Allusions Wasteland

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  • 7/30/2019 Allusions Wasteland


    Allusions in T. S. Eliots The Waste Land English 1102

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    Philomel (Philomela) song lover

    In Greek mythology, sister of Procne; daughter of KingPandion of Athens andZeuxippe

    Procnes husband, Tereus,king of Thrace, rapedPhilomela and then cut outher tongue so she could notspeak.

    Wove her tale onto a tapestryand sent to sister, Procne

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    Philomels Revenge

    Killed Itylus, the 5-year old son of Tereus andserved the boy to the father at dinner

    During meal, Philomela threw Itylus head on

    the table Gods revenge:

    Transformed Philomela into a nightingale Transformed Tereus into a hawk Transformed Procne into a swallow Transformed Itylus into a pheasant or sandpiper

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    Literary Connections

    Ovids Metamorphoses (book 6) Chaucers Legend of Good Women

    narrates the myth Sir Philip Sidneys The Nightingale Edmund Spensers Virgils Gnat

    Shakespeares Titus Adronicus T. S. Eliots Sweeney among the

    Nightingales and The Waste Land

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    In mythology, Juno blinded Tiersias who hadexperienced sex as both a man and a woman for agreeing with Jupiter that womenexperienced greater pleasure from sex than

    men. In ancient times, intercourse was prescribed toalleviate sluggish behavior. Indolence could betraced, Aristotle, Plato and others said, toexcess phlegm in the brain, and ejaculation,which resembled phlegm and was noted as afemale capability as well, would drain the brainof the sticky humor and energize the person.

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    Tieresias in Sophocles Oedipus Rex

    The blind prophet Tiresias is called upon to aid thesearch for the murder of the king, but, after his warningagainst following through with it, Oedipus names him asthe murderer, even though he is blind and aged.

    In response, an angry Tiresias tells Oedipus that he islooking for himself, causing the king to become enragedin incredulity. He then accuses the prophet of conspiring with Creon , Jocasta's brother, to overthrowhim.

    The theme can perhaps be summarized with a linespoken by Tiresias: "Wisdom is a dreadful thing when itbringeth no profit unto its possessor" (Sophocles).
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    The Odyssey, Book XI:

    At the exact center of the poem, a fact that points to the book's centralimportance. Odysseus must make the ultimate Quest, to see andtriumph over death. He must die and be reborn. Imagery of Mysteryreligion appears here. Odysseus in his ship probably goes to the west(where the sun sets), and then makes his sacrifice to the dead, whichare, at least here, pictured as flitting, bloodless ghosts. ThenOdysseus meets various characters that in some sense represent hispast life -- again, this process is part of his regaining of identity, for byreliving your past you establish who you are.

    Then he meets Tiersias, who tells him all that is to happen -- againHomer is not interested in suspense. What is interesting is whatTiersia says will happen to Odysseus later, that he will makeatonement to Poseidon by going inland to a people who know nothingof the sea and make a shrine to him. This is an old motif and muchrepeated. It follows a paradigm of Greek religion that those who arepersecuted by the Gods are in some sense also linked to them, sinceeven disfavor is a sign of attention. This is probably also part of the'sailor at whom the sea is mad' folktale level.

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    The extent to which Homer is seen as a prophet himself isexemplified in the renaissance conflation of Homer with Tiresias.

    The much reprinted title page of Chapmans Odyssey depicts thefigure of Homer in the storyline of Tiersias. The author becomeshis character.

    Lamberton further examines the antecedents for this renaissancehybrid with references ranging from Plato to Dante.

    What remains is an image in which Homer is surrounded by alegion of poets paying him homage, while simultaneously depictingTiresias surrounded by the ghosts of the underworld where heremains in possession of all knowledge: past, present and future.

