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Published by Washington Agriculture in the Classroom Today’s Children…Tomorrow’s Leaders ag•ri•cul•ture (ag´r ´ kul´ch r), n. growing plants and animals for food and other uses Agriculture From Field to Table e e Ag School @ Volume 14, Issue 1 2014/2015 Imagine you are a truck driver and your office is in Seattle. Your boss gives you the following work schedule. Trace your driving route on the map. In the blanks, write the name of the highway you would use to get to that stop and how many miles you traveled. Arlington Ault Field Battle Ground Blaine Buckley Burlington Cashmere Castle Rock Central Park Chelan Clyde Hill Colfax Columbia Heights Colville Cottage Lake Dayton Deer Park East Port Orchard Elma Enetai Fairview-Sumach Ferndale Fords Prairie Forks Fruitvale Gig Harbor Goldendale Lynden Marietta-Alderwood Medical Lake Medina Milton Monroe Montesano Moses Lake North Navy Yard City Normandy Park Ocean Beach Okanogan Omak Othello Otis Orchards-East Farms Pacific Parkwood Port Angeles East Port Orchard Poulsbo Prosser Quincy Raymond Selah Sequim South Broadway Steilacoom Sumner Terrace Heights Tracyton Tukwila Union Gap Union Mills Walla Walla East Wapato Washougal West Clarkston-Highland West Richland West Wenatchee Winslow Woodland Anacortes Bonney Lake Camas Chehalis Cheney Clarkston College Place Des Moines Eastgate Enumclaw Ephrata Fairchild AFB Fairmont-Intercity Fairwood Fircrest Grandview Hoquiam Issaquah Lake Stickney Lakeland South Martha Lake Marysville McChord AFB Orchards Port Townsend Poverty Bay Richmond Beach-Innis Arden Rose Hill Sedro-Woolley Shelton Sheridan Beach Snohomish Spanaway Sunnyside Tanglewilde-Thompson Place Toppenish Town And Country Tumwater Veradale West Pasco Zenith-Saltwater Auburn Bellingham Bremerton Edmonds Kennewick Longview Renton Richland Vancouver Walla Walla Yakima Aberdeen Alderwood Manor Burien Cascade-Fairwood Centralia Dishman Dumas Bay-Twin Lakes East Renton Highlands East Wenatchee Bench Ellensburg Esperance Fort Lewis Hazel Dell Inglewood Juanita Kelso Kent Kingsgate Kirkland Lacey Lakeland North Lynnwood Mercer Island Moses Lake Mount Vernon Mountlake Terrace Newport Hills North Hill North Marysville Oak Harbor Opportunity Parkland Pasco Port Angeles Pullman Puyallup Redmond Richmond Highlands Riverton Silver Lake-Fircrest University Place Valley Ridge Wenatchee White Center-Shorewood Airway Heights Albion Algona Almira Asotin Beacon Hill Beaux Arts Village Benton City Bingen Black Diamond Brewster Bridgeport Bucoda Carbonado Carnation Cathlamet Chewelah Cle Elum Colton Conconully Concrete Connell Cosmopolis Coulee City Coulee Dam Coupeville Creston Cusick Darrington Davenport Dupont Duvall East Wenatchee Eatonville Electric City Elmer City Endicott Entiat Erlands Point Everson Fairfield Fall City Farmington Friday Harbor