee .. nn eeggaa tteedd mm ooddaa ll ii tt yy oo rr nneeggaattee dd pprrooppoo ss ii tt ii oonn)) .. PPaarraapphhrraassee tthh ee sseenn tt eennccee ss bbyy uu ss iinn gg mm ooddaa ll ff rr aamm eeww oorrkkss ..
1. You mustn’t worry.
2. He may not be French after all.
3. She cannot be French.
4. One needn’t always ask.
5. Surely, she cannot have done it.
6. He won’t do what he is told to.
7. Club members may not not be given the full access to our facilities.
1155 .. FFII NN AA LL RREE VVIISS IIOONN.. IInn tthh ee tt eexx tt bbee ll ooww :: (a) identify ALL modal expressions,
(b) name the type of modality (epistemic, deontic, dynamic),
(c) further specify the modal submeanings (e.g. prohibiton, possibility, certainty, …),
(d) discuss the semantic implications and contextual reasons for use,
(e) determine the time reference (focus on the interplay between the form of the modal
verb and the context),
(f) propose an alternative modal structure (if possible).
Sussex Street formed one side of Gloucester Square. It was far from brightly lit. No doubt the
elite residents objected to chemical lighting on tall concrete stilts. That was for the poor, that was
for council estates. Jeremy walked alongside the railings in the centre of the square until he came
to a gate. Of course it was blocked, it would be, and all the residents had keys. Choosing a corner
the least overlooked by the windows in the tall terraces, he laid his raincoat over the spikes on
top of the railings and climbed over.
Bushes and trees inside, a path going round a grassy area. These squares were all the same.
Probably there was a seat. His eyes growing accustomed to the darkness, he walked along the
path, found a seat and sat down. An icy chill from stone crept up through his buttocks and his
back, making him shiver. It was almost pain. The pleasure of being there overcame it. It was
extremely unlikely that anyone would come into this garden now. Only in these quiet squares,
under the trees in the scentless soundless dark, could he ever feel truly alone and at peace.
His thoughts turned to the keyring and the lighter. He could just send them to the Police. That
was what a lesser man would do. Wearing fine latex gloves, he could wipe them clean, drop them
into a new hitherto untouched padded back, do the label on the computer, and send them to
Paddington Green Police Station. Once it would have been easy. Not now, with all these
methods of detection. These days they could probably tell where the padded bag had been
bought, what sort of gloves had been worn and certainly through which post office it had been
dispatched. Not the computer yet, though. As a computer consultant, Jeremy spent a good part
of his time working towards the discovery of a method whereby forensics could isolate individual
IT systems and thence the individual hand that had used them. A fortune awaited the inventor, if
invented it could be. It would hardly do for him now to discover it. Still, he wouldn’t send the
objects to the Police, he wouldn’t put them in other antique shops. Of course, he could drop
them down a drain or even, without fear of detection into a rubbish can. But this failed to satisfy
something artistic in him – or was obviously less risky. adapted from The Rottweiler by Ruth Rendell; pp. 129-131
All her life, Mrs Foster had had an almost pathological fear of missing a train, a plane, a boat, or
even a theatre curtain. In other respects, she was not a particularly nervous woman, but the mere
thought of being late on occasions like these would throw her into such a state of nerves that she
would begin to twitch. It was nothing much — just a tiny vellicating muscle in the corner of the
left eye, like a secret wink — but the annoying thing was that it refused to disappear until an hour
or so after the plane or train or whatever it was had been safely caught.
It was really extraordinary how in certain people a simple apprehension about a thing like
catching a train can grow into a serious obsession. At least half an hour before it was time to
leave the house for the station, Mrs Foster would step out of the elevator all ready to go; with hat
and coat and gloves, and then, being quite unable to sit down, she would flutter and fidget about
from room to room until her husband, who must have been well aware of her state, finally
emerged from his privacy arid suggested in a cool dry voice that perhaps they had better get
going now, had they not?