    To quote Lamberton: The head, with blind eyes turned to heaven,illustrates a tradition Homers blindness [is] a metaphor for transcendent vision. (Lamberton 1989: 8)

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    Tieresias in Antigone

    Tiersias informs Creon that the Gods areangry with him and with all of Thebes. Inspite of this, Creon announces that he willnot yield his verdict, and Antigone willremain entombed. It is not until theChoragos, representing the people of

    Thebes, begs Creon to set Antigone freethat Creon actually admits he haswronged.

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    Aeneas (praiseworthy) Greek & Roman

    Trojan hero appearing in Virgils Aenid Son of Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite, the

    brother of Lyrus Born on the mountains of Ida and brought up until his

    5 th year by his brother-in-law Alcathous or, according toa variant myth, by the nymphs of Ida Highly esteemed for his piety, prudence, and valor Often the gods came to his assistance

    Aphrodite and Apollo shielded him when his life was threatenedby Diomed

    Poseidon snatched him out of combat with Achilles

    The founder of the Roman Empire according to myth

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    Dido Roman mythology

    Queen of Carthage Aka Elissa Belus Mistress of the Trojan hero, Aeneas Didos husband, Acherbas, Acerbas, or

    Sychaeus, was murdered by his brother Pygmalio

    Fled to North Africa and foundedCarthage

    Killed herself when Aeneas deserted her

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    Henry Purcells Dido and Aeneas opera

    Aeneas reaches Carthage Courts Dido but she relents He leaves to fulfill his destiny in Italy Heartbroken, Dido dies

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    Buddhas Fire Sermon

    Translation at

    Clearly lays out the case for detachment, but it also introduces the sixroots, twelve fields, and eighteen elements, and the three poisons, whichwill appear again and again in other Buddhist teachings.

    Together they compromise the fundamental sources of worldly suffering inBuddhism. Looking at them from a scientific angle, we can see why the sixroots and the three poisons are not conducive to happiness. The six rootsare the products of biological necessity; they developed to assist survivalnot happiness. The three poisons are the biological imperatives whichdemand that we use our minds and bodies to seek food, avoid danger andignore anything that does not pertain to survival and the perpetuation of the species.

    One could say that trying to find happiness or blissful repose through thesix roots and the three poisons is like trying to cool off on a hot day byswimming in a bonfire. In some ways, Buddhist liberation is an attempt tofree humanity from mere biological necessity.
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    Prajapati (lord of creatures)

    Hindu creators In the beginning, there was water

    everywhere. There was nothing toeat and nowhere to live. Prajapati,the divine patriarch, father of thegods and demons saw the plight of his children and invoked Devi.

    The goddess whispered into his ear,The earth lies trapped under thewater. Raise it up.

    Prajapati took the form of a mightyboar called Emusha, plunged into the

    sea and found the earth-goddessBhoodevi on the oceanfloor. Placing her on his snout, hegently raised her to the surface.

    Prajapati then turned into Akupara, agiant turtle and offered Bhoodevi aseat on his back.
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    Upanishads Hindu scripture

    A collection of philosophical writings composedover a period of time, the most important beingfrom about 500 B.C.E.

    Generally in prose but some in verse

    At least 150 of them Discuss the origin of the universe, the nature of

    the deity, the nature of the soul, and therelationship between mind and matter

    German philosopher Schopenhauer: They arethe products of the highest wisdom. Theyare destined sooner or later to become the faithof the people.

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    Hieronymo from Thomas Kyd's SpanishTragedy

    Elizabethan revenge drama featuring a certain Hieronymo who, likeHamlet, feigns madness in a ruse to discover the murderer of his son.

    Bel- Imperia, niece of Spains king, is loved both by Horatio, a war hero,and by the captured Portuguese prince, Balthazar. Her brother Lorenzoaids Balthazar and together they murder Horatio. The murdered mansfather Hieronymo seeks revenge; he must first identify the murderers, thenuse guile to trap them. Distracted by grief, Hieronymo pretends madnessto hide his bloody intent.

    Finally Hieronymo arranges a play to entertain the visiting Portugueseking; it is a short tragedy in which the act