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Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome. Introduction to Ancient Rome -Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia 3500- 3000b.c. -Ancient Greece 1750- 133 b.c. -Ancient Rome 509b.c. to 476 a.d

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Text of Ancient Rome. Introduction to Ancient Rome -Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia 3500- 3000b.c. -Ancient...

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  • Ancient Rome
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  • Introduction to Ancient Rome -Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia 3500- 3000b.c. -Ancient Greece 1750- 133 b.c. -Ancient Rome 509b.c. to 476 a.d.
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  • Location of Rome Rome is located on the Mediterranean. It became the major trading nation to carry products from the Middle East, Africa to Europe which was developing and had a demand for products outside of Europe. The Alps to the North served as a defense against attacks from the North. Rome replaced Greece as the center of trade and commerce. Because of geography easier to unite Rome
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  • Early Rome
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  • History of Rome The Kingdom of Rome. The Republic The Roman Empire Split of Roman Empire Fall of Roman Empire
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  • In the beginning Get idea from Estruscans Romans drive out Estrucan king in 509 b.c. and set up republic Pillars of republic-courage, loyalty, devotion to duty
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  • Early republic--government Most powerful governing body= Senate (300 men) Made up of all patricians (landholding upper class) served life terms Each senate member elected two consuls (voice for the public) rotated every year In the event of war a dictator could be chosen by senate 6 month term
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  • Early republic--government Plebians (middle class) wanted equality Laws of twelve tablets Tribunes set up (chosen by plebians and could veto senate measures)
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  • Early Expansion Expanded throughout Italy Roman army- made up of citizen/soldiers were well trained and fought in legions (groups of 5,000 men) Reward for courage punishment for cowardice
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  • Conquered lands Acknowledge Roman leadership Pay taxes Supply Roman soldiers Rome let them keep customs, money, and local government
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  • Conquered lands Some gained Roman citizenship status or partial Used Latin and supported Rome Rome left soldiers to protect conquest Rome built roads to help travel from area to home
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  • Rivalry with Carthage Carthage- city-state on N. coast of Africa (Tunisia) Trading empire across N. Africa and W. Mediterranean Conflict from 264b.c. to 146b.c. know as Punic Wars (3 wars) 1 st war Rome defeats Carthage and gets Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia
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  • Rivalry with Carthage 2 nd war Carthage seeks revenge led by General Hannibal In 218 b.c. sets out from Spain through France and over Alps into Italy Trip through Alps lasted 15 days and cost half of his army and almost all the elephants For 15 yrs moves across Italy winning many battles Rome outnumbered and outflanked Hannibals army at the same time attacking Carthage Rome wins and forces Carthage to give up all lands except in Africa Later.Hannibal drinks poison rather than surrender
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  • Rivalry with Carthage 3 rd War Rome attacks and destroys Carthage Survivors were killed or sold into slavery Rome expands to N. Africa Rome now all over Med. Sea region
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  • From Republic to Empire Effects of Expansionism- Romans gloried their successes and incredible riches flooded Rome Wealth from: looting, trading, taxing Social and economic consequences- new class of wealthy Romans emerge (build huge mansions and use slave labor) Huge gap opens between rich and poor driven by greed
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  • From Republic to Empire Attempts at reform Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus wanted many reforms (help poor) Senate was angry at attempts and had them killed.led to 100 yrs of civil wars Who should hold power? Senate or popular politicians? Rival generals marched their armies into Rome to advance their ambitions
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  • From Republic to Empire Out of Chaos> Julius Caesar For a time Caesar and Pompey (brilliant general) dominated Roman politics Caesar, in 59 b.c., gains control of Gaul (France) Pompey gets jealous has senate order Caesar to disband and return home Caesar defies order (treason) and secretly marches army towards Rome (civil war breaks out and Caesar beats Pompey and all opponents) Returns home and forces senate to make him dictator