Mr Foster may possibly have had a right to be irritated by this foolishness of his wife’s, but he
could have had no excuse for increasing her misery by keeping her waiting unnecessarily. Mind
you, it is by no means certain that this is what he did, yet whenever they were to go somewhere,
his timing was so accurate — just a minute or two late, you understand — and his manner so
bland that it was hard to believe he wasn’t purposely inflicting a nasty private little torture of his
own on the unhappy lady. And one thing he must have known — that she would never dare to
call out and tell him to hurry. He had disciplined her too well for that. He must also have known
that if he was prepared to wait even beyond the last moment of safety, he could drive her nearly
On one or two special occasions in the later years of their married life, it seemed almost as
though he had wanted to miss the train simply in order to intensify the poor woman’s suffering.
Assuming (though one cannot be sure) that the husband was guilty, what made his attitude
doubly unreasonable was the fact that, with the exception of this small irrepressible foible, Mrs
Foster was and always had been a good and loving wife.
‘I have to be there half an hour beforehand for the formalities. I shall be late. I just know I’m
going to be late.’
‘I think you have plenty of time, Madam,’ the butler said kindly.
‘I warned Mr Foster that you must leave at nine-fifteen. There’s still another five minutes.’
‘Yes,’ Walker, I know, I know. But get the luggage in quickly, will you please?’
She began walking up and down the hall, and whenever the butler came by, she asked him the
time. This, she kept telling herself, was the one plane she must not miss. It had taken months to
persuade her husband to allow her to go. If she missed it, he might easily decide that she should
cancel the whole thing. And the trouble was that he insisted on coming to the airport to see her
off. adapted from Roald Dahl’s The Way up to Heaven; pp. 123-124
1166 .. FFII NN AA LL RREE VVIISS IIOONN.. FF ii ll ll tthhee ggaa ppss ssoo tthhaa tt yyoouu (( aa )) cchhoooo ssee (( ee ..gg .. ggaapp 11 )) oorr pp rroovv iiddee (( ee ..gg .. ggaapp 44)) tthhee mm oo ss tt ssuu ii tt aabb llee ff oo rrmm oo ff tthhee mm ooddaa ll vvee rrbb ,, aanndd (( bb)) aadddd tthh ee ccoorr rr eecc tt ff oorr mm ooff tthh ee vvee rrbb ffoo ll ll ooww iinngg tthh ee mmooddaa ll vvee rrbb iinn bbrraacckkee tt ss ..
Unused to deviousness, Will disliked the idea of asking Keith to drop him off at Sixth
Avenue on their way back from Ladbroke Grove at four fifteen. He _1_ (CAN/COULD +
NOT + SAY) said why he wanted to be there in case Keith guessed why, so he _2_ (MAY/MIGHT
+ HAVE) to make something up, say something untrue. This was too complicated and difficult,
besides being wrong. Will _3_ (MAY/MIGHT+ NOT + HAVE) a first- or even a fourth-class mind,
but like a serious child he had a fairly well-developed moral sense. It extended to lying and truth-
telling, and to being polite and kind, but not speculating about who truly owned the treasure: the
people who buried it, or the public, or the jewellers from whom it had been stolen. These
questions were far to difficult for him.
So he said nothing to Keith except that he _4_ (WILL + SEE) see him in the morning when they
_5_ (WILL+ START) on a new job. Unobserved he went upstairs, made himself a cup of tea and
ate a Danish pastry. Now the clocks had changed – Will didn’t know how, backwards or
forwards, Inez altered his two clocks and his watch – it _6_ (WILL + STILL + BE) light at seven
thirty. _7_ (IT + MUST + BE) dark for what he needed to do? Not really, though it had been dark
in the film.
At about half past five Freddy and Ludmila came back from their day of wandering about the
South Bank and put their CD player for some music. It was nearly always Shostakovich that
Ludmila played, though Will didn’t know this. But he knew it made a very loud noise, which he
didn’t mind, though he _8_ (WILL/WOULD + PREFER) a pretty tune or a voice singing. He didn’t
hear Jeremy Quick come in, his footfalls were always drowned by the Battle of Leningrad. The
light began to fade and shadows crept across the windowsills.