Garfield Garrett Geneva George Gold Bar Grand Coulee Granger Granite Falls Hadlock-Irondale Hamilton Harrah Harrington Hartline Hatton Hunts Point Ilwaco Index Ione Kahlotus Kalama Kettle Falls Kitsap Lake Kittitas Krupp La Center La Conner La Crosse Lake Stevens Lamont Langley Latah Leavenworth Lexington Liberty Lake Lind Lone Oak Long Beach Lyman Mabton Malden Mansfield Marcus Mattawa McCleary Mesa Metaline Metaline Falls Millwood Morton Mossyrock Moxee City Mukilteo Naches Napavine Nespelem Newport Nooksack North Bend North Bonneville North Selah Northport Oakesdale Oakville Ocean Shores Odessa Oroville Orting Palouse Pateros Pe Ell Pomeroy Rainier Reardan Republic Retsil Ridgefield Ritzville Riverside Rock Island Rockford Rosalia Roslyn Roy Royal City Ruston Skykomish Snoqualmie Soap Lake South Bend South Cle Elum South Prairie South Wenatchee Spangle Sprague Springdale St. John Stanwood Starbuck Stevenson Sultan Sumas Sunnyslope Suquamish Tekoa Tenino Tieton Toledo Tonasket Twisp Uniontown Vader Waitsburg Warden Washtucna Waterville Waverly Westport White Salmon Wilbur Wilkeson Wilson Creek Winlock Winthrop Woodway Yacolt Yarrow Point Yelm Zillah Prescott Spokane Tacoma Bellevue Everett Lakes District Seattle OLYMPIA 10 103 104 105 105 105 106 108 109 11 112 112 121 123 124 125 127 129 14 14 14 14 14 140 141 142 153 155 155 16 160 164 165 169 172 173 174 174 18 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 202 203 209 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 211 22 220 221 23 23 231 231 231 24 24 240 241 243 25 25 26 260 261 261 271 272 28 28 28 28 28 283 3 3 302 305 31 4 4 401 404 410 410 410 411 500 503 503 504 504 505 507 507 507 508 510 512 522 525 530 530 542 542 6 6 603 7 7 706 8 9 9 9 9 904 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 97 97A 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 195 195 195 195 26 26 26 26 17 17 17 17 17 17 27 27 27 395 395 395 395 97 97 97 97 97 97 12 12 12 12 395 395 395 5 5 5 5 5 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 82 82 82 1. Pick up raspberry jam from a processor in Everett. Highway _____ for about _____miles 2. Pick up fresh apples at a fruit packing plant in Wenatchee. Highway _____ for about _____miles 3. Deliver the apples and the jam to a supermarket in Spokane. Highway _____ for about _____miles 4. Pick up a load of wheat flour near Pullman. Highway _____ for about_____miles 5. Drop off flour in Pasco; pick up sweet corn. Highway _____&_____&_____ for about _____miles 6. Deliver corn to processing plant in Ellensburg. Highway _____ for _____miles 7. Pick up hay and deliver to port of Seattle for ship- ment to Japan. Highway _____ for about _____miles 8. What is the total number of miles traveled? _____ miles 9. How many different highways did you travel? _____ 10. How many cities did you visit?_____ AG CLASSROOM in the