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  • From Republic to Empire Caesars reforms 48b.c. to 44b.c. Public works to employ jobless Organized provinces and gave more citizenship Adopted Egyptian cal. To do so packed senate w/his own followers
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  • From Republic to Empire Caesars enemies worried that he would be king Beware of the Ides of March (March 15 th ) Caesar stabbed to death from enemies
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  • From Republic to Empire As he took his seat, the conspirators gathered about him as if to pay their respects, and straightway Tillius Cimber [7], who had assumed the lead, came nearer as though to ask something. When Caesar with a gesture put him off to another time, Cimber caught his toga by both shoulders. As Caesar cried, 'Why, this is violence!', one of the Cascas [8] stabbed him from one side just below the throat. Caesar caught Casca's arm and ran it through with his stylus, but as he tried to leap to his feet, he was stopped by another wound. When he saw that he was beset on every side by drawn daggers, he muffled his head in his robe, and at the same time drew down its lap to his feet with his left hand, in order to fall more decently, with the lower part of his body also covered. And in this wise he was stabbed with three and twenty wounds, uttering not a word, but merely a groan at the first stroke, though some have written that when Marcus Brutus rushed at him, he said in Greek, 'You too, my child?'78
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  • From Republic to Empire Mark Antony (Caesars chief general) and Octavian (Caesars grandnephew) join forces to hunt down murderers but both struggle for power Octavian defeats Antony and takes power in 31b.c. as Augustus or Exalted One 31b.c. to 14a.d. Age of Empire
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  • CaesarAugustus
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  • Imperial Rome--Augustus Set up stable govt kept senate, set up civil service to enforce laws, let provinces have self government Economic reforms- census, postal service, new coins, jobless to work building roads and temples Worked well for 200 yrs
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  • Imperial Rome Who would rule after the death of an Emperor? Bad and Good emperors Bad- Caligula-own horse to consul Nero- persecuted Christians and know for fires 96-180 a.d. Good- Hadrian- Roman law codes and wall /Marcus Aurelius-duty to people
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  • Imperial Rome 200 yr span begins w/ Augustus and ends w/Aurelius known as Pax Romana (Roman Peace Ideas and goods spread
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  • Life in Rome Family- Men were in charge (by law) Women- played a larger role in society compared to Greeks (public baths, dined out, theatre, public roles, ran shops) but most worked at home Education- girls and boys learned to read and writeeven the poor Religion Roman Gods- Jupiter (ruled over sky and other gods) wife Juno (marriage), Neptune- (God of sea) Mars (God of war) also later Christianity To hide social and economic problems- festivals, chariot races, and sporting events (gladiators)
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  • Greco-Roman civilization Art- Copy Greeks were idealistsRome- realism but use expressionism as well Architecture- used columns, the arch, and dome Engineering- worked to perfect roads, bridges, and aqueducts (bridgelike stone structures that brought water from the hills to Roman cities)
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  • Greco-Roman civilization Science-Left mostly to the Greeks Literature- Virgil wrote Aeneid Philosophers and Historians Roman Law- Two systems 1. civil law (applied to citizens) 2. law of nations (applied to conquered lands) later both merge Many laws visible today: innocent until proven guilty, accused allowed to face accuser
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  • Art and Architecture of Rome The Romans developed or improved there art by copying the art from the Greeks for the statues. Statues were made from clay or marble. They were sometimes reinforced with metal reinforcements. They were well made and were nude and they were made of gods or important leaders which were recognized and got statues carved. They made their statues well as they had religious significance.
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  • Roman Architecture Roman Architecture has the following characteristics: 1. Roman architecture is very utilitarian and simple. 2. The vault and arch are perfected. 3. Greatest artistic contribution was the development of cement.
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  • Arch of Titus
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  • Roman Arches Allow for Strength The development of the arch and dome gave the Romans the ability to build large structures that would span huge areas and hold up large amounts of weight. Concrete was heavy and needed the strength provided. The Arch of Trajan recognizes this Emperor for his achievements. He did a large amount of construction in bridges and roads to pull the Empire together.
