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Society for the Study of Early ChinaANCIENT CHINA IN NEW CHINAAuthor(s): Doris DohrenwendSource: Early China, Vol. 2 (FALL 1976), pp. 89-94Published by: Society for the Study of Early ChinaStable URL: .Accessed: 06/09/2013 09:14Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . .JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact .Society for the Study of Early China is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access toEarly China. This content downloaded from on Fri, 6 Sep 2013 09:14:12 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionstwo major exhibits, ancient bronzes and pottery from ancient to modern times. A collection of Kwang tung regional pottery of all periods was shown us in the Canton historical museum. These displays and others which we saw, such as the one in a Suchow silk factory contrasting the horrors of pre-liberation life with the joys of present-day working conditions, were put together to form excellent learning centers. Ancient pottery, for example, was exhibited together with models, pictures and maps showing manufacturing techniques and sites, distribution areas and so forth. Bronze tools were not merely museum pieces, but were given functional meaning by being mounted on reconstructed wood handles. Any visitor to a museum would receive a clear impression of the quality of traditional Chinese life and the skills of the Chinese people. We, who traveled rapidly from place to place, also obtained a striking view of the regional diver sity of past and present Chinese life. The isola tion of the Canton area until after the end of the Han dynasty showed up well in the poor quality of early pottery found in the area and displayed in the regional museum. Such an insight is lost in the typical national collection featuring the best products of an age. The museums were not without problems, however. Collections were generally inadequately housed and displayed. Large numbers of pieces in rooms dis tracted one's attention from the quality of each. In Shanghai, recently excavated bronzes were mixed in with older unauthenticated pieces from formerly private collections and with replicas of pieces kept elsewhere. Heat and humidity were usually not controlled. In Peking, we were told that paintings earlier than M1ng would not be shown until the weather moderated. Where controls existed, they were less than perfect. In Changsha, the Han lacquer ware was kept well moisturized in sealed glass cases, but water droplets on the inside of the glass obscured most of the view of the pieces. The trip described above which, besides museums, also included visits to a factory, commune, middle school and residential area, was an ideal introduction to China for someone like me who must present the entire range of Chinese history to his students and to the community in which he lives. It was obviously not a trip designed for the special ized interests of the historian of early China. I would urge the Early China Society to make every effort to organize a trip for its members to meet their particular needs. Perhaps because we were regarded as a group of tourists, the museum officials who acted as our guides were administrators rather than scholars. None whom we met had an extensive acquaintance with their collections or even with Chinese history in general. We received running commentaries which summarized the labels in the cases. Deeper questioning elicited no response. There was little, if any, knowledge of research literature. One of our Shanghai museum guides even was vague about basic Marxism, continual ly referring to the feudal landlords of Shang slave society. The only real brush with Chinese scholarship we had came at Peking's National Minorities Institute. Here we met the director of research, Professor Fei Hsiao-t'ung. Fe1 bubbled over with enthusiasm during a brief tour of the facilities. He told us of the enormous library collection, the work of developing new scripts and publishing newspapers in minority languages and, most thrilling to him of all, the study of small minority groups and their classifi cation as different types of slave or feudal societies. This experience brought home to me, as no amount of reading had done, the excitement to be found in China's scholarly circles when totally untapped areas of research emerge as a consequence of accept ing the Marxist approach to history and society. ANCIENT CHINA IN NEW CHINA Doris Dohreriwend (Royal Ontario Museum) The Art and Archaeological Delegation which visited the People's Republic of China 1n November