Adverbs, Pronouns

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INSTITUT PENDIDIKAN GURU KAMPUS TENGKU AMPUAN AFZAN

Adverbs are traditionally defined as words that describe verbs.

Adverbs answers any of the following questions about verbs :

How did he lift the barbell? Easily is an adverb.

When will we use it? Tomorrow functions as an adverb.

Where did she hide the key? Nearby is an adverb.

Adverb FormWe make many adverbs by adding -ly to an adjective, for

example: quick (adjective) > quickly (adverb) careful (adjective) > carefully (adverb) beautiful (adjective) > beautifully (adverb)

There are some basic rules about spelling for -ly adverbs. See the table below:Adjective endingmost adjectives

do thisadd -ly

adjectivequick nice sole careful regrettable horrible happy

adverbquickly nicely solely carefully regrettably horribly happily

-able or -ible -y

change -e to -y change -y to -ily

-ic

change -ic to -ically economic

economically

- these answer the question how?

This adverb usually comes after the direct object or if there is no direct object, after the verb:She speaks Italian beautifully. He works well. You must drive your car carefully. Eat quietly.

- these answer the question where? This adverb usually comes after the object, otherwise after the verb: We saw you there. We were sitting here. We looked everywhere. Note: somewhere, anywhere, follow the same rules as some and any:

Have you seen my glasses anywhere? I'm sure I left them somewhere. I can't find them anywhere.

- these answer the question when?This adverb usually comes either at the very beginning of the sentence or at the end. Afterwards we decided to go by car. I've done that journey before. Note: yet and still: -yet should be placed at the end of the sentence. -Still should be placed before the verb, except with the verb 'to be' when it comes after. We haven't started yet. He still wears old-fashioned clothes. She is still a student. Compare these two sentences: The train still hasn't arrived. The train hasn't arrived yet.

- these answer the question how many times?

This adverb comes after the verb 'to be':She is always honest.

Comes before simple tenses of all other verbs:They sometimes spend the whole of Saturday fishing.

Comes after the first auxiliary in a tense consisting of more than one verb: I have often wondered how they did that. I can sometimes go without food for days.

Note: with 'used to' and 'have' the frequency adverb is usually placed in front:We always used to look forward to the school holidays. He never has any trouble with his old car.

- these answer the question to what extent? This adverb can modify an adverb or an adjective and comes before the word it modifies:

The bottle is almost full, nearly empty. They should be able to pass their exams quite easily.The following adverbs of degree can also modify verbs: almost, nearly, quite, hardly, scarcely, barely, just

They follow the same pattern as frequency adverbs in terms of where they are placed:

-I quite understand.-We had almost reached the hut when the rain started. -I am just beginning a new course.

http://www.myenglishlessons.net/quizzes/adverbsp1.htm http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/adjectivesadverbs/adverbs/exercises

http://www.oswego.org/ocsdweb/quiz/mquiz.asp?filename=msmith5adverbswhere

http://depts.dyc.edu/learningcenter/owl/exercises/adjectives_ and_adverbs_ex1.htm

Descriptive

ADJECTIVESWords that describe or modify another person or thing in sentence

Superlative

Comparative

Descriptive Adjective

This type of adjectives add detail or description to the noun

Eg: The tall man thought he could reach the top shelf of the bookcase.

Noun Adjectives TALL describes the subject MAN and TOP describes the direct object SHELF.

Superlative Adjectives

This expresses the extreme or highest degree of a quality. We use a superlative adjective to describe the extreme quality of one thing in a group of things.

Formation of Superlative Adjectives

There are two ways to form a superlative adjective

short adjectives: add "-est"

long adjectives: use "most"

Short adjectives 1-syllable adjectives 2-syllable adjectives ending in -y

old, fast happy, easy

Normal rule: add "-est" old the oldest Variation: if the adjective ends in - late the latest e, just add -st Variation: if the adjective ends in big the biggest consonant, vowel, consonant, double the last consonant Variation: if the adjective ends in - happy the happiest y, change the y to i

Long adjectives 2-syllable adjectives not ending in modern, pleasant -y all adjectives of 3 or more expensive, intellectual syllables Normal rule: use "most" modern the most modern expensive the most expensive

Use of Superlative Adjectives We use a superlative adjective to describe one thing in a group of three or more things. Look at these examples: John is 1m75. David is 1m80. Chris is 1m85. Chris is the tallest. Canada, China and Russia are big countries. But Russia is the biggest. Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world.