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  • Arch of Trajan
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  • Roman Dome
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  • Construction began under Vespasian in 72 A.D., and it was inaugurated by his younger son Domitian in 80 A.D. A hundred days of festivities saw the deaths of 9000 wild animals and 2000 gladiators. It was the greatest and deadliest structure ever built during the Roman empire. In ancient times it was the site of the navy-battles, gladiator-fights,and the or wild animal-hunts.It could hold up to 87,000 people. The Colosseum
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  • In A.D. 80, many people went to the Colosseum to celebrate sporting events. Colosseum was the largest building of its kind, in the ancient world. The Colosseum was built so tightly that its arena could be filled with water for Mock Navel Battles. The walls were 160 ft. tall. The Colosseum had 80 entrances at the base of the building. As many as 50,000 people with numbered tickets, They entered through 76 of the entrances. The last two entrances were used for gladiators. The entertainment started early in the morning and lasted all day long. Mornings were for the animal shows. Tigers,lions, bears, elephants, and giraffes from other parts of the empire were released in to the arena, to fight to the death.
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  • The Colosseum
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  • The afternoon entertainment gladiators would fight one another or other animals. Most gladiators were slaves, prisoners of war, and were criminals. The Romans had adopted gladiator contests from the Etruscans. In many ways the Colosseum was like the Roman Empire. From the outside they were both huge in their size and strength. Within both were bravery, honor, and glory with cruelty, sensationalism, and violence. Gladiators
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  • The Pantheon The next picture is the Pantheon. It was similar to the Greek Parthenon but the Romans used concrete rather than marble and granite for construction. The outside of most Roman buildings was not very pretty, but with the use of the arc and dome, the Romans could build huge buildings as a symbol of its strength and power.
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  • The Pantheon
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  • The Pantheon The Pantheon
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  • The Roman Forum The Roman Forum is where great debates took place in the Roman Government. In the Republic, the idea of the Senate and the House of Representatives developed. The upper class was known as patricians and were in the Senate. Later the plebians had a lower house called the General Assembly. A veto was allowed of one house over another. This was the development of bicamerlism or a two house government that American know today. The veto was the beginning of Checks and Balances and Separation of Powers as we know it today.
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  • Roman Forum
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  • Roman Forum Roman Forum
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  • An intricate transportation network, the Roman road system gave citizens of the ancient empire access to the most distant provinces. The first all-weather roads connected the capital and those Italian towns which had been recently subdued or colonized by the Romans. The Via Appia (Appian Way; begun in 312 BC), for example, joined Rome with Capua, These paved roads and others- -usually constructed of stones, rubble, and concrete-- were of great strategic importance, facilitating the administration and control of conquered lands. Roman Roads
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  • By the end of the republic (1st century BC), roads had been constructed in some of the provinces--such as southern Gaul and Illyria-- but the great period of construction outside of Italy came under the emperors. In Britain and North Africa, as in Italy, the progress of Roman expansion may be traced by charting the development of the Roman road network. Network of Roman Roads
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  • The Romans constructed a total of about (50,000 miles) of highways through more than 30 modern nations. Included also were the major bridges that still are used to cross major rivers in Europe. Roman engineers created huge structures that allowed heavy traffic to cross major rivers to aid trade and commerce. The network remained in use during the Middle Ages, and remnants of it are still in existence. Roman Bridges
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  • Aqueducts are the amazing water works of Rome, those fabulous aqueducts which gave Rome clean, fresh drinking water for nearly a thousand years. This next picture will focus on a single aqueduct, the Aqua Marcia, and detail how it provided water to the city of Rome. It will be shown that the Romans preferred to repair and rebuild existing aqueducts rather than construct brand new ones. In the process it will be shown that construction techniques evolved during the thousand year history of the water system. The Aqueducts of Rome
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  • Roman Aqueducts, Water to Rome
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  • Roman Aqueduct
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  • Roman Catapult
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  • Roman Empire
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  • Hadrians Wall in Europe Hadrians Wall was created as the northern boundary of the Roman Empire. Many parts can still be found. It was to serve as a border against the Germanic tribes. Parts of its are in Britain. This wall was not as large but similar to the Great Wall of China.
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  • Hadrians Wall
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  • Roman Theater in Europe Roman Theater can be found all over Europe. The map on the next page shows the number of theaters created by the Romans for entertainment. Many Greek tragedies and comedies were created in the Roman Theater. Roman Theater expanded into more advanced type of theater with its actors and the stage being more elaborate. Romans contributed much to development of the theater and the Romance languages.