of 1973 was jointly sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences of the United States and the Scientific and Technical Association of the PRC. Originally Intended to be chiefly archaeological, the delegation ultimately Included specialists in Chinese painting, a historian and a conservationist as well as those of us more immediately concerned with "underground art" or recent archaeological finds (see List 1). Starting at Kuangchou (Canton) we flew to Peking, and five days later to S1an. From S1an we travelled by (excellent) train through the historic Eastern Pass to Loyang. Then to Chengchou, Nanking, Suchou, Shanghai, Hangchou and back to Canton. We parted where,we had met as a group at the start of this trip, in Hong Kong.' Supplied with lists of places we wanted to visit and specific works of art we hoped to see, the Chinese authorities enabledus to make good use of our time in their country even though they were unable to grant all our wishes. On the go seven days a week from roughly 8:30 A.M. to 6 P.M.and with many a banquet, film or theatrical performance in the even ing'we saw, I think, all that could be seen in one month at that time of art and archaeology in New China. We were permitted to photograph freely at all Museums and sites visited, the only restriction being photography from the air. As to other practical matters: we could have used, in that winter month, more warm clothing designed for indoor use, more ordinary cold remedies (hospital care in China proved excellent and was freely given in more than one case), and more film. 89 This content downloaded from on Fri, 6 Sep 2013 09:14:12 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and ConditionsTo see material from controlled excavations with provenance data, we visited such important provincial museums as those at Si an, Chengchou and Nanking. Other provincial museums, unfortun ately, were closed or inaccessible to us. This was true of the Szechuan and Yunnan institutions which we had not dared hope to visit, but true also of the Hunan Provincial Museum at Changsha which we had requested. In the museums we did visit, only a fraction of what must be vast holdings was on view. Storage was all but impenetrable. Artifacts on display were chosen to represent major historical develop ments rather than full runs of visual types or art historical trends. Labels (in Chinese) were clear but brief. In many cases only the site was mentioned. Information as to whether an object came from a closed find or undisturbed burial or from elsewhere about the site was not given. When one asked for detail of this-kind "on the spot" it was not always given, nor was it usually looked up in the museum records. The use of graphics to explain the context, function and meaning of objects on display was, however, rich and Impressive. Reproductions filling major gaps in local collections were often effective and usually labelled.3 An occasional wealth of material, as of neolithic jade in Nanking, allowed fuller display and acted as a stimulant. Except for objects in the Shanghai and Chengchou Museums and in the Study collections of the archaeo logical institutes, it was difficult to see things "in hand" or to study details at close range. In Shanghai objects were removed from cases for study and photographing. At Chengchou, thanks to persistent questioning by Virginia Kane about the contents and relationship of the various Shang levels and sites in the area, the Honan Provincial Museum staff brought forth from storage a large number of pots and sherds believed Neolithic, transitional, middle and late Shang. They also brought out and hung rubbings from stones and tiles with early pictorial designs for study by the painting specialists among us. These were among the notable instances of kind ness to us on the Chinese side,,4 Due to the presence of Tom Chase, Chief Con servator of the Freer Gallery of Art in Washington, we saw several important and famous bronzes and paintings in Conservation, the latter being a primary concern in the PRC. Through Tom's initiative we also saw testing equipment for radiocarbon analysis in Peking and learned that such testing was done also at Nanking University. Thermoluminescence was less well known or utilized as a possibly useful technique in determining, for example, the relative dates of Neolithic sites whose temporal relationship is uncer tain and disputed. Most of our Chinese hosts seemed interested above all in exchanges of technical infor mation about such matters as conservation and testing. Archaeologists of the People's Republic of China regularly