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Published by Washington Agriculture in the Classroom

Today’s Children…Tomorrow’s Leadersag•ri•cul•ture (ag´r ´ kul´ch r), n. growing plants and animals for food and other uses

Agriculture –From Field to Table

ee

Ag School@Volume 14, Issue 1 2014/2015

Imagine you are a truck driver and your office is in Seattle. Your boss gives you the following work schedule. Trace your driving route on the map. In the blanks, write the name of the highway you would use to get to that stop and how many miles you traveled.

Arlington

Ault Field

Battle Ground

Blaine

Buckley

Burlington

Cashmere

Castle Rock

Central Park

Chelan

Clyde Hill

Colfax

Columbia Heights

Colville

Cottage Lake

Dayton

Deer Park

East Port Orchard

Elma

Enetai

Fairview-Sumach

Ferndale

Fords Prairie

Forks

Fruitvale

Gig Harbor

Goldendale

Lynden

Marietta-Alderwood

Medical Lake

Medina

Milton

Monroe

Montesano

Moses Lake North

Navy Yard City

Normandy Park

Ocean Beach

Okanogan

Omak

Othello

Otis Orchards-East Farms

Pacific

Parkwood

Port Angeles East

Port Orchard

Poulsbo

Prosser

Quincy

RaymondSelah

Sequim

South Broadway

Steilacoom

Sumner

Terrace Heights

Tracyton

Tukwila

Union Gap

Union Mills

Walla Walla East

Wapato

Washougal

West Clarkston-Highland

West Richland

West Wenatchee

Winslow

Woodland

Anacortes

Bonney Lake

Camas

Chehalis

Cheney

Clarkston

College Place

Des Moines

Eastgate

Enumclaw

Ephrata

Fairchild AFB

Fairmont-Intercity

Fairwood

Fircrest

Grandview

Hoquiam

Issaquah

Lake Stickney

Lakeland South

Martha Lake

Marysville

McChord AFB

Orchards

Port Townsend

Poverty Bay

Richmond Beach-Innis Arden

Rose Hill

Sedro-Woolley

Shelton

Sheridan Beach

Snohomish

Spanaway

Sunnyside

Tanglewilde-Thompson Place

Toppenish

Town And Country

Tumwater

Veradale

West Pasco

Zenith-Saltwater

Auburn

Bellingham

Bremerton

Edmonds

Kennewick

Longview

Renton

Richland

Vancouver

Walla Walla

Yakima

Aberdeen

Alderwood Manor

Burien Cascade-Fairwood

Centralia

Dishman

Dumas Bay-Twin Lakes

East Renton Highlands

East Wenatchee Bench

Ellensburg

Esperance

Fort Lewis

Hazel Dell

Inglewood Juanita

Kelso

Kent

Kingsgate

Kirkland

Lacey

Lakeland North

Lynnwood

Mercer Island

Moses Lake

Mount Vernon

Mountlake Terrace

Newport Hills

North Hill

North Marysville

Oak Harbor

Opportunity

Parkland

Pasco

Port Angeles

Pullman

Puyallup

Redmond

Richmond Highlands

Riverton

Silver Lake-Fircrest

University Place

Valley Ridge WenatcheeWhite Center-Shorewood

Airway Heights

Albion

Algona

Almira

Asotin

Beacon Hill

Beaux Arts Village

Benton City

Bingen

Black Diamond

Brewster

Bridgeport

Bucoda

Carbonado

Carnation

Cathlamet

Chewelah

Cle Elum

Colton

ConconullyConcrete

Connell

Cosmopolis

Coulee City

Coulee Dam

Coupeville

Creston

Cusick

Darrington

Davenport

Dupont

Duvall

East Wenatchee

Eatonville

Electric City

Elmer City

Endicott

Entiat

Erlands Point

Everson

Fairfield

Fall City

Farmington

Friday Harbor

Garfield

Garrett

Geneva

George

Gold Bar

Grand Coulee

Granger

Granite Falls

Hadlock-Irondale

Hamilton

Harrah

Harrington

Hartline

Hatton

Hunts Point

Ilwaco

Index

Ione

Kahlotus

Kalama

Kettle Falls

Kitsap Lake

Kittitas

Krupp

La Center

La Conner

La Crosse

Lake Stevens

Lamont

Langley

Latah

Leavenworth

Lexington

Liberty Lake

Lind

Lone Oak

Long Beach

Lyman

Mabton

Malden

Mansfield

Marcus

Mattawa

McCleary

Mesa

Metaline

Metaline Falls

Millwood

MortonMossyrock Moxee City

Mukilteo

Naches

Napavine

Nespelem Newport

Nooksack

North Bend

North Bonneville

North Selah

Northport

Oakesdale

Oakville

Ocean Shores

Odessa

Oroville

Orting

Palouse

Pateros

Pe Ell

Pomeroy

Rainier

Reardan

Republic

Retsil

Ridgefield

Ritzville

Riverside

Rock Island

Rockford

RosaliaRoslyn

Roy

Royal City

Ruston

Skykomish

Snoqualmie

Soap Lake

South Bend

South Cle ElumSouth Prairie

South Wenatchee

Spangle

Sprague

Springdale

St. John

Stanwood

Starbuck

Stevenson

Sultan

Sumas

Sunnyslope

Suquamish

Tekoa

Tenino

Tieton

Toledo

Tonasket

Twisp

Uniontown

Vader

Waitsburg

Warden

Washtucna

Waterville

Waverly

Westport

White Salmon

Wilbur

Wilkeson

Wilson Creek

Winlock

Winthrop

Woodway

Yacolt

Yarrow Point

Yelm

Zillah

Prescott

Spokane

Tacoma

Bellevue

Everett

Lakes District

Seattle

OLYMPIA10

103

104

105105

105

106

108109

11

112

112

121123

124

125

127

129

14

14

1414

14

140

141 142

153

155

155

16160

164

165

169

172

173

174

174

18

20

20

20

2020

20

20

20

20

20

202

203209

21

21

21

21

21

21

21

211

22

