Understanding How To Apply Revised Blooms Taxonomy
Moving Toward Complete Alignment In Social Studies
Understanding how to use the Revised Blooms Taxonomy (RBT) to align classroom instruction and assessment to the new social studies essential standards.
Todays Presentation Will Assist Participants With:
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The RBT Taxonomy Table should be used to help determine the learning experiences and assessment tasks for which you ask students to participate.
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Question # 1
How should you use the table below in instruction and assessment?
True or False? The assessment below is aligned to the clarifying objective.
CO: Summarize the change in cultures, everyday life, and status of indigenous American Indian groups in North Carolina before and after European exploration.
The lives of American Indians were changed when Europeans came to the New World. Tell how farming, hunting and everyday life within their tribes changed for the American Indians.
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An Appropriate Assessment:
Have the student read a passage that describes changes in American Indians culture and lives.
Read the passage above and write a few sentences describing how life changed for American Indians as a result of European exploration of the New World.
NCs New Lens: Revised Blooms Taxonomy (RBT)
Say: Currently, there is a disconnect between the cognitive rigor of the content standards that students are to be learning, the cognitive rigor of the actual work students are doing and the cognitive rigor of the summative assessment. The revised taxonomy is a two dimensional system that identifies both the structure of knowledge and the cognitive processes students are expected to demonstrate. With RBT, teachers and administrators are assured of an increased alignment of instruction, assessment and state standards.
Say: Our first session today is an effort to clarify the Revised Blooms Taxonomy and provide you with enough guidance that you may continue this journey of exploring the taxonomy once this training is over.
Our work today, or over the next few days, is not enough to make you an expert in the use of Revised Blooms Taxonomy. We will begin that journey today but each of you must chart your own course and set your own pace to mastery.
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Making sure that everyone is on the same page is the point.
Revised Blooms Taxonomy (RBT)
Provides a common language for all curriculum areas by indicating what a learning or assessment task was intended to measure
by cognitive type
by type of knowledge
Provides a framework that may help teachers plan and deliver appropriate instruction, design valid assessment tasks and strategies, and ensure that instruction and assessment are aligned with the objectives. (p.xxii)
The Alignment Question
How does one ensure that objectives, instruction and assessment are consistent with one another?
The Structure of Curriculum
Essential Standards/Clarifying Objectives
Learning Experiences/Performance Tasks
Materials and Equipment
Image of students with globe. Image no. 3Q1675 Photo by Will & Deni McIntyre
The Importance of Alignment
Alignment is an even stronger predictor of student achievement on standardized tests than are socioeconomic status, gender, race, and teacher effect.
~ Elmore & Rothman, 1999: Mitchell, 1998; Wishnick,1989
Does the teacher teach and assess the factual, conceptual, and procedural knowledge outlined in the curriculum?
Do the students get to work and think at the level the curriculum prescribes?
Cognitive Type Alignment
Are the parameters of the assessment reasonably similar to the parameters of the instruction?
Learning occurs best when there is a purposeful process that creates complete alignment.
By yourself, classify the 13 original colonies according to which were New England, Middle or Southern. (2 minutes )
Lets Perform A Quick Activity
Thirteen Original Colonies
VirginiaRhode IslandGeorgiaNew YorkDelawareNew JerseyNorth CarolinaSouth CarolinaPennsylvaniaMassachusettsNew HampshireMarylandConnecticut
Using the map place the 13 colonies with their correct alphabet and indicate numerically the chronological order each was established from 1 to 13. (2 minutes )
Now, Lets Assess
How Did You Do?
The Cognitive Dimension Is The Alignment For Standards & Assessment
The RBT Verbs
Say: A major difference between the 2006and 2010 standards is the presence of only one verb.
Only 25 verbs will be used in the revised Essential Standards. This will greatly enhance the likeliness of alignment. 6 verbs serve as Categories and the remaining 19 serve as cognitive processes that may be classified in the 6 categories.
Other verbs will be incorporated into the standards at the instruction level during differentiation.
RememberRetrieving relevant knowledge from long term memory (verbatim, unchanged by student)
1.1 Recognizing (identifying)
1.2 Recalling (retrieving)
Remembering is essential for meaningful learning and problem-solving.
It is used in more complex tasks.
Recall Or Recognition?
The line of demarcation among the 6 cognitive categories is REMEMBER
Remember rote learning
All others meaningful learning (transfer)
Rote learning requires students to remember what they learned.
Transfer requires students to remember but also make sense of what they have learned.
Constructing meaning from instructional messages,
including oral, written and graphic communication
2.1 Interpreting2.2 Exemplifying2.3 Classifying2.4 Summarizing2.5 Inferring2.6 Comparing2.7 Explaining
Understand cognitive processes are the most represented in state standards
More cognitive processes are associated with this category than any other category
The learner grasps the meaning of information by interpreting and translating what has been learned.
An Assessment Example
Cognitive ProcessesClarifying ObjectiveExample AssessmentSummarizeCE.PFL.2.2 Summarize various types of fraudulent solicitation and business practices.Read the following article: http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/f/frauds_and_swindling/ponzi_schemes/index.html?inline=nyt-classifier or Watch the following clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SsSGZezvuSg Summarize in three sentences or less the fraudulent business practice described in either the article or video clip.
An Assessment Example
Cognitive ProcessesClarifying ObjectiveExample AssessmentExplainWH.6.1 Explain how new ideas and theories of the universe altered political thought and affected economic and social conditions. Construct a cause and effect graphic organizer explaining how a scientific or enlightened thinkers ideas impacted political, economic, or social conditions in 17TH & 18TH century America.
4.1 Differentiating [e.g. the relevant from the irrelevant parts.]
4.2 Organizing [Identifying the elements of a communication or situation and recognizing how they fit together in a coherent structure. The student builds systematic and coherent connections among pieces of presented information.]
4.3 Attributing [the underlying purpose or perspective reading between the lines.]
Break material into its constituent parts and determine how the parts relate to one another and to an overall purpose.
Examples of Assessing Analyze
The student will distinguish the major and minor points in research reports.
Circle the main points in an archeological report on an ancient Mayan city.
The student will structure a historical description into evidence for and against a particular explanation.
Write an outline that shows which facts, in the book Ancient Maya: The Rise and Fall of a Rainforest Civilization, support and which facts do not support the conclusion that the decline of the civilization was caused by influences of the Europeans.
The student will determine the point of view of the author of an essay on a controversial topic.
Determine if a report on the decline of the Mayan rainforest was written from a pro-environmental or pro-economic point of view.
Cognitive Processes Of AnalyzeExample Learning ObjectiveExample AssessmentDifferentiating