An Introduction to Digital Cameras and Digital photography and cameras 121416.آ  An Introduction to

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  • An Introduction to Digital Cameras and Digital Photography

    December 14, 2016

    • Getting started, picking a camera

    • Photography in the “Digital Age”

    • Understanding the big picture of how digital cameras are designed (demystification)

    • How to set up and use a digital camera to do “Digital Age” photography

    • A simple approach to processing digital images

    • Appendix – cropping and downsizing images, getting digital images into your computer and organizing them

    Fountain Hills Photo Club Information Series

    ©BBoyce 2016 1

  • Introduction to Digital Cameras

    We’re here to face the reality that

    • Digital cameras are computers with a lens • Digital Camera complexity needs to be dealt with

    • Modes, settings, controls Camera companies are really bad at communication

    We will strive to explain and demystify the complexity

    • There is a simple explanation for how digital cameras are designed; it’s all about control

    • Point and shoot cameras are at one extreme • Cameras in totally manual mode are the other extreme • In between is where we live

    We will go over key photography basics and show you how to set up and use your camera accordingly (no matter what brand)

    • Talk will be interspersed with a few “Tech Facts” 2

  • A Little History

    • Ansel Adams spent his career developing his manual exposure technique and darkroom printing of B&W pictures

    • Color film became popular in the 1950’s • In 2000’s, digital sensors replaced film • Photoshop has largely replaced the darkroom • All digital cameras now have Auto Exposure & Auto Focus

    1950’s

    2000’s

    sensor

    3

  • What’s Changed In Today’s “Digital Age” Photography

    • Auto Exposure and Auto Focus frees up a lot of time

    • You don’t have to worry about the cost of film

    • You don’t have to wait hours or weeks to see your images

     There is a powerful way to instantly review your images when you take them

     There is a convenient and powerful way to immediately correct camera settings and retake each sub-standard image

    • No time spent in the darkroom to see final results (limited by chemistry)

     Digital post-processing is rapid and powerful, and opens the creativity door wide open (beware of the danger of being able to do many things many different ways)

    • Requires a physically-based approach, not a random trial and error process development

    Key Driving “Digital Age” Developments 4

  • Something You Probably Already Know

    • Digital picture size is specified by the number of pixels

    • Pixel = Picture Element

    • Number of pixels also drives the storage required on your computer for storing a picture, measured in Megabytes (MB)

    • An example : a 24 Megapixel image with an aspect ratio of 3:2 is 6,000 pixels wide x 4,000 pixels high [that’s 24 million pixels]

    5

  • The GeoEye-1 Satellite Camera – A True Digital Camera

    • Orbital Sciences had contract to build satellite, integrate camera • Assembly of camera/spacecraft in Satellite Factory in Gilbert, AZ

    • One of two main sources of Google Earth pictures for the last 8 years

    Launched on September 6, 2008

    6

  • GeoEye Satellite Camera Pictures

    The very first picture taken by the GeoEye Camera

    •Note the tennis players on the bottom court

    • From 425 miles altitude 7

  • GeoEye Satellite Camera Pictures

    • Presidential Inauguration January 2009

    • Yes, those dots are over a million people 8

  • GeoEye Satellite Camera Pictures

    • GeoEye camera cost $84 Million dollars • D90 was about $900 in 2009

    Consumer Reports Review*

    Metric Geoeye-1 Nikon D90 Notes

    Mpixels/image 2,100 12.2 for 24x36mm format

    Type of images Pan + 4 colors Color both have B&W, RGB color

    Size of picure frame needed 187.6" x 125" 14.3" x 9.5" At 300 dpi

    Time to fill up 500GB HD [min] 4.1 101.2 D90 at 4.5 fps 12 bit jpeg

    Camera weight 1,200 lbs (1) 1.6 lbs

    Filter size 1,100mm 72mm 200mm Nikon VR lens

    Automatic exposure control No (2) Yes

    Automatic focus No (3) Yes

    Stability req'd (1 pixel smear) 0.1246 arcsec (1) 5.77 arcsec 200mm Nikon VR lens

    Cost of leather case $210,500 (Gucci) $69.95 (Nikon)

    Video capability No Yes

    Stereo capability Yes No

    GPS capability (geolocation) Yes (included) Yes ($125 option)

    Operator image preview No Yes (optical+Liveview)

    Cost of replacement battery $2.1M $42

    Battery life [hrs] 1.8 17 (4) GE-1 contin./D90 100 images/hr

    (1) - hand held use not recommended - use tripod or equivalent

    (2) - set Geoeye camera TDI value (Time Delay Integration), based on sun angle & scene angle

    (3) - preset camera using focus algorithm

    (4) - no flash

    * not really

    9

  • How To Select A Digital Camera

    To select a camera, start by asking yourself these questions;

    1. How are you going to use the camera? • Just around home, family, people • Travel/landscape photography (quality is key) • Sports, kids on the fly, wildlife (speed is key) • Safaris, wet, dusty, cold, humid environments

    2. What will you do with the pictures? • Facebook, email, website, small prints (up to ≈ 8”) • Books, wall art • Large format prints (Fine Art)

    3. What is your tolerance for carrying around heavy equipment?

    • Camera, Multiple lenses, high quality tripod, filters, etc.