220

221

23

23

231

231

231

24

24

240241

243

25

25

26

260

261

261

271

272

28

28

28

28

28

283

3

3

302

305

31

4

4

401404

410410

410

411

500

503

503

504

504

505

507

507

507

508

510

512

522

525

530

530

542

542

66

603

7

7

706

8

9

9

9

9

904

101

101

101

101

101

101

101

101

12

12

1212

12

12

12

12

97

97A

2

2

222

22

22

195

195

195

195

26262626

17

17

17

17

17

17

27

27

27

395

395

395

39597

97

97

97

97

97

1212

1212

395

395

395

5

5

5

5

5

90

90

9090

90 90

90

90

82

82

82

0 200100 Miles50 75

1. Pick up raspberry jam from a processor in Everett. Highway _____ for about _____miles

2. Pick up fresh apples at a fruit packing plant in Wenatchee. Highway _____ for about _____miles

3. Deliver the apples and the jam to a supermarket in Spokane. Highway _____ for about _____miles

4. Pick up a load of wheat flour near Pullman. Highway _____ for about_____miles

5. Drop off flour in Pasco; pick up sweet corn. Highway _____&_____&_____ for about _____miles

6. Deliver corn to processing plant in Ellensburg. Highway _____ for _____miles

7. Pick up hay and deliver to port of Seattle for ship-ment to Japan. Highway _____ for about _____miles

8. What is the total number of miles traveled? _____ miles

9. How many different highways did you travel? _____

10. How many cities did you visit?_____

AG CLASSROOMinthe

2

Agriculture starts with the growing and harvesting of food, fibers, forests, and flowers. Agriculture is impor-tant to each of us because we all eat food. Farms and ranches produce the food we eat, the cotton t-shirts, jeans, and leather shoes we wear. Important ingredients such as fuel for our cars, soap, glue, many medicines, tires, books, and thousands of other things we use in our daily lives are also produced by farms and ranches.

America’s farmers are the world’s most productive. They produce 16% of the total world food production on just 10% of the world’s land. US farmers grow more food using fewer resources than ever before. In Washington State 39,500 farms create a $46 billion food and agriculture industry. That represents 13% of our state’s economy. We lead all other states in the production of raspberries, hops, mint oil, cherries, apples, pears, con-cord grapes, and carrots for processing.

AGRICULTURE IS

EVERYWHERE

Agriculture: Is Science and TechnologyAgriculture is the nation’s largest industry. It is everywhere and involves more than 250 different ag careers. Research and scientific discoveries have led to increased agricultural productivity. The ag industry consists of about 24 million people who produce, process, transport, sell, and trade the nation’s food and fiber. Fewer than 2 million people are actually farm-ers. Growers produce the raw products and other people turn them into the things we eat and use every day. Consider all the jobs from the farm to your table, closet, or fuel tank. Explore Ag careers at www.agriculture.purdue.edu/USDA/careers

Genetic Science in AgricultureGenes are distinct portions of a cell’s DNA. Genes are coded instruc-tions that determine a particular characteristic such as red hair or blue

eyes. Plants and animals also pass genetic traits to their descendants.

Farmers have been improving plants and animals since agriculture began by selecting the best individuals to use as parents for

the next generation. This process involves the crossing of thousands of genes with the hope of randomly passing on desirable traits. It is a hit-or-miss process. Unfortunately, un-

desirable traits might also result. For instance, when farmers selected for heavily muscled pigs it also resulted in easily stressed pigs and meat that could be tough.

Using new technology, scientists can now identify the specific genes that carry a certain trait and that single trait ca n be passed on. This more precise science eliminates passing along undesirable traits.

GMO refers to a living organism that has been genetically altered to change some trait. In agriculture, the most widely modified trait

is tolerance to herbicide (weed killer), followed by insect resistance.

Why do we use this technology? It is precise genetic gain. It results in higher yields, higher quality crops,

yet it saves money because farmers use fewer and less toxic chemicals.

Corn, soybeans, and cotton are the most advanced in GMO technology. In the future, using this technology we will be able to affect traits like drought resistance, nitrogen uptake, and nutritional quality.

Extensive food safety testing is required of all GMO crops before they can be grown for the public.

Food comes from farms:

Thank a farmer!

