Andrei VORONTSOV, Ph.D. Strength & conditioning training ... Functional strength training is focusing

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  • Andrei VORONTSOV, Ph.D.

    Strength & conditioning training for

    swimming – science & practice

  • F = R = k V² W = k V³

    • Any increase in swimming Velocity requires

    proportional increase of applied muscle forces

    and development of power, capacity and

    efficiency of the energy delivery systems to

    sustain a higher swimming V

    • It suggests an existence of strong logical

    relationships between strength abilities and

    performances in swimmers

  • Objectives of condition training on land:

    “… to compete successfully at Olympic level swimmers

    need to include in the year round preparation the

    weight and resistance training for strength and power

    maintenance and development and reducing the risk

    of injuries”

    Newton et al. (2002) Strength and Power of Australian Olympic Swimmers.

    National Strength & Conditioning Association Journal, Vol. 24,No.3, pp. 7-

    15.

  • Why do we fall in love with strength

    training ?

    o Easy to measure and trace during training cycles

    o Increases rapidly – first marked gain occurs just 2-

    3 weeks after beginning of strength training (effect of

    motor learning)

    o Improves athletes appearance

    o Initially accompanied by significant improvement

    of swimming results (especially in age groupers and

    female-swimmers)

  • • What kind of strength a swimmer needs?

    • How much strength a swimmer needs?

    • How to develop the required strength in

    swimmers?

    • What is an optimal periodisation of the

    strength training for swimmers?

    • What are particularities of the strength

    training methods for swimmers of

    different age and performance level?

  • The content and objectives of land

    training for swimming are determined by

    specific requirements of aquatic

    locomotion

    • Land strength training – conditioning and

    development of functional strength

    • Specific strength training – development of

    strength and power during swimming

  • COMPONENTS OF THE PROGRAMME:

    � FUNCTIONAL AND CORE STRENGTH TRAINING

    � Development of the complementary strength training

    �Injury prevention/joint stability strength training

    � DEVELOPMENT OF MAXIMAL STRENGTH &

    POWER (Integration of strength and power into

    movements)

    � DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIFIC STRENGTH -

    water based training only!!!)

  • Regimens, Methods and Exercises for Development of Strength Abilities LAND TRAINING

    Strength Abilities (Manifestations of Strength)

    Maximum Strength Speed Strength Strength Endurance Explosive (Impact) Strength

    Predominant Adaptation to Training workload

    Neuro-Regulatory Neuro-Regulatory Metabolic Neuro-Regulatory

    Structural Metabolic Structural

    Structural Neuro-Regulatory

    Methods/Regimens of Development, Types of Exercise

    Land Training to develop General and Functional Strength

    Method of Maximum

    Weights/Maximum Resistance Isokinetic High Speed interval training

    Interval method with submaximum

    workloads and duration of a single

    repeat from 30 s to 3-5 min

    Impact (Plyometric) Method

    Eccentric Method with Super maximum

    Weights

    Repeated-Interval Sets with Resistance

    50-80% of Fmax and maximal tempo of

    movements and duration up to 30

    seconds

    Circuit Training

    Method of maximally rapid resisted

    movements:

    Resistance=60-80% of F max , target

    - maximum speed of every single

    resisted movements

    Isokinetic Low Speed Dynamic Method

    (duration of a single movement = 5-8

    s/5-8 movement in a single repeat/3-4

    sets

    Contact speed leading (using added

    towing force)

    Endurance Sports: cross-running, Nordic

    skiing, rowing

    Isokinetic/Maximal Rapid Singular

    Movements

    Method of Isometric Contractions

    Number of Repeats in a single Set and Number of Sets in a session

    1-6 repeats in a set 3-6 sets in a session 10-30 repeats in a set 3-8

    sets in a single session

    Duration of a single efforts in interval

    set from 30-40 sec to 5-10 min

    3-5 movements in a single repeat 3-6

    repeats in a single session

    Weights and Types of Resistance used

    within Training Methods

    Free weights: barbell, dumbbells Freeweigths: barbell, dumbbells,

    medicine balls

    Freeweigths: barbell, dumbbells,

    medicine balls Jumping exercises including Deep jumps

    Isokinetic Machines Isokinetic Machines Isokinetic Machines Isokinetic Machines

    Strength Machines Friction resistance machines Friction resistance machines Friction resistance machines