visit the field to learn as well as to instruct. Objects also travel back and forth for study and testing. Comparative studies and perhaps most theoretical writing on a particular subject or site may take place at key archaeological institutes with study collections. We were able to look at important ceramics and bronzes with some of China's leading archaeologists at the Archaeological Institute of Peking, for example. In November 1973, many known pieces from Erh-li-t'ou (an early Shang site, possibly the capital known in traditional texts as Po or Western Po Ife ) were on view not in the Loyang municipal museum, not in the Honan Provincial Museum at Chengchou, but in the study room of the Loyang Archaeological Institute. Here also were many of the Loyang finds known from publications of the Chung-chou-lu excavations. Archaeological sites have themselves become museums in New China, or have museums connected with them. Such is the situation at Chou-k'ou-tien out side Peking, visited by Richard Rudolph and others of our group (I was unfortunately hospitalized that day). Among the best known of these site Museums is the early Yang-shao complex at Pan-p'o-ts'un outside Sian. Here a hangar-like building was con structed over a fraction of the ancient village site including part of its protective ditch, while a selection of Pan-p'o artifacts was on display with much explanatory material in an adjacent showroom. Two Han chambered tombs with painted tiles excavated in the '50s were moved from the cemetaries and reconstructed in a park at Loyang where one could enter them and see Han painting in situ.5 (There was concern about the preservation of these early paintings underground, as they were not removed to a museum as had been done in the case of the Princess Yung-t'ai's tomb paintings, replaced in the T'ang grave by copies.) We were surprised and fortunate to be able to see archaeological work in progress at the new Neolithic site of Ta-ho-ts'un near Chengchou. This is important for its double layer of Lung-shan over Yang-shao stratigraphy. It was taken then to be possibly transitional between Yang-shao and Lung shan (see Kaoqu 1973: 6). An "armchair archaeologist" like me with chiefly art historical training can scarcely judge the quality of the fieldwork we saw in China. The gathering and recording of material would seem to be as careful as possible, however, even in salvage archaeology, which much of it is in China today where higher priorities exist necessarily in other areas of endeavor and where archaeological excavation waits upon dam construction, road building and agriculture. There is relatively little official interest in China today in Buddhist art of in Chinese paint ing for its own sake. The Buddhist caves at Lung men near Loyang (we were unable to visit the Yun kang caves in northern Shansi) are being preserved, and they are visited by Chinese as well as foreign visitors. Two of our greatest surprises, further, were the amount and quality of painting preserved in Peking, Nanking and Shanghai, and a delegation of experts in Chinese painting has been scheduled to visit the PRC in the Spring of 1977. The foreign religion of Buddhism and the painted expressions of a past elite are not, however, primary concerns at the moment. Questions about early China, on the other hand, are far more central in the current Chinese reinterpretation of history, and it is in the study of the Neolithic through Han periods that current theorizing most eagerly awaits the work of the spade. Thus, further exchanges in the precise area covered in this journal might realistically be hoped for. High points of our trip for me were undoubtedly seeing firsthand the urban and rural landscapes of the Huangho and Yangtze regions of China and our 90 This content downloaded from on Fri, 6 Sep 2013 09:14:12 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionsmeetings with leading archaeologists of the People's Republic (though there was never enough time, or in rny case language facility, to get deeply into specific questions about the recent finds and their inter pretation). Equally important was the early material newly come to light. Of this we saw at least a selec tion "in the flesh." This experience will, I think, require us in many instances to review or revise our still narrow conceptions of the variety of types and styles possible within so large an area as China at any given time. My notion of neolithic jade, for example, as being undecorated and low or incomplete in polish was given a jolt by the sight in Nanking and elsewhere of highly polished (not to say