GMO (Genetically Modified Organism)

3

Climate depends mainly on latitude. Latitude governs the angle of the suns rays, length of day, and even prevailing winds. Washington lies between 45˚ North and 49˚ North. That puts it in the temperate climate zones (between 30˚ and 60˚ latitude). Our basic zones are Maritime and Steppe. Maritime is generally along coasts and has large amounts of rainfall and moderate temperatures. The Steppe Zone is located inland with an average rainfall of 10 - 20 inches. It has hot summers and cold winters. Within the Steppe Zone, Wash-ington has two other zones: Desert, which has less than 10 inches

of rainfall, and the Highlands. The Highlands Zone is found in any mountainous area and temperature and precipitation vary with el-evation, not latitude. Our different climate areas are a main reason our state produces such a wide variety of crops. Use the precipita-tion map to help answer the questions.

1. Outline Washington’s wettest area. It is really a rain forest!

2. Which side of the Cascade Mountains gets the most rain? West or East?

3. Where is the Maritime Zone? Where is the Steppe Zone?

4. Most of the wheat is grown in Eastern Washing-ton. Does that crop need a lot of rain?

5. Draw a circle around the desert. Why is this area our most productive agricultural region in the state? Hint: take a peek at page 4

6. Does this precipitation map give clues about where the Highland Zones are located?

Precipitation Map

46˚

49˚

latitude

latitude

AG DEPENDS ON CLIMATE

Some parts of Washington receive over 100 inches of rain each year. As moist air from the ocean blows east it must rise over our mountain ranges. The air cools as it rises. Cold air cannot hold as much moisture so the clouds must release their moisture in the form of precipitation (rain, sleet, snow, or hail). This results in an area that receives less precipitation on the other side of the mountains (the rain shadow). Where are the rain shadow areas West of the Cascades?

Olympic Mountains Cascade Mountains

ClimateDESERT

MARITIME

RAINFOREST

SNOW

WEATHER

HAIL

PRECIPITATION

RAINSHADOW

STEPPE

HIGHLANDS

RAIN

SLEET

TEMPERATE

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VOKTHENZSMHNS

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NENAMLIMEMNEP

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VOTWWHEMIRSYT

WYRKJHNRQCHAH

TSEROFNIAREAI

CHSAQXBFKTIRI

ZGENSTJKTLERP

OODFDMARITIME

RCJXPUTEELSXY

PUGET SOUND LOWLANDS

Most of our urban population is concentrated in this re-gion, but there is rich soil in these lowlands that stretches from the Puget Sound to the base of the Cascades. This area is perfect for that fabulous milk maker, the dairy cow, as well as for raspberries, vegetable seed, produce, tulips, nursery products and shellfish.

The climate, physical features, and geography change as you cross Washington, dividing our state into distinct regions.How many regions are there?How many counties does our state have?

We also have deep-water ports. Place the ports of Seattle, Tacoma, Vancouver, Longview, Grays Harbor, and Port Angeles on the map below.

COLUMBIA BASIN The dry region east of the Cascades is a huge lava plateau with rich soils. The heart of the basin receives less than 10 inches of precipitation yet this region is our most productive agricultural region. The reason is irrigation. The Columbia River and its tribu-taries provide water for a region that has ideal conditions for alfalfa, potatoes, corn, mint, grapes, apples, cherries, and many other crops.

Wahkiakum

Whatcom

Skagit

Snohomish

King

Pierce

Thurston

Lewis

Cowlitz

Clark

Skamania

Pacific

GraysHarbor

Mason

Jefferson

Clallam

Klickitat

Yakima

Kittitas

Chelan

OkanoganFerry

Stevens

Lincoln Spokane

Adams Whitman

Grant

Douglas

Franklin

Benton

Walla Walla

Columbia

Garfield

Asotin

PendOreille

San Juan

Island

Kitsap

CASCADE MOUNTAINS

The Cascades have spectacular peaks and lots of timber and recreation areas. The lower elevations provide grazing areas for cattle as well as land that grows timothy hay and apples.

4

WILLAPA HILLSThe coastal hills are ideal for growing Christmas trees.

Trees are harvested in the fall and bundled in large

stacks. This region also produces cranberries, oysters,

and is home to many farmers markets and community

supported agriculture (CSA) operations.

OLYMPIC PENINSULAThe Olympic Mountains provide timber and recreation. Forest

products like an evergreen shrub named salal, are collected

and shipped nationwide to florists. Lavender is a favorite floral

crop from this region.

