ALL DYNAMIC CRUST CR MEGA ALL DYNAMIC CRUST CR MEGA PACKET Base your answers to questions 9 through

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  • ALL DYNAMIC CRUST CR MEGA PACKET

    Base your answers to questions 1 through 3 on the reading passage and map below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The passage provides information regarding the eruption of a volcano in Iceland. The map shows the thickness of ash deposits, in centimeters (cm), during the first three days of the eruption. Point A, representing the volcano's location, and point B, representing a location on Earth's surface, are connected with a reference line.

    Iceland Volcano Eruption Spreads Ash Cloud over Europe On April 14, 2010, Eyjafjallajökull volcano, located in southern Iceland, explosively erupted, sending large volumes of volcanic ash high into the atmosphere. Much of the ash fell quickly to Earth, as seen in the map, but large quantities remained airborne and spread over Europe. Most of the ash was transported within the atmosphere below 10 kilometers. Air traffic across the Atlantic and throughout Europe was severely disrupted, as airlines were forced to keep jet aircraft on the ground.

    1. Explain why the lithosphere in the vicinity of Eyjafjallajökull is more volcanically active than most other regions of Earth's surface.

  • ALL DYNAMIC CRUST CR MEGA PACKET

    2. The graphs below indicate the percent by mass of different diameters of ash particles deposited at 2 kilometers and 60 kilometers from the volcanic eruption.

    Describe how the size of the deposited ash particles changed with increased distance from the volcano.

    3. On the grid, construct a profile of the thickness of the volcanic ash deposits by plotting the ash fall along line AB. Plot each point where an isoline showing thickness is crossed by line AB. Ash thickness at location A has been plotted. Complete the profile by connecting all seven plots with a line.

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    4. Base your answer to the following question on the map of Haiti's location and portion of the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale below, on the Haiti Earthquake Intensity Map, and on your knowledge of Earth science. The map shows the location of Haiti in the Atlantic Ocean. The Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale describes the amount and type of damage caused by an earthquake on a scale from I to XII. A portion of this scale is shown below. Modified Mercalli intensity values for the January 12, 2010, earthquake in Haiti are represented on the Haiti Earthquake Intensity Map.

  • ALL DYNAMIC CRUST CR MEGA PACKET

    On the earthquake intensity map, boundary lines have been drawn between the Modified Mercalli intensity values of IV and V. On the map, draw boundary lines between the Modified Mercalli intensity values of V and VI.

  • ALL DYNAMIC CRUST CR MEGA PACKET

    Base your answers to questions 5 through 8 on the passage and map below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The passage describes the March 11, 2011, earthquake that occurred off the coast of Japan and the tsunami that it generated. The map shows the location of the earthquake epicenter and the tsunami travel times across the Pacific Ocean.

    Earthquake and Tsunami Rattle the Pacific

    At 2:46 p.m., in Japan, on Friday, March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred below the ocean floor, at a depth of 18.6 miles under the ocean surface. The epicenter was located approximately 80 miles off Japan's eastern coast at the approximate coordinates of 38° N 142° E. The earthquake shook buildings across Japan and generated a 7-meter-high tsunami that killed thousands of people as it engulfed towns on the northern coast of Japan. The tsunami also occurred along the coasts of other countries and islands in the Pacific Ocean. The tsunami first arrived at the Hawaiian island of Maui seven hours after the earthquake occurred.

    5. Identify one safety precaution that residents of Maui could have undertaken in response to the tsunami warning.

    6. Identify the type of seismic wave traveling through Earth's crust that was the first to arrive at earthquake recording stations located in Japan.

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    7. The diagram below represents an observer standing near the side of a building. Using the scale shown, place an X on the side of the building to show the maximum height of the tsunami that killed thousands of people as it engulfed towns on the northern coast of Japan.

