Aida and Dagmar[1]

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Marketing AIDA & DAGMAR

Hierarchy of effects models These models describe the stages individuals go through when making a purchase, or consumption decisions. Promotional activities are designed to move the potential buyer through the stages. The models provide a means of analysing promotional activities.

Marketing AIDA & DAGMAR

AIDAAn acronym for the role of advertising and other forms of promotion

Marketing AIDA & DAGMAR

AIDA One of a number of models that analyse the customers journey from ignorance to purchase. A persuasive sequence used in promotion. Developed in 1898 by St Elmo Lewis. It describes the process a salesperson must lead the potential customer through from ignorance of the product to eventual purchase.Marketing AIDA & DAGMAR

AIDA AIDA is a sequential model showing steps that marketing communications should lead potential buyers through. Promotion seeks to -attract attention -create interest -develop desire and -prompt actionMarketing AIDA & DAGMAR


Grab the attention of the audience. Inform potential buyers about the product. Establish customer awareness of the product. At this stage advertising is the key ingredient in the promotional mix. The promotional objective at this stage is to get the product seen and talked about.Marketing AIDA & DAGMAR

Interest Create and stimulate buyer interest. This is achieved by creating an understanding of the benefits of the product in relation to the needs of the customer. At this stage the promotional message focuses on how the product meets these needs. Move the potential buyer from passive awareness to a more active consideration of the products merits.Marketing AIDA & DAGMAR

Desire Create desire Induce a favourable attitude to the products,especially in relation to competing products Arouse a desire for the product above any desire for competitor products

Marketing AIDA & DAGMAR

Action To prompt customer action. The action sought is for the customer to purchase the product. Induce a purchase by stressing the immediate desirability of the product. Personal selling and sales promotion play a major role at this stage.

Marketing AIDA & DAGMAR

AIDA and the promotional mix Grab attention by means of publicity and advertising. Excite interest by advertising. Develop interest by sales promotion and selling. Prompt action by selling and point of sale displays. Customers will not buy unless marketers first grab their attention,gain interest and make the product appear desirable.Marketing AIDA & DAGMAR

AIDA and promotional tasks A - establish customer awareness. Inform customers about the product. I - create buyer interest. Stimulate interest in the product. D - create desire. Induce a favourable attitude especially in relation to competing products. A - sell the product. Induce purchase by stressing the immediate desirability of the product

Marketing AIDA & DAGMAR

AIDA and the promotional mixAIDA stage Attention Promotional mix Advertising PR Sponsorship

Interest Desire Sales promotion Direct mail Point of sale promotions Direct response advertising Personal selling


Marketing AIDA & DAGMAR

Lavidge and Steiners Hierarchy of Effects Model

Marketing AIDA & DAGMAR

Hierarchy of effects In this model consumers pass through all six stages before action. But the stages are not the same in length of time and can occur simultaneously. For an innovative and expensive product the process might take months-for impulse purchases the stages can be completed in minutes. The effectiveness of promotion should be measured in terms of progress through the stagesMarketing AIDA & DAGMAR

Hierarchy of effect model (Lavidge and Steiner) Awareness - potential customers become aware of the existence of the product. Knowledge - information about the features and benefits of the product Liking - the development of a favourable attitude towards the product Preference - the product is now the preferred choice of the customer. Conviction - the customer is now convinced their preferred choice is right. Purchase - preference and conviction translated into action.Marketing AIDA & DAGMAR

The Lavidge and Steiner Model Lavidge and Steiner believed that advertising had long term terms rather than immediate effect. But to move people to the action stage there had to be shorter term action to build conviction. The first two stages are cognitive- they involve thinking. The next three are affective- they are about feelings. The last is conative - it is about action.Marketing AIDA & DAGMAR


Marketing AIDA & DAGMAR

DAGMAR Defining advertising goals for measured advertising results A model of marketing communications developed by Colley in 1961. Developed for the measurement of advertising effectiveness Maps out the states of mind through which consumers pass Promotion is used to move the consumer through the spectrumMarketing AIDA & DAGMAR

The DAGMAR spectrum Unawareness of the product. Awareness as a result of advertising- the audience knows about the brand. Comprehension- recognition and understanding of the product. Conviction-firm attitude towards the product. The development of a preference for the brand. Action-move towards purchase.Marketing AIDA & DAGMAR

Role of advertising The effectiveness of advertising is judged in terms of how far an advertisement moves people along the spectrum. DAGMAR allows for the cumulative impact of an advert. The purpose of an advert is to cause a change of mind leading to a purchase. It is rare for a single advert to have the power to move customers from complete unawareness to action.Marketing AIDA & DAGMAR

The role of advertising at each stage To move people from unawareness to awareness - the advert aims to make customers aware of the products existence. Comprehension - information provided by advertisements Conviction - the aim is to convince customers Action - sales promotion to move customers to purchaseMarketing AIDA & DAGMAR

Comparison of modelsAIDAAttention Interest Desire Action

Lavidge and Steiner Awareness Knowledge Liking Preference Purchase

DAGMARUnawareness Awareness Comprehension Conviction Action

Marketing AIDA & DAGMAR

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