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Page 1: AN52004A Politics Economics and Social Change 2008 09


GOLDSMITHS COLLEGE University of London DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY AN52004A POLITICS ECONOMICS AND SOCIAL CHANGE (1 course) Autumn and Spring Terms READING LIST 2008-2009 Course Lecturer: Dr Catherine Alexander Autumn Term

Dr Massimiliano Mollona Spring Term Visiting Tutors: Emma Jayne-Abbots Elena Gonzalez

Course Requirements Attendance requirements: The College Regulations state that ‘Students shall attend on all days prescribed for their programme unless the College is officially closed.’ If you are unable to attend due to illness you must inform the Department Office on the day of the class. Minimum course work requirements for exam entry are the following each term: 1 essay 1 team presentation Students are, however, strongly advised to write two essays each term, a list of essay questions for topics covered in the course is on page 23 of this reading list. Students who fail to meet the attendance and coursework requirements risk being put on probation. Please see the Student Handbook for further information. No essays will be accepted for marking after the end of the Autumn Term. It is recommended that all essays be typed. Mode of assessment: this course is examined by a 3 question, 3 hr Unseen Exam during the summer term. Towards the end of this reading list you will find a guide for writing and presenting course essays and examined reports. Please study this carefully before you plan and write your coursework essays and/or any examined reports.

Aims of this course 1. To introduce you to the core concepts and theories relating to economic and political

organisation and the problem of accounting for change, both empirically and theoretically. 2. To familiarise you with a number of empirical contexts in order that you may be able to

conceptualise the complex socio-economic processes that are affecting the peripheral areas that have long been the concern of anthropologists.

3. To explore a number of contemporary problems relating to such issues as the apparent contradiction between local or national autonomy and globalisation that do not fit easily into definitions of the "economic" or "political".

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Course Description This one unit course covers the Autumn and the Spring Terms. Through ethnographic examples we explore interactions between changing economic and political structures and how people organise their everyday lives in the world today. Throughout the course we will be using key theorists such as Durkheim, Marx and Weber who have contributed to anthropological debates on economy and society, as well as contemporary re-evaluations of these classic debates. In the Autumn Term we begin by considering some familiar concepts such as ‘the state’, ‘money’ and ‘property’. In each case, we will think both about the historical processes that have produced these concepts in the form that we recognise today and alternative ways of organising society and economies through ethnographic examples. The reason for examining these institutions and ideas through both a historical and ethnographic lens is to appreciate how culturally and temporally specific these ideas are. We begin with an overview of the state, highlighting the contingency of its current form and discussing whether or not analyses of the state continue to be relevant in the light of globalisation and changing modes of production. We then discuss property, money and markets, all of which are tied, in particular forms, to ideas of the state and globalisation. In the second half of the term we examine how these concepts are central to the complex socio-economic processes that tend to be subsumed as ‘globalisation’. By using particular examples, we will explore how these ideas are implicated and played out in some of the key concerns of our world today: conflicting intellectual and cultural property claims, attempts to address climate change through global economic mechanisms (carbon accounting) that revisit the major divisions of the contemporary world. In the Spring Term, we add the concepts of ‘labour’ and ‘class’ to our repertoire and, revisiting some of the topics raised in the Autumn Term through different locales such as factories, we will see these institutions in action by exploring the capitalist labour process, the impact of industrialisation on the peasant economy and political forms of peasant resistance. We think about changed practices of labour through globalisation of capital and flexible production, and drawing together certain themes (such as value and freedom) that have been running throughout all the lectures. We end the first term by looking at contemporary forms of radical politics, with a special focus on anarchism and at its agenda of building ‘societies without states’. Course Essay The essay should be about 1.500 words. If two essays are to be submitted per term the first should be handed in by week 3, the second essay by week 7. (See Section 6 of the Handbook). If only one essay is written each term, it must be handed in by Week 7. Team Presentation Every student will be expected to give at least one presentation to their seminar group as a member of a team. Teams will be organized at the beginning of each Term. Teams are encouraged to consider how they will work as a team, and to think carefully about will consider the quality of the presentation (use of overheads, audiovisuals, handouts, etc.) and how well they can engage the audience, as well as the content. Revision Lecture The revision lectures will take place in week 11 of the Spring Term and in the first two weeks of the Summer Term 2005. Course Assessment This course is examined by a 3 hour unseen paper in the Summer Term.

