Text of ADVERTISEMENT: PERSUASION POWER OF MEDIA AND CONSUMING BEHAVIOR
ADVERTISEMENT: PERSUASION POWER OF MEDIA AND CONSUMING BEHAVIOR
The main aim is persuasion but first aim is taking attention
Yale professor Carl Hovland and his colleagues (1949) systematically studied on what makes a message persuasive?
Media and persuasive messages Americas Liberation of Iraq vs Americas Invasion of Iraq Propaganda / Education When we believe in the persuasion we call it education, when we dont propaganda
What Paths Lead to Persuasion? Central route to persuasion When people are motivated and able to think about an issue they focus on arguments If arguments are strong and compelling persuasion is likely. Peripheral route to persuasion When strength of the arguments doesnt matter Ex: Advertisements (e.g. the use of celebrities)
More indirect ways of persuasion: In a mall, hearing German music might lead consumers to German wine, whereas, others who heard French music reached for French wine (North & others, 1997).
The Elements of Persuasion The communicator Credibility Attractiveness and Liking
Credibility: perceived expertise and trustworthiness Ex: Fast Talking In a study by Miller and colleagues (1976), people who listened to tape-recorded messages rated fast speakers (about 190 words per minute) as more objective, intelligent, and knowledgeable than slow speakers (about 110 words per minute).
Attractiveness and Liking Physical Similarity: we tend to like people who are similar to us.
Psychology is at the heart of advertising Manipulation Persuasion Decision making However, the two fields are independent from each other
PSYCHOLOGICAL APPEALS (ATTRACTIONS) IN ADVERTISING Informational Appeals Emotional Appeals Patriotic Appeals Achievement, Success, and Power Appeals Humorous Appeals
THE EFFECTS OF ADVERTISING Perceptual/Cognitive effects Behavioral/Attitudinal effects
Perceptual/Cognitive Effects Sensation vs Perception The first step of perception is attention (remember Hovlands model) The other steps include information processing. Comprehension Evaluating the message Encoding the information Retrieving the information Decision making Behavioral output
A controversial subject: Subliminal perception / subliminal advertising depends on Iconic Memory We are able to recall more than we consciously perceive However, perception and recalling does not guarantee persuasion
Subliminal Advertising: Traditional advertising vs internet advertising (pop-ups, spam e-mails) Using sexual appeals as tools of classical conditioning Moore (1982) found that subliminal information affects the emotions about the product not the behaviors
Attitudinal /Behavioral Effects Looking beyond cognition Buying as a behavior must be considered Individual differences in attitudes toward selling products Gender, age, ethnic differences Current self / ideal self / possible selves
Consumer behavior is directly related with how the advertisement is created. called Rhetoric Effects
Product Endorsement: Using celebrities to promote advertised goods
Main function of celebrities in advertisements: Creating trust toward the product
Creating unique characters for brands
Product Placement: Product is placed within the movie or show (Ex: Truman Show)
ADVERTISING, CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS We dont born as consumers but grow as consumers Even infants are targets of advertisements Brand loyalty starts in early ages
Consumer Behavior Across Development Infancy and Toddlerhood Infants feel desires and display preferences for certain types of tastes, odors, images, colors and sounds. Toddlers between 18 and 24 months are capable of asking for products by name and also can recognize products in the store that they had previously seen on TV.
Consuming behavior is directly related with cognitive maturation. Therefore, its becoming more and more complex in time.
Preschool times: Children develop a general sense of likes and dislikes They show preferences for specific branches. Ex: Mc Donalds Robinson and colleagues (2007) demonstrated that when covered by McDonalds packaging, healthy foods (i.e. carrots or milk) were tasted better to preschoolers
Parent-child conflict during store visits peaks during this stage of consumer behavior. Temper Tantrums
Early and Middle Childhood Children start to make independent preferences They can persuade the parents more effectively However, they are not aware of persuasive intent of advertisements END RESULT is being more vulnerable to marketing campaigns
Adolescence Adolescents understand that the advertisements are done to persuade the people to buy the things. However, knowing does not guarantee a parallel behavior. The role of peers Attempts to fit in
Modern Children and Consuming Culture Materalism: refers to the importance that people place on their possessions to define themselves Materalistic youth are buying more goods and also are influenced more by marketing promotions (Chaplin & John, 2007)
Numerous correlational and experimental studies have shown that youth become increasingly materalistic as they watch more and more advertisements.
The effect of family relations: In comparison to less materalistic youth, materalistic children and adolescents tend to have materalistic parents and ineffective parent-child communication.
Is materalism related with low self- esteem? Objects as compensating values Social significance of products: Adolescents recognize how their possessions influence the way their peers perceive them.
The values are changing: Having lots of money Helping other people Having lots of fun and good times Helping to reduce hunger and poverty in the world Being popular or well-liked Helping to make the world a better place to live.