When he had washed the dishes and left one light on, the way Becky told him in order to stop
burglars coming, Will put on his thick duffel coat and, double locking the door, went downstairs.
He took nothing with him. That _9_ (WILL + COME) later. Noticing the black-haired policeman
sitting in his car at the kerb took him aback. But he remembered how he had seen him coming
out of Mr Khoury’s shop that morning and Will decided Mr Khoury _10_ (MUST + HAVE)
burglars. He was quite proud of himself for thinking that. adapted from The Rottweiler by Ruth Rendell; pp. 155-156
Will waited on the opposite side of the Finchley Rod for his bus. He had done what he had set
out to do, seen the film again, got a good picture in his head of that backyard and proved to
himself that the front of the house or shop or whatever it was, was never shown. He had studied
the position of the place where the jewellery was buried and the kind of bag, a black leather
briefcase, it was in, and noted once more the hanging sign on a lamp post, saying this was Sixth
Avenue. But he wasn’t as happy as he usually was on Friday evening. Becky hadn’t phoned.
That was why he had decided, only that morning, to go to the cinema on Friday rather than
Saturday on Sunday. Becky _1_ (MAY/MIGHT +STILL+PHONE) to make an arrangement for one
of those days. She _2_ (MAY/MIGHT +EVEN +PHONE) now while he was out. It was something
he dreaded. He fretted for the bus to come so that he _3_ (MAY/MIGHT +SOON+BE) home to
take her call. Will’s nature, or his mind, was such that unlike people without his difficulties, he
was unable to distract himself from worrying by concentrating on something else. The treasure
and its whereabouts _4_ (MAY/MIGHT +SERVE) this purpose but, for the time being, he had
almost forgotten about the treasure and _5_ (CAN +THINK) only of Becky and the phone call
which hadn’t come. She _6_ (MAY/MIGHT +BE) ill, something _7_ (MAY/MIGHT +HAPPEN) to
her. Without much imagination, he _8_ (CAN+NOT+CONCEIVE) of what, and his mind was
filled only with a drifting foggy unhappiness. He felt bereft and bewildered, like a pet whose
owner has gone away and left it with food and water but without companionship
adapted from The Rottweiler by Ruth Rendell; pp. 91-92
3 Sentence analysis
11 .. AA nnaa ll yy ssee tthhee ff oo ll ll oowwiinngg sseenntteenn ccee ss iinn tt ee rrmm ss oo ff sseenn tteenn ccee ee ll ee mmeenntt ss aanndd pphhrraasseess .. 1. The peaches appear to be quite ripe.
2. The detective hurriedly looked through the records.
3. A nice lady gave a little girl a biscuit.
4. The books are on the shelf.
5. The books on the shelf are in bad shape.
6. John found the book extremely boring.
7. Sarah became the best lawyer in the country.
8. The police arrived very quickly.
9. The Barbie doll was made in China.
10. Too much food can make you sick.
3 Sentence analysis
22 .. PP ii cc kk oouu tt tthhee ssuubb oorrdd iinn aa ttee (( ii .. ee .. dd eeppeennddeenn tt )) cc ll aauussee iinn ee aacchh oo ff tthhee sseenn tteennccee ss bb ee llooww .. LLaabb ee ll tthh ee ccoonn ss tt ii ttuu eenn tt ppaa rr tt ss ,, bboo tthh oo ff tthhee mmaa iinn cc ll aa uussee aann dd oo ff tthhee ssuubb oorr dd iinnaattee cc ll aauussee ,, aanndd iinndd iiccaa ttee tt hhee rr ee ll aa tt ii oonn sshh iipp bb ee ttww eeeenn tthhee ttww oo cc ll aauusseess .. FFoo rr ee xxaammpp ll ee :: level 1 S P DO Atime (realised by a clause) You must add the raisins after you pour the syrup over the crumbs.level 2 S P DO Aplace