Key Texts

Ong, A 2006 Liberalism as Exception

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Friedman, J 2003 Globalisation, the State and Violence Nugent, D 2002 Locating Capitalism in Time and Space Carrier, J. 2005 A Handbook of Economic Anthropology Graeber, D 2001 Toward an Anthropological Theory of Value Gudeman S 2000 The Anthropology of Economy. Smith, G. 1999 Confronting the Present: toward a politically engaged

anthropology Harvey, D 2001 Spaces of Capital Hart K 2001 Money in an Unequal World. (first pub as The Memory Bank,

2000) Marx K [1867] Capital vol 1. Gledhill J 1994 Power and Its Disguises. Lewellen T 1992 Political Anthropology. Wolf E 1982 Europe and the People Without History. Hoogvelt A 1997 Globalisation and the Postcolonial World the New Political

Economy of Development. Shanin T (ed) 1987 Peasants and Peasant Societies. Bloch M & J Parry 1985 Money and the Morality of Exchange. Mauss M 1990 The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic

Societies. Narotzky S 1997 New Directions in Economic Anthropology. Cheater A (ed) 1999 The Anthropology of Power. Polanyi, K The Great Transformation Empirical studies or cases of particular interest to the course: Ferguson, J 2006 Global Shadows. Africa in the Neoliberal World. Narotzky, Susana and Smith, Gavin

2006 Immediate Struggles: people, power, and place in Rural Spain

Graeber, D 2007 Lost People. Magic and the Legacy of Slavery in Madagascar. Vincent J (ed) 2002 The Anthropology of Politics: A Reader in Ethnography, Theory

and Critique. Hutchinson S 1996 Nuer Dilemmas. Alexander C 2002 Personal States: Making Connections Between Bureaucracy and

People in Turkey. MacGaffey J 1991 The Real Economy of Zaire. The Contribution of Smuggling

and Other Unofficial Activities to National Wealth. Chakrabarty D 1989 Rethinking Working Class History - Bengal 1890-1940. Cheru F 1989 The Silent Revolution in Africa: Debt, Development and

Democracy. Feierman S 1990 Peasant Intellectuals - Anthropology and History in Tanzania. Evans-Pritchard, E The Nuer Harvey N 1998 The Chiapas Rebellion: The Struggle for Land and Democracy. Comaroff J 1985 Body of Power Spirit of Resistance. Lan D 1985 Guns and Rain. Taussig M 1980 The Devil and Commodity Fetishism in South America. Roseberry W 1983 Coffee and Capitalism in the Venezuelan Andes. Mies M 1982 The Lacemakers of Narsapur. Lancaster R 1988 Thanks to God and the Revolution: Political Religious and Class

Consciousness in the New Nicaragua. Leach, E. Political Systems of Highland Burma Nugent S 1979 Big Mouth: The Amazon Speaks. Nash J 1979 We Eat the Mines and the Mines Eat Us. Chomsky N 1996 Powers and Prospects. Chomsky N 1999 Profit Over People: Neoliberalism and Global Order.

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Kearney M 1996 Reconceptualising Peasantry: Anthropology in Global Perspective.

Coronil F 1997 The Magical State: Nature, Money and Modernity in Venezuela.

Parry J, J Berman & K Kapadia (eds)

1999 The Worlds of Industrial Labour. (2 chs in CRP & DSLC)

Kapferer B 1988 Legends of People, Myths of State: Violence, Intolerance and Political Culture in Sri Lanka and Australia.

*** There are also a number of relevant papers that you can download and videos on the website: http://www.rethinkingeconomies.org.uk/. The Post Autistics Economics (PAE) Review website (with easily downloadable papers) is http://www.paecon.net/ Keith Hart’s website is well worth looking at for thought-provoking papers relevant to the course: http://www.thememorybank.co.uk/ Reading The course entails a weekly series of lectures and seminars focused around a number of key topics, listed overleaf. You should aim to familiarise yourself with each of these topics. Journals Abbreviations American Ethnologist (Am Ethn) Critique of Anthropology (Crit Anth) Annual Review of Anthropology (ARA) Anthropological Theory Today (ATT) Other Abbreviation: NGL – Not in Goldsmiths Library. CRP Article or chapter is in the Course Reader Pack DSLC Article or chapter is in the Departmental Short Loan Collection, Reception + Article or chapter is especially recommended DSLC Lending System:

- A student or library card must be left with the Departmental Secretary. - All articles borrowed must be recorded in the DSLC Register. - Articles can be borrowed to read but must be returned the same day. - A maximum of 3 articles may be borrowed at any one time.

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Autumn Term 2008-9 Lecture Schedule



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AUTUMN TERM (Dr Catherine Alexander) WEEK 1 INTRODUCTION and

THE STATE I: INEQUALITY – STATE, CLASS, KINSHIP We start with a broad sense of the differences between the way (neo)classical economics has approached the study of the economy and the way anthropologists try to engage with it. These differences will be a theme running through all the lectures this term. This week will also introduce the course as a whole and some of the key theorists and problems that the following weeks will explore in more detail. Many of the readings suggested below will thus be of relevance to the rest of the course. Modern anthropology has its origins in the democratic revolutions and enlightenment philosophy of the 18th century. How could the arbitrary social inequality of the old regime be replaced by a more equal society founded on what all people have in common, their human nature? This vision of an egalitarian future seemed to have an analogy in the kinship organisation that preceded societies based on the state and class divisions and could still be observed among contemporary savages. We consider that view of ‘pre-state egalitarianism’, moving on to think how the differences between simple and complex societies have been theorised, moving on to different representations / definitions of the state and then how it is experienced in everyday encounters. Alexander C 2002 Personal States: Making Connections Between Bureaucracy

and People in Turkey. Oxford: OUP. Almond G 1988 ‘The Return to the State’, in American Political Science Review.