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  • Roman Theaters
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  • Rise of Christianity Generally Rome tolerated various religious traditions---as long as (showed loyalty to gods and emperor) Jews were excused from Roman God worship but not the emperor Jews wanted to preserve religion and reestablish an independent Israel from Roman control (some thought a savior/messiah would lead Jewish people to land) In 66 Romans crush rebels and capture Jerusalem In 135 drove out Jews from homeland (diaspora)
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  • Rise of Christianity Through TurmoilJesus, born around 4 b.c., a carpenter at about age 30 starts to preach and spread throughout towns (founder of Christianity) Know life from Gospels Preached forgiveness and to love enemies Some Jews welcomed him others saw him as a trouble maker Romans saw him as a threat and executed him (Roman style) Disciples are commanded to spread teachings (risen from the dead)
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  • Spread of Christianity Said that those who followed teachings would achieve salvation Rome did not tolerate Christians at firstmany persecuted (said to be disloyal) Survives and still spreads over and over years In 313 Constantine issues Edict of Milanallowing freedom of worship In 392Christianity official religion of Rome
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  • Split of Roman Empire In 284, Diocletian sets out to restore order Splits empire into two halves West and East He rules East (more resources and money) Tries to help economy by setting fixed prices, ordering farmers to stay on lands In 312 Constantineissues edict Builds new capital Constantinople in E. Empire W. Empire in decline Results of the twoslows decline but does not fix
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  • Causes for the Decline of the Roman Empire Obvious reasonGermanic invasions Many tribes moved peacefully into empire Britain- overran by the Angles, Saxons France (Gaul) overran by Franks Spain overthrown by the Vandals Italy was taken over by the Ostrogoths, Visigoths, and Lombards Underlying causes much more significant because they lead to the obvious cause
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  • Causes for the Decline of the Roman Empire Social Causes. There had been a decline in the traditional Roman citizenry. Patriotism declined as people lost their allegiance to the state. Christianity challenged the traditional Roman character traits and caused people to neglect the state when they concentrated on personal salvation.
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  • Causes for the Decline of the Roman Empire Economic Causes. As productivity declined, the Roman empire became more dependent on foreign products. Traditional work ethic declined. A balance of trade deficit began to occur. The cost of government, including the military and welfare, become burdensome. Class economic warfare broke out between the rich and poor. Parts of the empire were not taxed while others were overtaxed. The small farm almost disappeared.
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  • Causes for the Decline of the Roman Empire Political Causes. The Romans never solved the problems of succession except during a brief period of time. The government of the empire was not designed to rule a large empire The government became increasingly run by the rich and the military. Citizens lost interest in government as it became distant from them. Did Rome fall in 476? E. Roman Empire becomes Byzantine Empire
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  • Outline Example TopicName of your topic Thesis- What is the main idea about your paper. Are you trying to prove or disprove something Intro Paragraph hook overview of topic thesis statement Topic 1 st sentence should be a topic sentence Last sentence transitioning into next topic 4-6 sentences describing
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  • Outline Example TopicJulius Caesar Thesis- Julius Caesar was Romes greatest ruler and is the main reason Romes empire grew to its greatest strength. Intro Paragraph (need to have hook and thesis) hook overview of topic thesis statement Early life (need at least 3 things you will talk about) born in childhood early influences
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  • life in military 1. 2. 3. D. life as general 1. 2. 3. E. Life as emperor 1. changes made 2. greed 3. death G. Conclusion 1. recap topics
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  • D.Topic (need at least 3 things you will talk about) 1. 2. 3. E. Topic 1. 2. 3. G. Conclusion 1. recap topics 2. Review Thesis
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  • The Romans made a lot of contributions to the present. Some contributions that they made were that our capital letters from the alphabet and Roman numerals. Roman numerals are important and popular. They are often on our clocks. Another thing they are on is the cornerstones. Third, our month July was given from Julius Caesar. Also, the name August came from Augustus Caesar. Fourth, the word Romance came from Rome. Their architecture also became valuable in our country. Another contribution was that they invented and created the calendar. Also they invented the standard economy. Lasting Contributions