Agricultural Economics. Chauhan

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Text of Agricultural Economics. Chauhan

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OSMANIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARYCall

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Author

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on 'tsr b^W't$?13W' iat^irked

below.

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

D,

S,

Chauhan, M.Director,of

A., Ph. D,

t

The B. R. School

Economics

&

Sociology,

AGRA.

A&VRWAL,H O 9 P I T Al HO AafSsje-^^Xij^^S^^bf^^li

,AG R A

(INDIA),

ALL

RIGHTS RESERVED.

Printed at

The Modern

Press, Agra.

aJia Cflamvi-tonom

jUom

aumol naA

a4aaw

FOREWORDAgricultural Economicsis

taught and studied in India as

an appendagetions ofis

to

urban-industrial

economics, of which

the

type and pattern are set by the economic history and instituWestern Europe and America, This kind of approachresponsible not only for the lack of scientific understand-

ing and interpretation of the social and economic problems of the Indian country-side, but also for the indifference,

nay fatalism with which we look upon the present trends of rural decay, desocialization and disintegration as inevitable*It is

for this reason that this brief

and fresh introduction

to

Economics coming as it does from Chauhan, who has had a long and valuable experience of field agricultural research, is to be heartily welcomedthe study of Agricultural

Dr.

D

S.

by the

scientific circles.at factor cost

The net output

from agriculture

in India is

estimated at about 48 per cent by the National Income Committee. But agriculture is not merely an occupation butalso aits

mode

of living;

and hence

the

enhancement or lapse

of

values apart from income or employment has both directeffects

and indirectbeyondblems

farming as a business.

upon general economics and policies far Yet even within the limitedoccupation

field of the agricultural

we have

the insistent prosize ofuti-

that are crying for solution,

such as the optimum

the holding, thelization of

optimum cattle power and

cropping system, thethe

optimum

on which rests the whole successagricultural sector.

optimum farm management of the Five Year Plan on itsskilfully

These have been

dealt

with

by Dr. Cbauhan* He makes out a strong case for proper land utilization that today holds the major key not only forsuccessful population adjustment but also for withstanding

the social and economic perils of erosion

and dessication*intothevitals of

Todaythe soilot the

the

Great Indian Desertoi

is

eating

and the populationeffects

Uttar Pradesh.

On

account

cumulative

of

the expansion of

loose

sands

by the disappearance of scrub jungle and grass, over and gming browsing by cattle, sheep and goats for generations and heavy erosion, especially along the flanks of theset free

Jamuna and made desertitself

its1

tributaries,

what may be called, the 'manof India' has

or the 'Dust

Bowl

nowoi

established

over about a thousand square milesin

land once

smiling

plenty.

Topographical

surveys

indicate that

from the north

to the south

Ferozpur, Patiala, Mathura andacross which theat

Agra are

the

vulnerable lines

deserta rate

invades the Ganges valley in a great convex arcof half a mile per year during

the last half afertile

century andper yeanP.

swallowing up about 50It

sq.

miles of

land

may

be estimated that the

gullied lands in U*

cover

at least

500

sq,

miles and are not merely useless but consti-

tute a serious danger to the adjoining good lands. Almost 20 per cent of the tracts along the Jamuaa and the Chambal

in Uttar Pradesh is

now

intersected

comprising a

vast waving sea of

and denuded by ravines aching desolation and

waste fringing and attacking one of the most prosperous parts of India. The U. P. doe to man's recklessness, igno-

rance and hunger-drive,cesses of

which are accelerating the pro*erosion in asemi-arid tract1

wind and water

bordering the Great Desert, is committing 'regional suicidein the south-west.

The conservation

of

soil

and

the

con-

servation of

water which are intimately associated with

(

Hi

)

each other together touch the entiretion of the earth

field of

man's exploita-

and thus a

scientific bio-physical

programmeman's

involves the highest amount of

co-ordination of

uses of trees) grasses, soils and waters in the back-groundof

his popolation

pressure

and

standard

of

living.

I

would expect that the team-investigations of the B, R. School of Economics and Sociology, Agra, under Dr. Chauhan'sexpertof the

guidance

will

show

the

way

for

the

recoveryof

Agra-Mathura region on the basis of integration methods and materials from the different fields.Researchesintosoil

and

water

conservation)

land

reclamation and agricultural intensification and extension

cannot succeed

if

these be undertaken

piecemeal,

These

total setting of the emerging science concerned with the techniques economic agricultural of farm production, the patterns of farm management andto

have

be carried out in

the standards

of

farm work and living

in

their

dynamic

reciprocity with the

complex

of

economic, social and cultural

transformations.in India is

The

entire trend of culture

and technologyagriculture,

working against the country-side andIndian villageis

Todaythe

the

victimized by

the city,

The

rehabilitation

and progress of the country-side depend upon success with which we can introduce a dispersed typeon the basis of hydel power andmotorset up certain intermediate "rurban" habicombine the social values of the village withcity-

of industrialism

transport andtations thatskills

and technologies of theDr,

The Five Year Plana

is

unhappily silent about these aspects of economic integration

and development.

Chauhan has made

strong pleathat will

for rural industrialization

on a decentralized basisof

lead to the diversification

employment, improvement ofof rural credit

farm technology and the reorganization

and

marketing without the control and exploitation by the chainof intermediaries,

All this is related to theinstitutions,

distribution of

higher educational

such as Folk Schools and

Colleges after the Danish pattern in rural surroundings, the

expansion

local bodies

the powers of village Panchayats and other and the development of rural social welfare programmes. In Uttar Pradesh we have the Panchayat Rajof

Act which Or. Chauhan heartily welcomes,

The Bharat

Sevak Sangh hopesrural areas.

to

A

social security plan

begin social service programmes in is yet to be envisaged

for the Indian village that,

shock-absorber forof life.

however, constitutes the primary the hazards and misfortunes in all sectors

It is urgent that we approach problems of rural economics in our country not merely from the point of view of income and employment but from that of the broad social

values of an agricultural civilization.

Dr. Chauhan's pioneerof agricultural

work contributes materially

to the

development

economics as a social science

in India.

Radha Kamal Mukerjee.UNIVERSITY OF LUCKNOW,

KMrch

77, 1953.

PREFACEbeing produced on the subject covered by this book, under the same otclosely

A good

deal of literature has-been

and

is

resembling

titles,

This attempt

is

made

in

a

collaborating rather than in a competitive spirit,in the

and neitherto

approach nor in the scope

it

is

claimed

be of a

pioneering nature,

The bookfull

is

primarily intended to provide a clear and

understanding of the subject of Agricultural Economics*farit

Howis

will

prove useful,of

if

at

all,

to

how many,

for

which classes

readers,

and

for

hewwill,

long, the

author

not able to foresee at present,

He

however, be happy

if it

stimulates thinking on the subject, either as a whole orspecific

on any

problem