glassy) axeheads and a number of long tsung fif, "earth" jades with geometric surface decoration - all from neolithic sites. A major disappointment, no doubt unavoidable since we were treated most kindly as a whole, was missing Changsha in the area of which so many spectacular finds have been made since 1950. Anyang was also requested but not written into our schedule. Most of all we missed seeing the enormous Peking Historical Museum, still closed (since the Cultural Revolution) for revision of displays and labels, for there, in the capital must be housed most of the unique and important pieces from the length and breadth of China. The Historical Museum was apparent ly not open until October, 1975, when a group from Toronto's Royal Ontario Museum was perhaps the first foreign one to enter. Judging from more recent visits the Museum is now at least partially open. Photography was not allowed in 1975. One of the things we had hoped would result from our trip was a slide archive to be housed, it was thought, at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, and ordered, selected and catalogued under such headings as Bronzes (Robert Poor), Jades and Lacquer (Dorie Dohrenwend), Architecture and Gardens (Laurence Sickman), Sculpture (Sherman Lee), Painting (James Cahill), Museums (Thomas Lawton), Conservation (Tom Chase), etc. We have exchanged slides and photos among ourselves and with others on an informal basis, and we have naturally used these in teaching and lecturing. Completion of the larger formal archive is still, however, so far as I know, in abeyance. It was suggested that such a thing would be a form of publication. On this topic the last word forwarded to us by Dr. Sherman Lee of the Cleveland Museum (our trip Chairman) was from Chu Yung-hang, Deputy Director of the Bureau of Foreign Affairs of the Chinese Scientific and Technical Association, who wrote: "It will be unsuitable for others to publish photographs of Museums'collections before the owners' is advisable that in case you still have a few photographs in question in choosing them for publication..., you might send them to me and I would inquire the relevant Museums on your behalf." FOOTNOTES 1. Other groups have been able to hold meetings in the U.S. prior to departure. This is not essential, but it is desirable--for the division of tasks, collating lists, deciding who is to photograph what and with what film and camera, etc. 2. It is well when visiting the PRC to attend, in so far as it is possible, performances or other occasions to which the group is invited. At Sian, after a particularly long day, only five of the twelve of us emerged for an evening of revolutionary song and dance. When we arrived at the local theater we discovered that the twelve seats reserved for us in a row near the front had been kept empty, our three Chinese guides with four others they had rounded up were prepared to fill in our depleted ranks, and that the whole performance had been held up pending our (conspicuous) arrival, resulting in the omission of a much needed intermission. We subsequently attended everything. 3. An interesting problem arose at Sian in the bronze section of the Shensi Provincial Museum. Questions as to whether the Fu-feng kuanq shown there and also a superb rhinoceros tsun were originals or reproductions (the labels did not say "Reproduction") elicited different answers from two of our hosts. The Fu-feng kuanq must have been in Europe in 1973, on tour with one of the two great exhibitions sent abroad, and the rhinoceros tsun one would have thought was in Peking. This was probably an oversight in the labelling. 4. The question of how to repay kindnesses received in China was often on our minds. We gave two banquets (small return for the nine or ten given for us), and some of us gave or later sent articles or books we had written. The question of editing published works to be given as gifts to scholars and friends of the People's Republic by deleting or obscuring possibly "objectionable" terms (such as Chinese Turkestan or, worse, Central Asia when Hsinchiang Province is meant) or references (as to the National Palace Museum Collection of Taiwan) was apparently occasionally discussed. Whether such adjustments have ever been requested by the receiving side or not I do not know. 5. See Jonathan Chaves, "A Han Painted Tomb at Loyang," Artibus Asiae XXX, no. 1 (1968), pp. 5-27. LIST 1 - Our Hosts in: CHENGCHOU (Honan) Tu Hsi-t'ang ^>- , Head of Honan Cultural Bureau ^ flj \ Fu Yueh-hua ^ , Staff of Honan Provincial Museum Han Shao-shih \fjij Staff of Honan Provincial Museum ft (ft\ HANGCHOU (Chekiang) Chang lieh Jj, , Responsible Person, Chekiang Provincial Cultural Bureau yffr 91 This content downloaded from on Fri, 6 Sep 2013 09:14:12 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and ConditionsChleh Chih-yUan RPf , Responsible Person, Chekiang Provincial Museum >1 lf| Li Tzu-yao^ 4" $i\ , Professor of History, Hangchou University ^ H/ A Li Yang-sung ^, Archaeologist (Neolithic period) Department of History, Peking Univer sity ^ 7? ^ ^ "fe . Tsou Heng Archaeologist (Yin and Chou), Dept. of History, Peking University^'i)-j] iz . Kao Ming , Archaeologist (Yin and Chou), Peking Dept. of History, Peking University. Su Pai 15 , Archaeologist (Ch'in through T'ang), Dept. of History, Peking University ^ tz . Ni Meng-hsiung , Head of Foreign Relations Section, Peking University . Wu Chung-ch'ao , Director, Palace Museum, Peking 3^ J, fif Hsu Chih-ch'ao^ $s%if , Director, Restoration Factory, Palace Museum, Peking 1'^ \\ . T'ang Lan/^f. , Advisor on Bronzes, Palace Museum Shan Shih-yiian -i 5L , Advisor on Architecture, Palace Museum ^ fttj . T'ien Hsiu , Head, Painting Division, Palace Museum Li Hui-ping . Advisor on Ceramics, Palace Museum ^ /||| tf/j . Liu Chiu-an fj hfe , Expert on Painting, Palace Museum SHANGHAI (Kianqsu) Pai Hsu (3 hSi , Shanghai Municipal Cultural Office Jl 'fa -i-'ft/l 1 A_ . Wen Yuan-yu ;5Cj Responsible Person, Shanghai Museum jl f ^ ^ A, . Huang Hsuan-p'ei ^ ^1/^, Archaeological Person, Shanghai Museum Jl 7^ -^7$ ^ u Li Chuan-ch1 lin \ , Conservation Department, Shanghai Museum jl ^ f\ SIAN (Shensi) Yii Che-chi "3" M Ta , Head, Shensi Provincial Cultur al Bureau j ^ . Ma Te-chih > , Member of Si an Station Archaeo logical Institute, Academia Sinica l^j "32j-^ ;jfc . ^ Yuan Chung-i /n , Archaeologist, Shensi Provincial Cultural Bureau ^ .%7 Tj Vt Chang Po-1 ing Xfc. /*- , Shensi Provincial Museum, Exhibition Department *)%%. SUCHOU (Kiangsu) Chou Liang jl] %- , Responsible Person, Suchou Mini cipal Cultural Bureau 47-^'j SL1fc-/SJ ^ Ch'ien Hsueh-an 'gT, Responsible Person, ^ Suchou Minicipal Museum >''! 'rp } \ A,. Hsieh Hsiao-ssu'i^^ , Worker in Suchou Cultural Research X 9L 3- 1T- ^3 LIST 2: Members of the November 1973 Delegation, Professor James F. Cahill, Department of Art, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 W. Tom Chase, Chief Conservator, Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, DC 20560 Dr. Dorie Dohrenwend, Far Eastern Department, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 2C6 Professor Virginia C. Kane, History of Art, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 Dr. Thomas Lawton (Liason and chief translator), Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, DC 20560 Dr. Sherman E. Lee, Director (Chairman of the group), The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, OH 44106 Professor Robert J. Meada, History of Art, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02154 Professor Robert Poor, History of Art, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 Professor Richard C. Rudolf, Far Eastern Languages, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90024 Dr. Laurence Sickman, Director, Nelson Gallery-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, M0 64111 Professor Charles Weber, Dept. of Fine Arts, Univer sity of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90007 Professor Arthur F. Wright, Hall of Graduate Studies, Yale University, New Haven CT 93 This content downloaded from on Fri, 6 Sep 2013 09:14:12 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and ConditionsLIST 3: More Early China Scholars believed to have visited the PRC recently. Lester J. Bilsky, Department of History, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR Dr. Anneliese G. Bulling, 1903 B Humphrey Merry Way, Lynnewood Gardesn, El kins Park, Philadelphia, PA 19117 Professor Kwang-chih Chang, Department of Anthropology, Yale University, New Haven, CT Mrs. Wilma Falrbank, 41 Winthrop Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 Dr. James (Chin-hsiung) Hsu, Far Eastern Department Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 2C6 Professor David N. Keightley, Department of History, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 Dr. Max Loehr, The Fogg Art Museum, Harvard Univer sity, Cambridge, MA 02138 Dr. Joseph Needham, F.R.S,, F.B.A., Master, Gonville and Caius College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England Mrs. Jessica Rawson, Department of Oriental Antiquities, The British Museum, London WC1, England Dr. Hsio-yen Sh1h, Curator, Far Eastern