    8. Identify the type of plate boundary where the earthquake occurred.

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    Base your answers to questions 9 through 13 on the passage, data tables, and map below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The data tables show trends (patterns) of two lines of Hawaiian island volcanoes, the Loa trend and Kea trend. For these trends, ages and distances of the Hawaiian island volcanoes are shown. The map shows the locations of volcanoes, labeled with Xs, that make up each trend line.

    Hawaiian Volcano Trends

    The Hawaiian volcanic island chain, located on the Pacific Plate, stretches over 600 kilometers. This chain of large volcanoes has grown from the seafloor to heights of over 4000 meters. Geologists have noted that there appear to be two lines, or "trends,"of volcanoes—one that includes Mauna Loa and one that includes Mauna Kea. Loihi and Kilauea are the most recent active volcanoes on the two trends shown on the map.

    9. Identify the compass direction in which the Pacific Plate has moved during the last 4.6 million years.

    10. Identify the tectonic feature beneath the moving Pacific Plate the caused volcanoes to form in both the Loa and Kea trends.

    11. State the general relationship between the age of the volcanoes and the distance from Loihi.

    12. Identify the two volcanoes, one from each trend, that have the same age.

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    13. The average distance between the volcanoes along the Kea trend is 51.2 kilometers. Place an X on the map below to identify the location on the seafloor where the next volcano will most likely form as a part of the Kea trend.

  • ALL DYNAMIC CRUST CR MEGA PACKET

    Base your answers to questions 14 through 17 on the passage and the map below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The map indicates the epicenter (*) of a major earthquake that occurred at 38° N 142° E. This map also shows some smaller plates believed to be part of the major tectonic plates shown in the Earth Science Reference Tables. Letter A represents a location on a plate boundary.

    Devastating Tsunami

    On March 11, 2011, one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded (magnitude 9.0) produced a 7-meter-high tsunami that devastated Japan's eastern coast. Thousands of people died and billions of dollars in damage occurred. Several hours after the earthquake, the tsunami reached the Hawaiian Islands and parts of North America's west coast.

    14. Identify one geologic feature that was most likely produced by plate interaction at point A.

    15. Describe one immediate action that was most likely taken in the Hawaiian Island to prevent the loss of life as the tsunami approached.

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    16. On the cross section of the tectonic plate boundary, draw one arrow in each circle to indicate the general direction of plate motion near the earthquake epicenter.

    17. Identify by name the two tectonic plates labeled on the map above that are located directly on each side of the earthquake epicenter.

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    Base your answers to questions 18 through 22 on the modified Mercalli scale of earthquake intensity below, on the map of Japan in your answer booklet, and on your knowledge of Earth science. The modified Mercalli scale classifies earthquake intensity based on observations made during an earthquake. The map indicates the modified Mercalli scale intensity values recorded at several locations in Japan during the March 11, 2011 earthquake, which triggered destructive tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean.

    18. A 25-foot high tsunami hit the Japanese city of Ishinomaki. Describe a precaution the city could take now to protect citizens from tsunamis in future years.

    19. Describe one way the P-waves and S-waves recorded on seismograms at Ishinomaki and Nagano were used to indicate that Ishinomaki was closer to the earthquake epicenter than was Nagano.

    20. The epicenter of this earthquake was located at 38° N 142° E. Identify the type of tectonic plate boundary that is located nearest to the epicenter of this earthquake.

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    21. The list below shows some observations that might be made during an earthquake according to the modified Mercalli scale. Place a check mark ( ) in the box if that observation most likely was recorded at Yamagata during the March 11, 2011 earthquake. More than one box may be checked.

    22. On the map below, a line has been drawn to separate regions with Mercalli values of V from regions with Mercalli values of VI. Draw another line to separate regions with Mercalli values of VI from regions with Mercalli values of VII.

  • ALL DYNAMIC CRUST CR MEGA PACKET

    Base your answers to questions 23 through 26 on the map below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The map shows the generalized ages of surface bedrock of Iceland, an island located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift. The location of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift is indicated. Points A and B represent locations on the surface bedrock, which is igneous in origin. The ages of the surface bedrock, in million years (my), are indicated in the key.