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Amphibian malformations and decline

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Amphibian malformations and decline. Some Malformations. Polymelia. Amelia. Anophthalmia. Ectromelia. Why are amphibians so susceptible to mutations?. What is causing the malformations?. North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations Ohio. Amphibian declines. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Amphibian malformations and decline1Polymelia

Some MalformationsAmelia2

EctromeliaAnophthalmia3Why are amphibians so susceptible to mutations?

4Aquatic/terrestrial life history Relatively unprotected eggs External fertilization Skin permeability Biomagnifications of contaminants

What is causing the malformations?

5UV-B radiationincreased UVB radiation due to ozone depletion may cause bilateral limb truncationEnvironmental ToxinsGeneral pollutants (gas, radiator fluid, salt)Herbicide/pesticide exposureEndocrine disruptorsand hormone mimicsDioxides and furansDifficult to clean upBiomagnification

North American Reporting Centerfor Amphibian MalformationsOhio

6Amphibian declines

Bufo periglenesAtelopus ebenoides marinkelleiAtelopus nahumae

Declining Amphibian Populations

8Habitat loss and fragmentationPrimarily wetland lossClimatic changesInfectious diseaseFungal infectionViral infection - IridovirusInvasive species predationSkin permeabilityOvercollection

Hotspots of Amphibian DeclineSource: http://elib.cs.berkeley.edu/aw/index.htmlIn the U.S., declines are particularly serious in California, the Rocky Mountains, the Southwest, and Puerto Rico. Worldwide, decline "hot spots" also include Australia and Central America.9

Bufo boreas

Bufo baxteriWhy care about amphibian declines/malformations?

11Ecosystem Structure and FunctionAquaticGrazersNutrient dynamicsBioturbationFacilitation of grazers/collectorsEggs + tadpoles supplement energy

Ecosystem structure and function

12TerrestrialInsect control!Important prey1 species akin to 2

Why else do we care?

13Environmental quality indicators - biomarkersFoodResearchPlus, theyre cool

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