82(3): 853-874 (DSLC) + Das, V. and D Poole (eds)

2004 Anthropology in the Margins of the State – esp Chapter 1.

+Anderson B 1991 Imagined Communities. London: Verso Arendt H 1973 On Revolution. (ch 1) Harmondsworth: Penguin Asad T 1998 ‘Two Images of Non-European Rule’, in Anthropology and the

Colonial Encounter. T Asad (ed) Amherst, NY: Humanity Books +Bendix R 1966 Max Weber: An Intellectual Portrait. Berkeley: California UP

+Durkheim E 1984 The Division of Labour in Society. Basingstoke: Macmillan

Ferguson, J 2006 ‘Transnational Topographies of power. Beyond the State and Civil society in the study of African Politics’. In Global Shadows.

Friedman, J 2003 Globalisation, the State and Violence

Geertz C 1980 Negara: The Theatre State in Nineteenth Century Bali. Princeton: Princeton UP

Gledhill J 1994 Power and Its Disguises: Anthropological Perspectives on Politics. (pp 38-46) London: Pluto Press

+Herzfeld M 1987 The Production of Indifference. Chicago: Chicago UP (DSLC) Navaro-Yashin Y 2002 Faces of the State: Secularism and Public Life in Turkey.

Princeton: Princeton UP Roseberry, W. 1988 Political Economy. In Annual Review of Anthropology. 161-185.

CRP Steinmetz G (ed) 1999 State/Culture: State Formation After the Cultural Turn. Ithaca

& London: Cornell UP (CRP) Thomas Blom Hansen and Finn Stepputat,

2001 States of Imagination. Ethnographic Explorations of the Postcolonial State. Durham: Duke University Press.

Taussig, M. 1997 The Magic of the State. London: Routledge. +Rousseau J-J 1984 Discourse on Inequality London: Penguin +Engels F 1972 Origin of the Family Private Property and the State Moscow:

Progress Publishers Morgan L 1964 Ancient Society. Cambridge MA: Belknap Press Vincent, A 1987 Theories of the State

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Week 1 Seminar: What can we learn about power and institutions from studying representations of states? How do Durkheim and Weber respectively account for the key differences between simple and complex societies, and how successful are they in accounting for change? What, according to Rousseau, were the historical causes of inequality?

WEEK 2 THE STATE II: CONTINGENCY, EMERGENCE, AND DEBATES Continuing the theme of the state – this lecture explores the contingency of the modern nation-state by looking at different historical state formations and different theories of how and why state forms emerge at particular junctures. Despite this contingency, the presence of the state (or how to account for its absence) was a significant theme in early post War political anthropology. We will examine a series of critiques that these studies, in part, provoked. Morgan L 1964 Ancient Society. Cambridge MA: Belknap Press +Fortes M & E Evans-Pritchard (eds)

1987 African Political Systems. London: KPI in association with the International African Institute

Clastres, P 1977 Society against the state: The Leader as Servant and the Humane Uses of Power Among the Indians of the Americas, Urizen Books

Leach, E 1961 Political Systems of Highland Burma Leach, E. 1960 The Frontiers of ‘Burma’, Comparative Studies in Society and

History, Vol 3(1) (Oct 1960):pp49-68. CRP +Durkheim E 1984 The Division of Labour in Society. Basingstoke: Macmillan Evans-Pritchard, E. 1940 The Nuer, Oxford University Press. Hutchinson S 1996 Nuer Dilemmas: Coping with Money, War, and the State.

Berkeley: University of California Press Goody J 1977 Production and Reproduction Cambridge: Cambridge UP Goody J 1971 Technology, tradition and the state in Africa Carneiro R 1987 'Cross-Currents in the Theory of the State', in Am Ethn. (14):

756-770 Silverblatt I 1987 ‘Transformations: The Conquest Hierarchy and Imperial Rule’

(ch 5), in Moon, Sun and Witches: Gender Ideologies and Class Formation in Inca and Colonial Peru. Princeton: Princeton UP

Smith R 1994 The Matrifocal Family: power, pluralism and politics New

York: Routledge Week 2 Seminar: How did Clastres, Leach and Hutchinson each critique The Nuer and African

Political Systems and what did they all add to political anthropology? How did Goody critique the classic Weberian understanding of the state?

WEEK 3 PROPERTY ‘Property is nothing but a basis of expectation … There is no image, no painting, no visible trait, which can express the relation that constitutes property. It is not material, it is metaphysical: it is a mere conception of the mind. (Jeremy Bentham, Theory of Legislation). We will explore first, what is meant by ‘property’ in the western tradition and different determinants for rights to or in something and, secondly, the differences with how property rights are understood and enacted in other societies. In Week 8 we will see how these different understndings have affected exchanges with other societies.