    4. What is your growth path as a photographer? 10

  • Digital Camera Types

    Point and shoot (P&S) cameras (including phones)

    • P&S Cameras do all the settings • Most have heavy duty in-camera processing • Suitable for email, web, small-medium sized prints & books

    Pro/Serious Enthusiast (P/SE) Interchangeable Lens Cameras (ILCs)

    • ILC is either DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) or mirrorless • Typically heavy (especially with multiple lenses & tripod) • User does camera settings • Pictures usually need at least some post-processing

    High quality compacts* (Sony RX100) are becoming a P/SE substitute

    Bridge Cameras are an interesting intermediate category

    • Small lightweight cameras with built in powerful zoom lens • Great for travel, hiking  Some now approach quality and flexibility of P/SE cameras

    11

  • Power of 30x Zoom Lens

    25mm focal length

    750mm focal length

    Panasonic ZS50 at 30x

    Panasonic ZS50 at 1x

    • Both images were hand held • Camera has optical

    stabilization to eliminate blurring from camera movement

    • 8 oz • 30x zoom • 10Mpx • Shoots Raw • EVF • P/SE capable

    • New ZS100 • 11 oz • 10x zoom • 20Mpx

    12

  • Power of 30x Zoom Lens

    750mm focal length

    13

  • MP Format Im Ht Min f/no EFL eq Zoom IQ-W IQ-T C.S. Raw1 Video EVF2 Env. Wt.

    Canon G3 X 20 1" 3651 2.8 - 5.6 24 - 600 25x 1:1 1:1 - 14Yes MPAV No 90%H↓ 1.62 $899

    Nikon DL24-500 20 1" 3651 2.8 - 5.6 24 - 500 20.8x 1:1 1:1 s,A Yes 4K Yes 85% H 1.72 $996

    Panasonic FZ1000 20 1" 3651 2.8 - 4.0 25 - 400 16x 1:1 1:1 - Yes 4K Yes - 1.83 $697

    Sony RX10 20 1" 3651 2.8 24 - 200 8.3x 1:1 1:1 s,A Yes 4K Yes DMR↓ 1.79 $898

    Sony RX10 II 20 1" 3651 2.8 24 - 200 8.3x 1:1 1:1 s,A Yes 4K Yes DMR↓ 1.79 $1,298

    Sony RX10 III 20 1" 3651 2.4 - 4 24 - 600 25x 1:1 1:1 s,A Yes 4K Yes Wsealed 2.40 $1,498

    Olympus Stylus 1s 12 1/1.7" 3000 2.8 28 - 300 10.7x 1:1 1:1 s,A 12Yes MOV* Yes 90%H↓ 0.89 $549

    Panasonic FZ200 12 1/2.3" 3000 2.8 25 - 600 24x 1:1 1:1 - Yes MPAV Yes - 1.18 $297

    Panasonic FZ300 12 1/2.3" 3000 2.8 25 - 600 24x 1:1 1:1 - Yes 4K Yes DSP 1.52 $497

    Canon SX530 HS 16 1/2.3" 3465 3.4 - 6.5 24 - 1200 50x 2:1 3:1 - No MPAV No 90%H 0.98 $249

    Canon SX60 HS 16 1/2.3" 3465 3.4 - 6.5 21 - 1365 65x 2:1 3:1 - 12Yes MP4 Yes 90%H↓ 1.43 $449

    Fuji FinePix S9900W 16 1/2.3" 3465 2.9 - 6.5 24 - 1200 50x 1:1 3:1 - No MOV* Yes 80%H 1.47 $199

    Nikon Coolpix B500 16 1/2.3" 3465 3.0 - 6.5 22.5 - 900 40x 1:1 3:1 - No MP4 No - 1.19 $296

    Nikon Coolpix B700 20 1/2.3" 3873 3.3 - 6.5 24 - 1440 60x 2:1 3:1 - Yes 4K Yes 85%H 1.24 $496

    Nikon Coolpix L840 16 1/2.3" 3465 3.0 - 6.5 22.5 - 855 38x 1:1 3:1 - No MOV No ↓ 1.18 $196

    Nikon Coolpix P610 16 1/2.3" 3465 3.3 - 6.5 24 - 1440 60x 1:1 3:1 - No MOV Yes - 1.24 $359

    Nikon Coolpix P900 16 1/2.3" 3465 2.8 - 6.5 24 - 2000 83x 1:1 3:1 - No MOV Yes - 1.98 $596

    Nikon P530 16 1/2.3" 3465 3.0 - 5.9 24 - 1000 42x 1:1 3:1 - No MOV Yes - 1.09 $279 U

    Sony HX400V 16 1/2.3" 3465 2.8 - 6.3 24 - 1200 50x 1:1 3:1 s No MP4* Yes - 1.46 $498

    Canon SX420 IS 20 1/2.3" 3873 3.5 - 6.6 24 - 1008 42x 2:1 3:1 - No MPAV No 90%H 0.72 $299

    Canon SX720 HS 20 1/2.3" 3873 3.3 - 6.9 24 - 960 40x 2:1 3:1 - No NTSC No 90%H 0.60 $379

    Nikon S9900 16 1/2.3" 3465 3.7 - 6.4 25 - 750 30x 2:1 3:1 - No MOV* No - 0.64 $272

    Panasonic ZS50 12 1/2.3" 3000 3.3 - 6.4 24 - 720 30x 1:1 2:1 - Yes MPAV Yes -