Grown In Washington

~ Hooray! Washington is #1~Washington leads the nation in the production of several crops (2011 crop data). Identify the counties or regions that are named below. 1 Red Raspberries – 92.3% of US supply – Delicious and nutritious, grown for eating fresh, or in jams, jellies, or pies. Raspberries can be harvested mechanically. Whatcom county leads the state with over 90% of this crop. www.red-raspberry.org 2 Hops –79.2% – Hops are used to flavor beer. The Yakima valley pro-duces three-fourths of the state’s hops. The dry climate along with lots of irrigation water from the Yakima River create ideal conditions for this crop. www.usahops.org 3 Mint Oil – Grant and Adams counties lead the state in production of mint. Every pound of oil will flavor 30,000 sticks of gum or 1000 tubes of tooth-paste. Of the total US supply, Washington produces:78.7% Spearmint Oil 26.1% Peppermint Oil (2nd in nation) 4 Sweet Cherries – 58.6% – Cherries are one of the fastest maturing fruits. In just 60 days blossoms mature into sweet and tasty fruit. They are picked, packed, and shipped to markets in the U.S. and more than 42 countries around the world. Leading cherry counties are Yakima, Grant, Chelan, Ben-ton, and Okanogan. www.nwcherries.com 5 Apples–57.4% – Apples are the crop that consumers most often link with Washington state. Five areas all share ideal growing conditions -- weather, soil, and water. These areas can be seen at www.bestapples.com/growers/regions/index.shtml (Okanogan, Lake Chelan, Wenatchee Valley, Columbia Basin, and Yakima Valley) 6 Pears – 47.9% – The pear has been grown by man for more than four thousand years. Washington pears are picked by hand and are prized for their flavor and long storage life. Yakima county has the most acres of pears, followed by Chelan, Okanogan, Grant, and Douglas. www.usapears.com 7 Concord Grapes – 37.3% – These are the grapes used to make grape juice, jams, and jellies. We also grow 23% of Niagra grapes which are used to make white grape juice. All these grapes are harvested by machine. Ya-kima, Benton, and Franklin counties grow the most concord grapes.

8 Processing Carrots – 35.6% – Carrots provide 30% of the Vitamin A in the US diet. Carrots are sliced or diced to be frozen or canned. Benton, Franklin, and Grant counties grow these carrots. Carrots for the fresh mar-ket are grown in both Western and Eastern Washington.

The climate, physical features, and geography change as you cross Washington, dividing our state into distinct regions.How many regions are there?How many counties does our state have?

We also have deep-water ports. Place the ports of Seattle, Tacoma, Vancouver, Longview, Grays Harbor, and Port Angeles on the map below.

5

COLUMBIA BASIN The dry region east of the Cascades is a huge lava plateau with rich soils. The heart of the basin receives less than 10 inches of precipitation yet this region is our most productive agricultural region. The reason is irrigation. The Columbia River and its tribu-taries provide water for a region that has ideal conditions for alfalfa, potatoes, corn, mint, grapes, apples, cherries, and many other crops.

Wahkiakum

Whatcom

Skagit

Snohomish

King

Pierce

Thurston

Lewis

Cowlitz

Clark

Skamania

Pacific

GraysHarbor

Mason

Jefferson

Clallam

Klickitat

Yakima

Kittitas

Chelan

OkanoganFerry

Stevens

Lincoln Spokane

Adams Whitman

Grant

Douglas

Franklin

Benton

Walla Walla

Columbia

Garfield

Asotin

PendOreille

San Juan

Island

Kitsap

BLUE MOUNTAINSThe Snake River skirts around the Blue Mountain range in the southeast corner of our state before it feeds into the Columbia River. Cattle graze among sagebrush and timber. Wheat, barley, asparagus, onions, green peas, and grapes are grown here. This region also boasts the most inland seaport serving the Pacific Rim at Lewiston-Clarkston.

Concord Grapes

Cherries

HopCone

Make Your Own Bar Graph:(using the crop percentages given above)

AP

PLE

S

CO

NC

OR

DS

SP

EA

RM

INT

HO

PS

CH

ER

RIE

S

PR

OC

ES

SIN

G

CA

RR

OTS

PE

AR

S

RA

SP

BE

RR

IES

RaspberriesPears

Apples

OKANOGAN HIGHLANDS

The Okanogan Highlands are rugged foot-hills between the Cascades on the west, and the Rocky Mountains to the east. Here beef cattle graze among another valuable renew-able resource, trees. Trees provide paper, pencils, furniture, and houses. This region also grows a variety of fruit trees.