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+Engels F 1972 The Family, Private Property and the State. Moscow: Progress Publishers

+Hann C (ed) 1998 Property Relations: Renewing the Anthropological Tradition. Cambridge: CUP (intro in CRP)

Alexander C 2004 ‘Values, Relations and Changing Bodies: Privatization and Property Rights in Kazakhstan’, in Property in Question: Value Transformation in the Global Economy. K Verdery & C Humphrey (eds) Oxford: Berg (CRP)

Hirschon R 1984 Women and Property - Women as Property. London: Croom Helm

Hayden C 1998 ‘A Biodiversity Sampler for the Millennium’ (pp 173-206), in Reproducing Reproduction: Kinship, Power, and Technological Change. Sarah Franklin & Helena Ragoné (eds) Philadelphia: U Pennsylvania Press (DSLC)

James, D. 2007 Gaining Ground Rights and Property in South African Land Reform

Maine H 1884 Ancient Law. London: John Murray (NGL) +Myers F 1988 ‘Burning the Truck and Holding the Country: Property, Time

and the Negotiation of Identity Among Pintupi Aborigines’ (vol 2), in Hunters and Gatherers: Property, Power and Ideology. T Ingold, J Woodburn & D Riches (eds) London: Berg CRP

Kagarlitsky B 2000 The Twilight of Globalization: Property, State and Capitalism. trans by Renfrey Clarke London: Pluto Press

Locke J 1988 Two Treatises of Government. Cambridge: CUP Rose M 1993 Authors and Owners: The Invention of Copyright. Cambridge,

Mass.: Harvard UP Rousseau H 1994 A Discourse Upon the Origin and the Foundation of Inequality

Among Mankind. London: Verso +Scott C 1988 ‘Property, Practice and Aboriginal Rights Among Quebec Cree

Hunters’, in Hunters and Gatherers: Property, Power and Ideology. (vol 2) T Ingold, J Woodburn & D Riches (eds) London: Berg. CRP

Benda-Beckmann F., K Benda-Beckman and M Wiber (eds.)

2006 Changing properties of property, Berghahn. Intro and 2 chs in CRP

MacPherson, C.B. 1964 The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism: Hobbes to Locke, OUP.

Le Guin, U. 2006 The Dispossessed, Gollancz Week 3 Seminar: how have understanding of ‘natural’ property rights changed? Can property exist without the state? How can we recognise property? What has property got to do with social organisation? WEEK 4 MONEY In this lecture we will consider western money and then compare these against alternative money forms and uses. We will look at the effects of introducing standardized units to spheres of exchange, why this happens, connections between the state and some money forms, emerging forms of community money – and what happens to money when the state collapses. Appadurai A (ed) 1990 The Social Life of Things. (intro) Cambridge: CUP +Bloch M & J Parry (eds)

1989 Money and the Morality of Exchange. (esp intro) Cambridge: CUP

Bohannan L & P Bohannan

1968 Tiv Economy. Harlow: Longmans

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Buchan J 1999 Frozen Desire. Picador (NGL: C. Alexander has this if you wish to copy it)

Gregory C 1997 Savage Money: The Anthropology and Politics of Commodity Exchange. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publisher

+ Carsten J 1989 ‘Money, Gender and the Symbolic Transformation of the Means of Exchange in a Malay Fishing Village’, in Money and the Morality of Exchange. M Bloch & J Parry (eds) Cambridge: CUP

Coronil F 1997 The Magical State: Nature, Money, and Modernity in Venezuela. Chicago: Chicago UP

+ Dalton, G. 1965 Primitive Money. American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 67, No. 1 (Feb., 1965), pp. 44-65. CRP

Dalton G (ed) 1967 Tribal and Peasant Economies: Readings in Economic Anthropology. Garden City, NY: Natural History Press for the American Museum of Natural History

Hart K 2000 The Memory Bank. London: Profile, See also www.thememorybank.com

+Hart K 1986 ‘Heads or Tails? Two Sides of the Coin’, in Man. (22): 637-655 (CRP)

Humphrey C & S Hugh-Jones (eds)

1992 Barter, Exchange, and Value: An Anthropological Approach. (esp intro) Cambridge: CUP

Leyshon A & N Thrift 1997 Money/Space: Geographies of Monetary Transformation. London: Routledge

Maurer, B. 2006 The Anthropology of Money, Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 35, October 2006. CRP

Seabright P. (ed) 2000 The Vanishing Rouble, Cambridge: CUP – Ch4 Barter in post-Soviet societies: what does it look like and why does it matter? A Ledeneva and P. Seabright

Hutchinson S 1996 Nuer Dilemmas: Coping with Money, War, and the State. Berkeley: University of California Press

Hutchinson S The cattle of money and the cattle of girls among the Nuer, 1930-83, American Ethnologist, 19(2) May 1992, pp294-316.CRP

Origo I 1979 The Merchant of Prato: Francesco di Marco Datini. Harmondsworth: Penguin

Simmel G 1990 The Philosophy of Money. London: Routledge Zaloom, C 2006 Out of the Pit. Traders and Technology from Chicago to

London (Chapter 2) Zaloom, C. 2003 ‘Ambiguous Numbers: Trading Technologies and

interpretation in financial markets’. In American Ethnologist. 2003 30(2) :258-272 CRP

+ Zelizer, V. The Social Meanings of Money: ‘special monies’, The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 95, No. 2 (Sep., 1989), pp. 342-377. CRP

Week 4 Seminar: Does money break down, or connect? Can money exist without the state? Does it make any sense to talk about ’money’ as a singular form? How would you go about setting up a local trading scheme (i.e. a ‘community bank’)? Does money make everything the same? WEEK 5 MARKETS Here we consider western theories of the market: how these fit with both western practice and non-western markets, and the assumptions made about human beings and their behaviour that

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underlie ‘classical economics’. We think about markets as institutions, physical / intangible places, symbolic arenas, and the morality of markets in different contexts. Agnew J 1988 Worlds Apart: The Market and the Theater in Anglo-

American Thought, 1550-1750. Cambridge: CUP

Applbaum, K.. 2004 The marketing era: From professional practice to global provisioning. Chapter in DSLC

Bestor, T. 2004 Tsukiji: The fish market at the center of the world.