English Tips: With some 2-syllable adjectives, we can use '-est' or 'most': quiet the quietest/most quiet clever the cleverest/most clever narrow the narrowest/most narrow simple the simplest/most simple English Tips: When we compare one thing with itself, we do not use "the":England is coldest in winter. (not the coldest) My boss is most generous when we get a big order. (not the most generous)

Exception cases: The following adjectives have irregular forms: good the best bad the worst far the furthest

Comparative Adjectives

When we talk about two things, we can "compare" them. We can see if they are the same or different. Perhaps they are the same in some ways and different in other ways. We can use comparative adjectives to describe the differences. Formation of Comparative Adjectives

There are two ways to make or form a comparative adjective

short adjectives: add "-er"

long adjectives: use "more"

Short adjectives 1-syllable adjectives

old, fast

2-syllable adjectives ending in -yNormal rule: add "-er"

happy, easyold older

Variation: if the adjective ends in -e, just late later add -r Variation: if the adjective ends in consonant, vowel, consonant, double the last consonant big bigger

Variation: if the adjective ends in -y, change the y to iLong adjectives 2-syllable adjectives not ending in -y all adjectives of 3 or more syllables Normal rule: use "more"

happy happier

modern, pleasant expensive, intellectual modern more modern expensive more expensive

Use of Comparative Adjectives We use comparative adjectives when talking about 2 things Often, the comparative adjective is followed by "than" Look at these examples:

John is 1m80cm. He is tall. But Chris is 1m85cm. He is taller than John.America is big. But Russia is bigger. I want to have a more powerful computers Is French more difficult than English?

English Tips: Although we use comparative adjectives when talking about two things (not three or more things), in fact one or both of the things may be a group of things. Everest is higher than all other mountains. Here, we are talking about hundreds of mountains, but we are still comparing one thing ( Everest) to one other thing (all other mountains).

English tips: With some 2-syllable adjectives, we can use '-er' or 'more': quiet quieter/more quiet clever cleverer/more clever narrow narrower/more narrow simple simpler/more simple

Exception Cases: The following adjectives have irregular forms: good better well (healthy) better bad worse far farther/further

SOME LIST OF ADJECTIVES

Appearance Adjectivesadorable beautiful Clean Drab Elegant Fancy Glamorous Handsome Long Magnificent old-fashioned Plain Quaint Sparkling Ugliest Unsightly wide-eyed

alive better careful clever dead easy famous gifted helpful important inexpensive mushy odd powerful rich shy tender uninterested vast wrong

Condition Adjectives

angry bewildered clumsy defeated embarrassed fierce grumpy helpless itchy jealous lazy mysterious nervous obnoxious panicky repulsive scary thoughtless uptight worried

Feelings (Bad) Adjectives

agreeable brave calm delightful eager faithful gentle happy jolly kind lively nice obedient proud relieved silly thankful victorious witty zealous

Feelings (Good) Adjectives

Sound Adjectivescooing deafening faint hissing loud melodic noisy purring quiet raspy screeching thundering voiceless whispering

ancient brief early fast late long modern old old-fashioned quick rapid short slow swift young

Time Adjectives

bitter delicious fresh greasy juicy hot icy loose melted nutritious prickly rainy rotten salty sticky strong sweet tasteless weak wet yummy

Taste/Touch Adjectives

Learn more about Adjectives at here:http://www.referatele.com/referate/engleza/online12/The-Adjective---Types-ofadjectives-Position-of-adjectives-Comparison-of-adjectives-Adjective-patter.php http://www.grammaruntied.com/adjectives/adjectivetypes.html http://www.grammaruntied.com/adjectives/adjectivelist.html Exercise :

http://www.learn-english-today.com/lessons/lesson_contents/adjectives-ex.html

What is pronounsA pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. Generally (but not always) pronouns stand for (pro + noun) or refer to a noun, an individual or things. whose identity is made clear earlier in the text. You use pronouns like "he," "which," "none," and "you" to make your sentences