Department, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 2C6 Mrs. Barbara Stephen, Associate Director Curatorial Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario Canada, M5S 2C6 Professor William Watson, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, London, England. Liason Office of the People's Republic of China, 2300 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20008 (will accept applications, but direct application to Chinese Academy of Sciences, Peking, PRC) Guozi Shudian, China Publications Centre, P.O. Box 399, Peking, PRC Natural and Social Sciences Section, Chinese Acaderny of Sciences, Peking, PRC LIST 4: People and agencies for assistance in contacting or visiting the PRC China Exchange Newsletter, Committee for Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China (CSCPRC), National Academy of Sciences (ACLS, SSRC), Washington, DC 20418 Professor Chou Pei-yuan, Head, Scientific and Technical Association of the People's Republic of China, (also Head of Peking University), Peking, PRC Chu Yung-hang, Deputy Director (Director: Pan Chun), Bureau of Foreign Affairs, Scientific and Technical Association of the People's Republic of China, Peking, PRC Archie R. Crouch, Director, China Information Library, Newsbank, Inc., P.O. Box 645, Greenwich, CT 06830 Anne Keatley, Staff Director, Committee for Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Consti tution Avenue, Washington, DC 20418 COMPUTER RESEARCH IN ASIAN LANGUAGES The computer research in Asian languages by Eric Grinstead is described in the Annual Newsletter of the Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies 9 (1975). He has prepared an occurrence list of characters in 20 Chinese classics for a computer program, which has been written and run on a pre liminary basis. Four-corner numbers are added to all characters, together with Morohashi numbers and the modern pronunciation. Extra information for a polyglot dictionary, based first on Chinese characters, with all relevant codes, has been compiled and now totals approximately 12,000 separate characters. Cooperation with Dr. Ludwig Geier on his radical-stroke index to Lin Yu-t'ang's Chinese English Dictionary has provided new information that can be fed into the polyglot dictionary project. The following print-outs are available: English Index to the Classics, Karlgren-Morohashi Index,and Research Register for Asian Studies in Scandinavia. The computer research also includes a program on magnetic tape that will draw maps and other shapes, to be excuted either on an oscilloscope (GT 40) or a Calcomp plotter. 94 This content downloaded from on Fri, 6 Sep 2013 09:14:12 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and ConditionsArticle Contentsp. 89p. 90p. 91p. 92p. 93p. 94Issue Table of ContentsEarly China, Vol. 2 (FALL 1976), pp. i, 1-108Front MatterEditorial [pp. i-i]A NOTE ON THE TRANSLATION OF TWO TECHNICAL TERMS IN CHINESE SCIENCE: WU-HSING AND HSIU [pp. 1-3]THE "BATTLE AT THE BRIDGE" AT WU LIANG TZ'U: A PROBLEM IN METHOD [pp. 3-8]REVIEW ARTICLESTHREE RECENTLY PUBLISHED ORACLE BONE BOOKS [pp. 8-11]TWO MAJOR REFERENCE WORKS ON BRONZE VESSELS AND BRONZE INSCRIPTIONS [pp. 11-17]"ULTIMATE WISDOM" OR "APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY"? A REVIEW OF CREEL'S SHEN PU-HAI [pp. 18-29]EDITOR'S NOTE [pp. 29-30]WHERE HAVE ALL THE SWORDS GONE? REFLECTIONS ON THE UNIFICATION OF CHINA [pp. 31-34]ON THE "FEUDAL" INTERPRETATION OF CHOU CHINA [pp. 35-37]BIBLIOGRAPHY [pp. 38-42]ABSTRACTSDissertations [pp. 43-46]Meetings: SPECULATIONS ON THE BEGINNINGS OF CHINESE THOUGHT [pp. 47-59]Books and Articles: THE ORIGINS OF CHINESE CULTURE: SOME RUSSIAN AND CHINESE VIEWS [pp. 60-72]NEWS OF THE FIELD[Introduction] [pp. 72-72]DEVELOPMENTS IN HISTORICAL STUDIES IN JAPAN THE YIN, ZHOU, ZHANGUO, QIN, AND HAN PERIODS [pp. 73-83]RESUM: "BRONZE FOUNDRY IN WESTERN CHOU: PROLEGOMENA TO THE STUDY OF CHOU BRONZE INSCRIPTIONS" [pp. 83-83]REFLECTIONS ON THE WORKSHOP ON CLASSICAL CHINESE THOUGHT [pp. 84-85]A DETECTIVE'S COURSE IN ANCIENT CHINA [pp. 85-86]CHINESE LITERARY HISTORY PLANNING CONFERENCE [pp. 86-87]SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY OF CHINESE RELIGIONS [pp. 87-87]A TOUR OF THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA [pp. 88-89]ANCIENT CHINA IN NEW CHINA [pp. 89-94]COMPUTER RESEARCH IN ASIAN LANGUAGES [pp. 94-94]VITALI RUBIN [pp. 95-95]PAPERS AND BOOKS AVAILABLE [pp. 95-95]GETTENS MEMORIAL ISSUE OF ARS ORIENTALIS [pp. 95-95]TSOU YEN, THE CHINESE ARISTOTLE [pp. 95-95]Introduction to Classical Chinese [pp. 95-95]WORK IN PROGRESS [pp. 96-107]CORRESPONDENCE [pp. 108-108]Back Matter