Bestor, T 2001 Supply-side sushi: Commodity, market, and the global city’. American Anthropologist. 103 (1):76-95, DSLC

Nelson J & M Ferber 1993 Beyond Economic Man: Feminist Theory and Economics. Chicago UP. Ch 3 in CRP: Not a free market: the rhetoric of disciplinary authority in economics

Granovetter M 1987 ‘Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness’, in American Journal of Sociology. 91(3): 481-510 (CRP)

+Thompson E 1971 ‘The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the 18th Century’, in Past and Present. Feb (CRP)

+Polanyi K 1957 The Great Transformation. Boston: Beacon Press. Chapters 12 and 13 in CRP: The Birth of the Liberal Creed and The Birth of the Liberal Creed cont.: class interest and social change.

Thompson E 1991 ‘The Moral Economy Reviewed’, in Customs in Common. London: Merlin Press

Scott J 1976 The Moral Economy of the Peasant. New Haven, Conn.: Yale UP

Alexander J & P Alexander

1991 ‘What’s in a Fair Price? Price Setting and Trading Partnerships in Javanese Markets’, in Man. 26(3)

+Carrier J (ed) 1997 Meanings of the Market: The Free Market in Western Culture. Oxford: Berg (intro in CRP)

+Dilley R (ed) 1992 Contesting Markets: Analyses of Ideology, Discourse and Practice. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP (intro DSLC)

Gell A 1982 ‘The Market Wheel: Symbolic Aspects of an Indian Tribal Market’, in Man. 17(3)

Callon M (ed) 1997 The Laws of the Markets. Oxford: Blackwell De Marchi N & M Morgan

1994 Higgling: Transactors and Their Markets in the History of Economics. Durham, N.C.: Duke UP

Geertz C 1979 ‘Suq: The Bazaar Economy in Sefrou’, in Meaning and Order in Moroccan Society. C Geertz, H Geertz & Rosen (eds) CUP

Kopytoff I 1989 In Money and the Morality of Exchange. M Bloch & J Parry (eds) Cambridge: CUP

Knorr-Cetina K and U Bruegger.

2002 Global microstructures: the virtual society of financial markets. American Journal of Sociology.

Gracia C 1994 Onions are my Husband: Survival and Accumulation by West African Market Women. Chicago: Chicago UP

Marx, K Capital, Penguin Books, Chapter 1 The Commodity in CRP Riles A. 2004 Real Time: unwinding technocratic and anthropological

knowledge. American Ethnologist. 31(3): 392-405. Plattner S 1989 Economic Anthropology. (Plattner’s ch) Stanford: Stanford

UP Henwood D 2000 Wall Street: How it Works and for Whom. London: Verso,

Chapter ‘Renegades’ in CRP

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Hart, K. 1982 “On commoditization”, E. Goody (Ed) From Craft to Industry, Cambridge, Cambridge UP CRP

Week 5 Seminar: How useful is ‘the market’ as an analytical term? Does the market have a

morality? What are the preconditions for market exchange? What is the ‘free market’? What do studies of marketing tell us? Can the market exist independently from the state? What are the key differences between market exchange, barter and gift exchange?

WEEK 6 READING WEEK – NO LECTURES OR SEMINARS WEEK 7 THE MARKET UNBOUND: NEO-LIBERALISM & GLOBALISATION This week examines the resurgence and global extension of neo-liberal principles from the 1970s onwards, a phenomenon that is sometimes misleadingly blurred with ‘globalisation’. We start by considering some accounts of the history of globalisation (even if not under that name) and the changing forms of European expansionist capitalism, before turning to the rise of international institutions set up to ensure global stability but which have developed into quite different organizations emphasizing economic restructuring.

See: www.rethinkingeconomies.org.uk/ (first seminar on unequal development) Wolf, E. 1982 Europe and the People without History Mintz, S. 1985 Sweetness and Power, + Stiglitz, J. 2002 Globalization and its discontents, Penguin. Ch 1 in CRP Hayter T 1989 Exploited earth: Britain’s aid and the environment Bello, W. 1994 Dark Victory: the United States, Structural Adjustment and

Global Poverty Chomsky, N 1999 Profit over people: neoliberalism and global order Harvey, D. 2005 A brief history of neo-liberalism, OUP De Soto, H 2000 The mystery of capitalism: why capitalism triumphs in the

west and fails everywhere else Guyer, J. 2004 Marginal gains: monetary gains in Atlantic Africa, Chicago

University Press Ferguson, J. 2007 Formalities of poverty: thinking about social assistance in

neoliberal South Africa, African Studies Review 50(2): 71-86. CRP

Wallerstein, I 1982 The rise and future demise of the world capitalist system, in Introduction to the Sociology of ‘developing societies’, S. Alavi and T Shanin (eds.)