Mint

Grown In Washington

Processing Carrots

WE ARE #1! 100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

PE

RC

EN

T I

N A

LL

OF

US

A

SNAKE RIVER

COLU

MBIARIVER

COLUMBIA RIVER

10 - 16 ARE DAMS ON COLUMBIA RIVER

GRAND COULEE DAM

Washington is blessed with great soil and a climate for growing many different crops. That’s not all! Our mighty rivers and ocean ports help us move all kinds of products throughout the Pacific Rim at an affordable cost. That means that wheat trucked from Montana and potatoes grown in Idaho, as well as items from our own state, can travel by water to ports around the globe.

A Water StairwayThe Columbia and Snake Rivers form a highway for boats and barges. This could not happen without a series of 8 locks and dams that make a stairway in the river. Between the port of Clarkston and the Pacific Ocean the rivers drop over 700 feet. Like a water stairway, the locks allow boats to move up and down the rivers.

A lock and dam work to-gether. The dam holds back water creating a pool. The lock is a rectangular water chamber near the dam with watertight gates at each end.To lower a boat or barge, the lock is filled with water to the upstream level. The barge moves into the lock. The upstream gate closes and water is drained out of the lock, lowering the barge to the downstream level. The downstream gate opens and the barge leaves the lock.Boats can also travel the other direction moving from lower to higher water levels. Through locks, boats can travel past dams, water-falls and other obstacles.

6

3500 tons of wheat shipped on 1 barge

That’s A Lot of Wheat!In 2011, Washington farmers produced 10,072,800,000 pounds of wheat. How many tons is that? Nearly 85% of the crop is exported. Barges are the most efficient transportation to deep water ports.

= 117 Semi Trucks= 35 rail cars

Pumpkins are more than a just a pretty or scary face. They are healthy to eat, have a rich history, and are also used as decorations. Pumpkins are a member of the gourd family, which in-cludes cucumber, honeydew melons, cantaloupe, watermelons, and zucchini. They have been grown in North America for thousands of years and are grown on every continent except Antarctica. Pumpkins are grown and processed into canned pumpkin and canned pie mixes. Pumpkins can also

be grown for decorative reasons. They can range in size from less than one pound to more than 1,000 pounds (The current Guinness world record is 2,009 pounds). A common use for them is to carve them into Jack-O-Lanterns, but did you know that the tradition originated in Ireland with the carving of turnips?

Before corn was a staple food source for the Native Americans they used pumpkins to help them through the winters. They discovered many ways to use the pumpkin in their diets. They would boil, roast, or fry the inner meat. The blossoms were added to soups and the seeds made a tasty snack. Eating pumpkins can provide your body with Vitamins A, C, K, and E. It is also a good source of other minerals such as magnesium, potassium, and iron. The bright orange color of the pumpkin tells you that it is full of beta-carotene. Beta-carotene is converted to vitamin A in the body, which helps bones, cell development, and also helps promote healthy eyesight. There are many ways to get pumpkins in your diet or in your home. You can visit a farmer’s market, look for them at your local grocery store, or visit a pumpkin patch in your area. Take a look at pickyourown.org for you-pick farms near you.

SNAKE RIVER

COLU

MBIARIVER

COLUMBIA RIVER

10 - 16 ARE DAMS ON COLUMBIA RIVER

GRAND COULEE DAM

Pumpkins

Pumpkin Life Cycle

seeds sprout vines flower green orange

Agritourism is growing in popularity across the US. The term agritourism means any activity that attracts visitors to a farm or ranch. The types of activities on the farm may include picking fruits and vegetables, riding horses, tasting honey, learning about cheese making, or shopping at the farm stand. Agritourism provides farmers the opportunity to share and educate visitors about their way of life, and to earn extra money.

Pumpkin PoemOne day I found two pumpkin seeds.I planted one and pul led the weeds.

It sprouted roots and a big, long vine.

A pumpkin grew; I cal led it mine.The pumpkin was quite round and fat.

(I real ly am quite proud of that.)But there is something I ’ l l admitThat has me worried just a bit.I ate the other seed, you see.Now wil l it grow inside of me?