    Pulley Weights Pulley Weights Pulley Weights -

    Pulling machines (Huttel-Mertens

    machine and other)

    Free weights: barbell, dumbbells,

    medicine balls

  • Maximum Strength Speed Strength Strength Endurance Explosive (Impact) Strength

    Swimming Exercises for

    Development Specific Strength

    Lifting or withholding of

    maximal weight on pulley

    (Power Rack)

    Swimming at maximum speed in

    a Swimming Flume (8-30 sec)

    Swimming at sub-maximal speed

    in a Swimming Flume (30-60

    sec)

    Starts and Turns

    Swimming at super maximal

    speed in a swimming flume

    (swim effort B9duration up to 5-6

    sec, 5-8 repeats in a set)

    Tethered swimming with sub-

    maximum weight/resistance and

    duration (10-30 sec in a single

    repeat (Power Racks, devices,

    stretch-cords, friction resistance

    Swimming at sub-

    maximal/threshold and sub

    threshold speed in a Swimming

    Flume (30-60 sec-2-3 min)

    (Power Rack, towing devices,

    stretch-cords)

    Short Accelerations (up to 10 m)

    with start from "dead" position

    Training using MAD device

    Sprints, starting and turning

    without or with added

    resistance/drag, with or without

    paddles

    Interval Swimming with added

    resistance (30 sec - 3-5 min):

    paddles, belts, towing machines

    Sprint Swimming with added

    resistance (10-30 sec) without

    and with paddles

    Interval training with added

    towing force (distances from 100

    to 400 m and longer)

    AQUATIC BASED

    (SWIMMING)

    Sprint Swimming with added

    towing force (10-30 sec)

    Contact speed leading using

    added towing force)

    STRENGTH

    TRAINING Drafted Swimming

    Competitive performance in

    swimming events (100-1500 m)

    Training using MAD device

  • FUNCTIONAL STRENGTH FOR

    SWIMMING:

    Functional strength training is focusing on

    individual demands of a swimmer

    Functional strength training prepares the muscles

    and body as a whole to specific requirements of

    the sport (swimming)

    It assumes significant neuromuscular component

  • Development of the Auxiliary Strength

    Core body strength Joint Stabilizing Strength

    Purpose of Training Purpose of Training

    Improvement of the Inter- and Intra-

    Muscular Coordination

    Building of muscular carcass, surrounding

    joint, strengthening of connective tissues –

    tendons & ligaments

    Methods/Exercises to develop ability

    Static or Slow dynamic exercises

    Resisted Exercises with small resistance

    (25-30% of F max) –stretch-cords,

    dumbbells

    Rapid Dynamic Exercises

  • «Core body» strength training

    - Development of the core body muscles, stabilizing

    the working posture, with purpose to reduce water

    resistance and provide a “rigid” transfer of

    propelling forces, developed by arms and legs

    motions into body Center of Mass

    «Core body strength training» is an ideal for age

    group and junior swimmers. It has as objectives :

    � Development of small body muscles responsible

    for keeping the posture

    � Creation of a rigid carcases for arm and leg

    movements

    � Development of control after body position in

    space

    � Improvement of precision and magnitude of

    applied propelling forces

  • «Core body» strength training

    Static-dynamic & Swiss Ball (physio-ball) exercises

    Particularities:

    � High intra and inter muscular coordination

    � Fine control over contractions of the muscle

    groups responsible for movements in different

    joints and body regions

    � Integration of the whole body in process of

    movement - «serape principle»

  • Development of joint stabilizing

    strength

    Provision of the best shoulder gird

    muscles’ strength application пояса

    Stabilization of the Scapula Injury prevention:

    Development of muscle groups surrounding and stabilizing

    the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints

    Developme