Hoogvelt, A 1997 Globalisation and the post-colonial world: the new political economy of development

Week 7 Seminar: How has globalization changed? Why is history it necessary to understand current global inequalities? How has the structure of international lending changed since the second world war and what have the effects been? ** We will also give out and explain the research exercises for Week 11 in Week 7’s seminar **

WEEK 8 GLOBALIZATION AND LOCALITY This lecture complements the previous one by considering what anthropology can bring to studying these global processes. This then examines how globalization is experienced, engaged with and understood through specific regions and localities. Ethnographies tend to focus on themes of identity and consumption, incorporation and resistance.

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Cahn, P 2008 Consuming Class: multilevel marketers in neo-liberal Mexico,

Cultural Anthropology, Vol 23(3) pp429-452, CRP Kipnis, A 2007 Neoliberalism reified: sushi discourse and tropes of

neoliberalism in the People’s Republic of China, JRAI, 13: 383-400. CRP

Elyachar, J 2006 Best practices: research, finance, and NGOs in Cairo, American Ethnologist, Vol 33(3) pp413-426. CRP

Elyachar, J 2005 Markets of Dispossession: NGO’s Economic Development and the state in Cairo, Duke University Press.

Hoffman, L., M. DeHart, and S. Collier

2006 Notes on the Anthropology of Neoliberalism, Anthropology News, Sept. 2006, CRP

+ Ong, A. and S. Collier

Global Assemblages: technology, politics, and ethics as anthropological problems, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, Chapter 1 and 7 in CRP (1: Global Assemblages, Anthropological problems ; 7: Time, money and biodiversity)

Tsing, A. 2005 Friction: an ethnography of global connection, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Tsing, A. 2000 The Global Situation, Cultural Anthropology, Vol. 15, No. 3 (Aug., 2000), pp. 327-360 CRP

+ Kearney, M 1995 The local and the global: the anthropology of globalization and transnationalism, Annual Review of Anthropology, 24: 547-565. CRP

Kandiyoti, D. 1996 Modernization without the market? The case of the Soviet East. Economy and Society,

Ong, A. 1988 The production of possession: spirits and the MNC in Malaysia, American Ethnologist, 15

+ Massey, D. 1994 A Global Sense of Place, from Space, place and gender, University of Minnesota Press. CRP

Sawyer, S. 2004 Crude Chronicles: Indigenous Politics, Multinational Oil, and Neoliberalism in Ecuador (American Encounters/Global Interactions), Duke University Press (also a chapter in Property in Question (eds.) K Verdery and C Humphrey

Lakoff, A 2004 The anxieties of globalisation: antidressant sales and economic crisis in Argentina, Social Studies of Science 34:2: 247-269. CRP

Week 8 Seminar: How can anthropology make sense of global processes? Has there ever been such a thing as a non-hybrid locality? Does the nation-state still have any role to play?

WEEK 9 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS New debates around property rights have been prompted by technological advances (e.g. bio-prospecting for pharmaceutical drugs and recording devices), changes in property objects, the form that globalisation has taken over the last two decades and attempts by international bodies to protect local heritage. The western legal fiction of private ownership, as inscribed in patents, is not always commensurate with other understandings and practices of people’s relationship through and to things. Again, local variability in social organisation can have unanticipated consequences for standard legal attempts, however well-meaning, to safeguard knowledges, rituals, images and so on. ‘Copyleft’ or shareware is the best known example of a challenge to standard intellectual property regimes. + Brown, M. 2004 Who Owns Native Culture?

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+ Brown, M.; J. Barnes, D. Cleveland, R. Coombe, P. Descola, L. Hiatt, J. Jackson, B. Karlsson, D. Posey, W. Powers, L. Rosen, F. Santos Granero, C. Severi, D. Stephenson, M. Strathern, D. Tuzin

Can culture be copyrighted? And comments. Current Anthropology. Vol. 39, No. 2 (Apr., 1998), pp. 193-222 CRP

Kaneff, D. and A. King (eds.)

Special issue on cultural property, Focaal

Hayden, C. 2002 When Nature goes public: the making and unmaking of bioprospecting, Princeton University Press.

Woodmansee, M. "The Genius and the Copyright: Economic and Legal Conditions of the Emergence of the 'Author.'" Eighteenth-Century Studies 17 (1984): 425-48

Barker, J 2001 Dangerous Objects: changing indigenous perceptions of material culture in Papua New Guinea Society, Pacific Science 55(4):359-375.

Hann, C. 2003 Creeds, Cultures and the ‘witchery of music’. JRAI 9(2):223-239.