1. The fishermen think that the company polluted the bay.
2. The citizens rebelled after they discovered the truth.
3. The teacher asked me where I was going.
4. There was no winter where I was going.
5. What Jane said was not pleasant.
6. I’ll call you when we arrive in London.
7. Nobody knows when we arrive in London.
8. The general ordered that the troops be removed from the battlefield.
9. The forecasters say it appears that more snow is on the way.
10. If you have any definite news about my husband, let me know.
3 Sentence analysis
33 .. AA nnaa ll yy ssee tthhee ff oo ll ll oowwiinngg sseenntteenn ccee ss iinn tt ee rrmm ss oo ff sseenn tteenn ccee ee ll ee mmeenntt ss aanndd pphhrraasseess .. WWhheenn aa nnaa ll yyss iinngg tthhee ss tt rruu cc ttuu rree oo ff tthh ee pphh rraa ssee ss ,, ff ooccuu ss oonn tthh ee cc oonn ss tt ii ttuueenn tt ss ccoonnttaa iinn iinngg rr ee ll aa tt ii vvee cc ll aauu sseess .. FFoorr ee xxaamm ppll ee :: sentence level 1 S (realised by an NP) P SC The book that you gave me is most exciting.phrase level Det H PostM (realised by a clause) sentence level 2 DO S P IO 1. The story she told me was certainly colourful.
2. Luise finally broke the news we were all waiting for.
3. The car which crashed into me belonged to Paul’s wife.
4. She was engaged to a sailor, whom she met at Dartmouth.
5. As I entered the corridor which led to my room the eerie feeling came over me.
6. Severe migraine can be treated with a drug which constricts the blood vessels.
7. The people that she had in her classroom were beginning learners.
8. He works at the National Cancer Institute, which is just over the road.
9. This is definitely a place where we can talk.
10. He wouldn’t tell me the reason why he quit the job.
3 Sentence analysis
44 .. IInn tthhee ff oo ll llooww iinn gg eexxee rrcc ii ssee :: (( aa )) aannaa ll yy ssee tthhee cc ll aauu ssee ss iinn ttee rrmm ss oo ff sseenntteennccee ee ll eemmeenntt ss ;; (( bb)) uu ssee tthh eessee ff iinn ii tt ee cc ll aauu sseess aass nnoo mm iinn aa ll//aadd jjeecc tt ii vvaa ll//aa ddvvee rrbb iiaa ll cc ll aauu ssee ss ;; (( cc )) ttuu rrnn tthhee cc ll aauusseess iinn ttoo iinn ff iinn ii tt ii vvaa ll//pp aarr tt ii cc iipp iiaa ll//ggeerruunndd ii aa ll cc ll aauusseess ;; (( dd)) uu ssee tthh eessee nn oonn-- ff iinn ii tt ee cc ll aauu sseess aass nnoomm iinnaa ll// aadd jj eecc tt ii vvaa ll//aaddvvee rrbb ii aa ll cc ll aauu sseess .. WWhheenn ff oo rrmm iinngg cc ll aauusseess ,, mm aa kkee aa ll ll tthh ee nneecceessssaa rryy cchhaannggee ss .. FFoo rr ee xxaammpp ll ee :: (a) I heard a nightingale. S P DO (b) Peter says that he heard a nightingale. nominal clause (=DO) Peter, who heard a nightingale, is my friend. adjectival clause (=PostM) When he heard a nightingale, Peter was thrilled. adverbial clause (=Atime) (c) to hear a nightingale / to have heard a nightingale infinitival clause hearing a nightingale / having heard a nightingale participial clause hearing a nightingale / having heard a nightingale gerundial clause (d) To hear a nightingale is a wish of every ornithologist. nominal infinitival cl. (=S) The person having heard a nightingale is Peter. adjectival participial cl. (=PostM) He insisted on his hearing a nightingale. nominal gerundial cl. (=prep.O) 1. George arrived too late.
2. She said good night.
3. They have built a new bridge.
4. The chef is making dinner.