Etruscan Tomb Painting
The Apian Way
The Founding of RomeThe city of Rome was founded by twin
brothers Romulus and Remus in 753 B.C.E.According to legend they
were from a wealthy family and were abandoned by their uncle. A
She-wolf took them in and raised them.Romulus killed his brother
Remus and took control as leader of Rome.
Social and Political Order
Social and Political OrderAlthough both groups were Roman
citizens, their rights were different.Both Patricians and Plebians
could vote.Both had the right to make legal contracts, and marry,
but intermarriage between the classes was not allowed.Patricians
were the only ones allowed to hold office.
Social and Political Order
Social and Political OrderIn the later years of the Republic the
Plebians became more powerful.They created a new assembly (Council
of Plebs) in 471. New leaders called Tribunes protected the
Plebians. A new law allowed intermarriage.In 278 B.C.E. the Council
received the right to pass laws for all Romans.
City of Rome During the Republic Period
The Roman Conquest of Italy In 509 the last Etruscan monarch was
overthrown as ruler of Rome and a Republican system of government
The Punic WarsPunic is the Latin word for Phoencian. The
Phoencians controlled Carthage in earlier times.The Romans sent an
army to Sicily in order to intervene in a local dispute. The
Carthaginians considered this an invasion of their territory.
The Punic Wars 241 Carthage gave up all rights to Sicily due to
Roman dominance in naval strength.
Hanibal (a Carthaginian) began the second Punic War when he
retaliated against Roman attempts to get Spain to invade
Hanibal led an army of 30,000- 40,000 men, 6,000 horses and
elephants across the Alps and defeated the Romans.
The Punic WarsThe Carthaginians, under Hannibal were not
successful in maintaining control over Roman cities.Rome invade
Carthage and beat Hannibal and his men. A peace treaty was signed
in 201 B.C.E. Carthage lost Spain.50 years later Rome went to war
again and this time Rome destroyed the Carthage in 146 B.C.E. and
claimed it as a Roman province called Africa.
Roman Conquests in the Mediterranean
From Republic to EmpireTiberius Gracchus represented interests
of Romes lower class. He served as Tribune.He wanted to limit the
amount of land controlled by the Patricians. He was assassinated in
132 B.C.E.His brother Gaius Gracchus continued his brothers
Gaius MariusGeneral in the Roman army. He was prominent in the
late 2nd century B.C.E.
Civil War breaks out in Rome and Marius seizes Rome in 87 B.C.E.
He recruited a private army to support him from landless
SullaAfter Marius dies in 87 B.C.E., Sulla seized control of
Rome. He institutes a reign of terror that lasts about five
years.Julius Caesar, Marius nephew, came to power and instituted
liberal policies and social reform.
Julius Caesar Conquers Gaul
City of Bath- England
Roman North Africa- Lepcis Magna
Roman Empire 117 A.D.
Octavian a.k.a. Augustus CaesarOctavian became the first Roman
Emperor in 27 B.C.E.
The Senate gave him the title of Augustus which meant revered
Julius CaesarIn 47 B.C.E. he seized power in Rome and was made
dictator. A short time later, in 44 B.C.E. he was given the title
dictator for life.
He made land reforms and gave land to the poor.
He increased the Senate to 900 members and then packed it with
supporters of his reforms.
Julius CaesarHe gave people in the provinces who had helped him,
the status of Roman citizen.
He began a number of public works projects and military
campaigns in the east.
He was assassinated by a group of senators in 44 B.C.E.
Augustus (31 B.C.E.-14 C.E.) He created a standing army of
150,000 men split into legions of around 5,000 men each.
Only Roman citizens could be legionaries. Subject peoples in the
provinces and else where could serve under the legionaries.
Augustus also created the Praetorian guard which were his own
personal guards. They numbered about 9,000 men.
The Pax RomanaThis is a period of peace and prosperity which
begins with Augustus and continues for 200 years.
Augustus begins the Julio-Claudian line which ends with
After Nero there is a civil war and Vespasian becomes
Vespasian (69-79 C.E. or A.D.)He begins the Flavian line. He
orders the construction of the Colosseum for gladiatorial
He puts down revolts in Gaul and Judea.
He rotates the army in the provinces which discourages mutiny.
He also makes sure that troops are stationed far from their
The Five Good EmperorsNerva ( 96-98 C.E.)- Introduced the
practice of naming an heir/successor before his death.
Trajan (98-117 C.E.)- Trajan eased taxes, provided public
services to the poor, and conquered Dacia (parts of modern Romania
and Hungary). Trajans Column depicts his military victories.
The Five Good Emperors Hadrian (117-138 C.E.)- He strengthened
the borders of Britain. Hadrians Wall. Fought a number of Jewish
revolts. Much of the Jewish population forced out of Palestine.
Many Jews were sold into slavery. The Romans encouraged non-Jews
to settle in Palestine.
The Five Good EmperorsAntonius Pius (138-161 C.E.)- He
introduced laws that required humane treatment of slaves. He also
introduces the legal principle of innocent until proven guilty.
The Five Good EmperorsMarcus Aurelius ( 161-180 C.E.)- He is the
philosopher Emperor. He writes the Meditations. He is a Stoic. He
wages war in Germania and successfully brings barbarian groups
under Roman control.
He also re-introduces the idea of a co-emperor. Aurelius names
his brother as co-emperor. After his brothers death, he names his
17 year old son Commodus as co-emperor.
Roman Family Life
Family Life in the Roman EmpireThe family included all household
members who lived together.Father of the family ruled the
householdWomen had considerable power in their own families and
many ran businesses and managed estates.Ancestor worship was
extremely important to the family.
Urban Life- Insula (everyday home)
SlaverySlaves made up 1/3 of the Roman population.Working
conditions for slaves in the cities were somewhat better.Laborers
would often be chained together while working in the
fields.Spartacus uprising in 73 B.C.E. was the largest slave
revolt, but not the only one.
Temple of Jupiter (Lebanon)
Villa of the Mysteries- Pompeii
Pompeii Etruscan town that was conquered by Rome.At the time of
its destruction it had a population of 20,000A favorite resort of
wealthy Romans and Emperors.
Basillica of Maxentius
The Pantheon 128 A.D.Commissioned by Emperor HadrinStarted in
118 A.D.It is a clock of sorts. It tells the time by rays of light
hitting the sculptures inside.