Lessig, L. 2002 The Future of ideas: the fate of the commons in a connected world, New York: Random House

+ Parry, B. 2004 Bodily transactions: regulating a new space of flows in ‘bio-information’, in Property in Question: value transformation in the global economy, (eds.) K. Verdery and C. Humphrey, pp29-48. CRP

Alexander, C., 2004 Book review of Who Owns Native Culture? Michael Brown. The Political and Legal Anthropology Review, (PoLAR). Vol 27(2) pp 113-129. CRP

Strathern, M., 1996 Cutting the network. JRAI, 2: 517-535. Harrison, S. Ritual as intellectual property, JRAI 27(2): 225-244. Coleman, G. 2001 High-Tech Guilds in the Era of Global Capital, Anthropology

of Work Review, Spring 2001, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 28-32 Coleman, G. 2004 The Political Agnosticism of Free and Open Source Software

and the Inadvertent Politics of Contrast, Anthropological Quarterly 77.3 (2004) 507-519. Available online

Week 9 Seminar / enactment Is it possible to protect local groups from the predations of international profit seeking firms? What are some of the problems with using a one-size fits all approach to protecting intellectual property? What are some of the technological challenges to western ideas of copyright? Is plagiarism copyleft or theft? WEEK 10 THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF WASTE Dr Josh

Reno This lecture brings together topics discussed in previous weeks in order to examine global economies of waste circulation. The discussion will hinge on how global flows of waste have contributed to the production of geopolitical difference and inequality and, particularly, how in recent decades transnational markets in waste have emerged in productive tension with forms of environmental governance and activism. The main example will come from a large and controversial landfill in Michigan, which at one time received the majority of its waste from Canada, and which demonstrates the unforeseen consequences of global waste circulation.

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Thompson, M. 1979 Rubbish Theory: the Creation and Destruction of Value. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Ch 3 ‘Rat-infested slum or glorious heritage?’ CRP

Clapp, J. 2001 Toxic Exports: the Transfer of Hazardous Wastes from Rich to Poorer Countries. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

O’Neill, K. 2000 Waste Trading among Rich Nations: Building a New Theory of Environmental Regulation. Cambridge: MIT Press.

O’Brien M. 2007 A Crisis of Rubbish? Rubbish Society. London: Routledge. Chapter ‘rubbish industries’ in CRP

Reno, J. In press Your Trash is Someone’s Treasure: the Politics of Value at a Michigan Landfill. Journal of Material Culture 14:1. CRP

Seabrook, J. 2008 American Scrap: an Old-School Industry Globalizes. The New Yorker, January 14th. CRP

Week 10 Seminar: How have trades in waste confirmed or created global inequalities? How do

these trades interact with GATT and the 1992 Basel Convention? WEEK 11 DEBATE: CLIMATE CHANGE, SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL


** Week 11 is a different format. Please note different times and rooms ** 10.00-11.00 The Great Hall: Three invited speakers will present on-going research into global warming. 11.00-12.00 Seminar groups will pool their ideas from previous research exercises on different aspects of the debate’s theme and select a representative to present them to the whole class. 12.00-13.00 The Great Hall: each seminar group’s representative will give a 5 minute presentation on the key points from their research. If there is time we will also have questions. Longer presentations from each seminar will be posted on the VLE. MacKenzie, D. 2008 Making Things the Same: Gases, Emission Rights and

The Politics of Carbon Markets. The pdf can be downloaded from his webpage: http://www.sps.ed.ac.uk/staff/sociology/mackenzie_donald

Wallerstein, I. 1997 "Ecology and Capitalist Costs of Production: No Exit". Paper can be downloaded from: http://fbc.binghamton.edu/iwecol.htm

Bellamy Foster, J 2002 Ecology against capitalism, Monthly Review Press. Ch 1 CRP Cole, D Pollution and Property: comparing ownership institutions for

environmental protection, CUP Ch 5 ‘The theory and limites of free market environmentalism (a private property/nonregulatoy regime) CRP

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AN52004A POLITICS ECONOMICS AND SOCIAL CHANGE ESSAY TITLES Refer to at least two ethnographies in your answer 1. Why has the emergence of the state constituted such an important focus of study? 2. How far is it true to say that if there were no state, there would be no inequality?

3. How free is the free market? 4. How does a historical approach enrich anthropological analysis? 5. Discuss how the work of Marx has been variously re-elaborated by anthropologists 6. Does gift giving always unite people? 7. Consider the contrast made between states and stateless societies in the work of three writers. 8. How can anthropology make sense of global processes? 9. What are some of the problems with using a one-size fits all approach to protecting intellectual or cultural property? OR ‘Relativist approaches to intellectual property are all very well, but if there is no standard form for the international community to use there is no means of protecting vulnerable groups from the predations of multinationals.’ Discuss 10. Show how indigenous cultural forms influence the development of capitalism with reference to two ethnographic case studies. 11. ‘When it’s local adaptations of global forces we call it creative hybridity; when it’s big multinational pharmaceuticals, we call it bio-piracy.’ Discuss 12. ‘Property relations are always tied to specific forms of personhood and social organisation. It is therefore impossible to have generic property rights.’ Discuss.