(I ’m so rel ieved since I have found That pumpkins only grow in the

ground!)

Author: Unknown

Circle all the nounsUnderline the verbs

Cross out the adjectives.

Agritourism

Hi, we’re Bennett and Mally Huffman. We are 12 and 10 years-old and we live on Huffman Farms, a pumpkin farm in Ellensburg, WA.

We love growing up on our farm be-cause it means hav-ing lots of animals for our petting zoo. In the spring, we get to help deliver the baby lambs and bottle feed any-body who needs extra milk. Spring also means pump-kins! We each get to help plant, then we see all of our great pumpkins sprouting just weeks later. Our family also planted a corn maze this year, which has been a lot of fun to run through this summer. The best part of growing up on our farm though is seeing every-one come out and have fun in the fall. We like telling people about our animals, leading hayrides, watching people pick their favorite pumpkin and seeing all of our friends. These are just a few of the reasons we like growing up on our farm. If we listed them all, we’d have a book.

Wheat Feeds the WorldWhat’s so special about wheat? Wheat has been a staple in our food supply for over 12,000 years. All parts of the

wheat kernel, from the outer bran to the inner germ, supply nutritious ingredients in a variety of breads, cakes, cereals, pastas and more. Wheat is a delicious part of healthy eating, low in fat and high in complex carbohydrates that fuel our bodies with long-lasting energy.

Who Grew My Soup?Who Grew My Soup? written by Tom Darbyshire, tells a story of a young boy named Phineas Quinn and his curiosity about the vegetables that are in the soup his mom makes him for lunch. He declares that he will not eat his soup

until his ques-tions are an-swered about who grew his soup. This leads Phineas on a journey from farm to farm, learning about amaz-ing vegetables and the farm-ers that grow them.

Farming Gail Gibbons delivers another wonderful book describing real-life and factual infor-mation. In this book you will read about what life is like on a farm throughout all of the seasons. Every season is illustrated to show the different chores and activi-ties that are done to provide food and crops for people. This is a wonderful book

that helps us understand where our food comes from and the hard work it takes to get it to our plates.

W h e a t was first grown in

the US in 1602 as a hobby crop. The first Northwest wheat

crop was planted in 1825 at Fort Van-couver, Washington. Today, the North-west produces 91 percent of US white wheat. Washington is the 4th largest wheat producing state in the nation with more than 2 million acres in

production (1 acre is about the size of a football

field).

Production

M o s t wheat is milled into

flour. Thousands of years ago, milling wheat into flour

involved crushing the wheat and other grains between stones. This

was a difficult and slow process. Those stones have evolved into machinery that turns the wheat into a fine powder. At one point in history there were as

many as 160 flour mills in Wash-ington. Today there are less

than ten.

T h e bulk of Washing-

ton wheat, about 85-90%, is exported. There are three

main modes of transportation used to get our grain to the Pacific Northwest ports along the Columbia River: trucks, barges and trains. Over 60% of Wash-ington’s wheat exports travel by barge from ports along the 400-mile

Columbia-Snake river system to Portland.

W a s h -ington wheat is

marketed around the world especially to nations in

the Middle East, Japan, Taiwan and South Korea. If 85% of it is ex-

ported, how much do we use domesti-cally? A farmer’s livelihood depends on the wheat market. Prices are con-stantly changing depending on world supply and the needs of the con-

sumers. Once the wheat has been harvested and sold, it is

time to think about next year’s crop

Production

Processing

TransportationMar

ketin

g

Ag Library CornerMax the Farm DogFollow Max the Farm Dog on Facebook and learn interesting facts about Ag-riculture in Washington State.

Visit: www.myamericanfarm.org to play on-line games and

explore fun family activities.

It’s all about agriculture.

Wheat Facts..The kernel is also the seed from which the plant grows.…More foods are made with wheat the world over than with any other cereal grain.…One 60-pound bushel of wheat provides about 42 pounds of white flour, 60 to 73 loaves of bread, or 42 pounds of pasta.…A modern combine can har-vest 2,000 bushels (60 pounds = one bushel of wheat) per hour. …Assuming a sandwich was eaten for breakfast, lunch, and dinner, it would take 168 days to eat the amount of bread pro-duced from one bushel of wheat.

Visit the Washington Ag in the Classroom web site at: http://www.waic.net/

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