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2. INTRODUCTION 3. INTRODUCTION Air pollution is defined as the release ofharmful amounts of natural or syntheticmaterials into the atmosphere as direct orindirect result of human activity 4. The severity of air pollution in a given areadepends on several factors includingi. climate,ii. topography,iii. population density andiv. the number and type of industrial activities. 5. Air pollution may be broken down into fourcategories:i. Ambient or outdoor air pollutionii. Indoor air pollutioniii. Occupational air pollutioniv. Personal air pollution 6. In this experiment we will use a high volumeair sampler to measure TSP. The 24 hour airquality standard established for TSP is260g/m3. The size range of particles trappedon the filter is typically less than 25-50m butgreater than 10m. 7. Calculation TSP concentration = 10^6 (Wf - Wi ) g/m^3 Where;RD Wi = 2.63g Wf = 2.76 g R = average flow rate = (0.85-0.57)/5 =0.056x4 =0.224CMM + 0.57 = 0.794CMM x 60 3 =47.64 m / hr 8. D = duration of exposure (hour) = 1530 hr until 0900 hr = 17.30 hr RD = total volume of air passing through TSP concentration 10 ( 2 . 76 2 . 63 ) g / m 6 3347 . 64 m / hr (17 . 30 hr ) 157 . 73 g 9. Question 1:How would your filter look like if it were placedalongside a road? Next to the factory? Why is thelocation of the filter important?The filter look same at the two areas as theparticulate pollutants in these two area are almostthe same. But, variation may occur due to presenceof chimney air filter, automotive cabin air filters andothers. The location of the filter is important becausethe amount of total particulate pollutants (TSP) isvary from location to location as the TSP in rural arealess than the urban area, TSP near factory morecompared to inside a forest. 10. Question 2:Do you consider the air pollution in your area to bedangerous? If so, what are the contributors to theair pollution in your area? If air pollution is not aproblem now, do you think it will be in the future ifnothing is done to protect air quality?The air pollution in this new campus is still notconsider to be dangerous, however there still havesome particulate pollutants present in this area asthe contribution from vehicles and buildingconstruction. Actually air pollution is consider as aproblem now and it will become worse in the futureif nothing is done to protect air quality. 11. Particulate pollutants" also known as particulatematter or PM, is a complex mixture of extremelysmall particles and liquid droplets. Particulatepollution is made up of a number of components,including acids (such as nitrates and sulfates),organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dustparticles. The size of particles is directly linked to theirpotential for causing health problems. Particlesthat are 10 micrometers in diameter or smallerare the particles that generally pass through thethroat and nose and enter the lungs. Onceinhaled, these particles can affect the heart andlungs and cause serious health effects. 12. Particulate pollutants can grouped into twocategories: "Inhalable coarse particles" such as those foundnear roadways and dusty industries, are largerthan 2.5 micrometers and smaller than 10micrometers in diameter. "Fine particles," such as those found in smokeand haze, are 2.5 micrometers in diameter andsmaller. These particles can be directly emittedfrom sources such as forest fires, or they canform when gases emitted from power plants,industries and automobiles react in the air. 13. Levels of Cautionary StatementsEPA Air Quality Health PM2.5 PM10IndexConcern0 - 50GoodNoneNone 51 - 100Moderate NoneNoneUnhealthy for People with respiratory or heart People with respiratory disease,101 - 150 Sensitive disease, the elderly, and children such as asthma, should limit Groups should limit prolonged exertion. outdoor exertion. People with respiratory disease,People with respiratory or heart such as asthma, should avoiddisease, the elderly, and children outdoor exertion; everyone else,151 - 200Unhealthyshould avoid prolonged exertion;especially the elderly and children, everyone else should limitshould limit prolonged outdoorprolonged exertion. exertion.People with respiratory or heartPeople with respiratory disease,disease, the elderly, and children such as asthma, should avoid any Very201 - 300should avoid any outdoor activity; outdoor activity; everyone else, Unhealthy everyone else should avoidespecially the elderly and children,prolonged exertion.should limit outdoor exertion.Everyone should avoid any outdoor Everyone should avoid any outdoorexertion; people with respiratory or exertion; people with respiratory301 - 500Hazardous heart disease, the elderly, and disease, such as asthma, shouldchildren should remain indoors.remain indoors. 14. What are the health effects of particle pollution?Short-term increases (over hours to days) inparticle pollution have been linked to: death from respiratory and cardiovascular causes,including strokes increased numbers of heart attacks, especially amongthe elderly and in people with heart conditions inflammation of lung tissue in young, healthy adults increased hospitalization for cardiovascular disease,including strokes; hospitalization for asthma among children aggravated asthma attacks in children. 15. Year-round exposure to particle pollution has alsobeen linked to: increased hospitalization for asthma attacks inchildren living near roads with heavy truck or trailertrafficstunted lung function growth in children andteenagerssignificant damage to the small airways of the lungsincreased risk of heart attacks and strokes in olderwomenincreased risk of dying from lung cancergreater risk of death from cardiovascular disease 16. Who is at risk?Anyone may be affected by particle pollution, butseveral groups are most at risk: Children under 18 Adults 65 and older Anyone with chronic lung disease, such as asthma,chronic bronchitis, or emphysema Anyone with a cardiovascular disease, such as highblood pressure, coronary artery disease, or congestive heart failure Anyone with diabetes. 17. CONCLUSIONAt the end of this experiment, we are ableto : understand the significant of particulatepollutants. Become familiar with air samplingtechnique for total suspended particulates(TSP). Determine whether our environment isfree of air pollutants.