Dr Catherine Alexander

Dr Massimiliano Mollona August 2008

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These guidelines have been designed to ensure that you are aware of the basic expectations of written coursework and examined reports. In addition to general comments concerning essay structure, they include details about how to reference work and issues regarding plagiarism and overlap. Please note that in the marking of work, both of these issues will be taken into account. 1. General Essay Guidance

An essay should present a well-organized argument that responds to a set question. It should include a review and discussion of relevant literature, and should also present an argument for your own perspective. Aim to convince the reader that your angle on the topic is valid, but make sure you demonstrate knowledge of other possible approaches.

a. The Introduction

You should begin with an introduction setting out the issue to be discussed, and tell the reader how you will approach it. Avoid wasting space on definitions unless a particular question requires them. Make a clear argument and proceed from one point to the next so that the narrative builds on what went before.

b. The Main Body of the Essay

Tell the reader where a line of reasoning you refer to is helpful or flawed and, using your own judgment and the work of previous commentators, explain why. Keep the essay focussed on the argument and avoid meandering. Critique is appropriate in an essay but unsubstantiated, moralistic and generalized polemic is not. You can use subheadings to provide structure to the essay and guidance for the reader. Make the sections build on each other. In general, arguments should not be purely abstract or theoretical, but should use examples (from ethnography, history, the media and popular culture, and your own experience, where appropriate). Make sure that the relevance of your examples is clearly stated. Your essay should have a clear and succinct conclusion.

c. Footnotes and Endnotes

Footnotes may be used for points of amplification, but are not generally necessary. Endnotes are discouraged.

2. References

Sources listed in the reading guide will provide good starting points, but you may introduce other material. You may locate further references through bibliographies in articles and books that you already have, through browsing relevant journals, through library catalogues, or through searching the web. Bear in mind that material on the web, especially, is very uneven in quality: you need to make judgements as to whether data are likely to be accurate, and whether interpretations are justifiable or opinionated. In order to be clear and professional, you should cite and list your sources in a standardized way. In anthropology, the most common system uses ‘author-date’ citations within the text rather than footnotes or endnotes.

• General reference to writer/text within a sentence: for example, ‘…as Leach (1972) influentially argued…’ ‘…as critics of Said have noted (e.g. Clifford 1988)…’

• Reference to a specific passage/quotation: all direct quotations must be accompanied by specific page references, for example, ‘…Fry and Willis are suspicious of the emphasis they see on traditional Aboriginal artists (1989: 160-62)…’ ‘…Myers has suggested that “the appeal of the acrylics is the sense of their rootedness in the world” (1995: 84)….’

Any quotation longer than three lines should appear as a separate, indented paragraph, without quotation marks.

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• The Bibliography Full references should be consolidated in a bibliography at the end of your essay, not in the form of endnotes. It should be in alphabetical order by author and should include all and only those works cited. It is important that you include all the information for a reference, and not only date, author and title. Although there are a number of set bibliographic styles, we strongly recommend that you use the following form:

Book: Taussig, Michael (1987) Shamanism, colonialism and the wild man: a study in terror and healing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Edited Book: Karp, Ivan and Stephen Lavine (eds) (1991) Exhibiting cultures: the poetics and politics of museum display. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. Article in Journal: Appadurai, Arjun (1990) ‘Disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy’. Public Culture 2 (2): 1-24. Chapter in Book: Beckett, Jeremy (1998) ‘Haddon attends a funeral: fieldwork in Torres Strait’, in Cambridge and the Torres Strait, Anita Herle and Sandra Rouse, (eds) pp. 23-49. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Film/Video: Harlan County, USA. (1976) Barbara Kopple. Cabin Creek Films, USA. 103 minutes. [name after date is that of director]. Web Pages: Where appropriate, refer to the specific page, rather than the site in general, and include details of the title and author of specific material, for example: Luttwak, Edward (1990) ‘Capitalism without capital’,

3. The Issues of Plagiarism and Overlap

In addition to the general rules of plagiarism, as stated in the Student Handbook, you must ensure that the same work is not submitted for more than one examination, and that it does not overlap with other formally assessed work. Please note the College’s chief concern is that you do not use material in examinations as a means of deception. These guidelines do not therefore stipulate against you making links between courses, or establishing the cross-over of material, or against the answering of an examination question that may partially relate to a coursework essay. Plagiarism is the use of someone else’s work - either direct quotation or minor rephrasing - that is not cited, and is passed off as your own work. The form of the original source is irrelevant - for example, it can be from a book, the Internet, or another student’s essay. Work where the author is unknown should be listed as ‘anonymous’. Self-plagiarism is the use of your own work - either direct quotation or minor rephrasing - that has already been submitted to a Department, either in the form of a coursework essay or examination. Self-plagiarism is a particular issue where an essay, or section of an essay, is reproduced completely unchanged through ‘cut and paste’ facilities. Overlap is the use of the same material in more than one examination, either within this Department or another. In addition to self-plagiarism, overlap can include the use of virtually the same general argument or virtually the same sources of reference material. Note that the College is very strict on these matters, and if found guilty students are likely to be severely penalised. If you have any queries regarding these issues you must contact the Anthropology Examinations Officer.