Additional Conversions Used In Health Ca

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  • 1. Calculate with Confidence 5 thedition Gray Morris Mosby items and derived items 2010 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

2. Additional Conversions Usefulin the Health Care Setting Unit Two: Chapter 9 Mosby items and derived items 2010 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 3. Additional Useful Conversions:Objectives

  • After reviewing this chapter, you should be
  • able to:
    • Convert between Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures
    • Convert between units of length: inches, centimeter, and millimeters
    • Convert between units of weight: pounds and kilograms, pounds and ounces to kilograms

4. Converting BetweenCelsius and Fahrenheit

  • Temperature reading followed byF= Fahrenheit (e.g., 98 F)
  • Followed byC= Celsius (formerly centigrade) (e.g., 36 C)
  • Freezing point of H 2 O is 32 F and 0 C
  • Boiling point of H 2 O is 212 F and 100 C

5. Figure 9-1 Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales. (From Clayton BD, Stock YN:Basic pharmacology for nurses,ed. 14, St. Louis, 2007, Mosby.)Note:Glass thermometers pictured here are for demonstration purposes only. Electronic digital temperature devices are more commonly used in health care settings. Figure 9-2 Ranges of normal temperature values and physiological consequences of abnormal body temperature. (From Potter PA, Perry AG:Fundamentals of nursing,ed. 7, St. Louis, 2009, Mosby.) 6. Temperature Conversion Formulas

  • To convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit, multiply by 1.8 orand add 32
  • Example: Convert 37.5 C to F
  • F = 1.8(C) + 32or F = 9/5(C) + 32
  • F = (1.8)37.5 + 32
  • F = 67.5 + 32
  • F = 99.5

7. Temperature Conversion Formulas (contd)

  • To convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius, subtract 32 and divide by 1.8 or
  • Example: Convert 68 Fto C
  • Formula:C = (F - 32)9/5
  • C = (68 - 32)9/5
  • C = 369/5, which inverts to be C = 365/9
  • C = 180/9
  • C = 20

8. Conversions: Metrics and Length

  • Metric measures are used for
    • Pupil size
    • Babys head circumference
    • Wounds and incisions(lengthwidthdepth in cm or mm)
  • Conversion factor: 1 cm = 10 mm
  • If incision is 25 cm, how many mm is it?
  • 25 mm = 2510 = 2.5 cm or 25 = 2.5 cm

9. Conversions: Metrics and Length (contd)

  • Convert 30 cm to inches (in)
  • Conversion factor: 1 in = 2.5 cm
  • Think smaller to larger (divide)
  • 302.5 = 12 in

10. Conversions Relating to Weight

  • Body weight is important in calculating doses for certain medications
  • Delivered in mg or mcg per kilogram
  • Nurse needs to calculate safety of doses documented as mg/kg
  • May need to convert pounds and ounces in pediatric calculations

11. Conversions Relating to Weight (contd)

  • Pounds to Kilograms
  • Conversion factor: 2.2 lb = 1 kg
  • Smaller to larger (divide lb value by 2.2)
  • Round answers to nearest tenth
    • Example:Convert 65 lb to kilograms
    • kg = 652.2 = 29.54rounds to29.5 kg

12. Conversions Relating to Weight(cont)

  • Poundsandounces to kilograms
    • Convert oz to nearest tenth of lb and add to pounds
    • Equivalent: 16 oz = 1 lb
    • Convert total lb to kg, then round to nearest tenth

13. Conversions Relating to Weight (contd)

  • Pounds and ounces to kilograms (contd)
    • A child weighs 10 lb 2 oz
    • Think smaller to larger
      • 2 oz 16 = 0.12rounds to0.1 lb
      • 10 lb + 0.1 lb = 10.1 lb
    • Think smaller to larger
      • 10.12.2 = 4.59rounds to4.6 kg

14. Conversions Relating to Weight (contd)

  • Kilograms to Pounds
  • Multiply by 2.2 (think larger to smaller)
  • Equivalent: 1 kg = 2.2 lb
  • A child weighs 24.7 kg; convert to pounds
  • lb = 24.72.2 = 54.34rounds to54.3 lb
    • (weight in kg)(equivalent)

15. Military Time

  • International time
  • Uses a 24-hour clock
  • Helps prevent errors by eliminating repetition of numbers
  • No colon (:) or a.m./p.m. designations
  • Midnight = 0000 and 2400
  • 1:00 a.m. = 0100
  • Now referred to as Computer Time

16. Figure 9-3 Clocks showing traditional and military time. 17. Time: Traditional to Computer

  • To convert a.m. time, omit the colon and a.m., then add a zero to the beginning to make a four-digit number
    • Example: 8:45 a.m. = 0845
  • To convert p.m. time, omit the colon and p.m., then add 1200 to the time
    • Example: 7:50 pm = 1950

18. Time: Computer to Traditional

  • To convert times between 0000 and 1200,delete any zero at the beginning, insert colon, and add a.m.
    • Example: 0845 = 8:45 a.m.
  • To convert times between 1200 and 2400, subtract 1200, insert colon, and add p.m.
    • Example: 1950 = 7:50 p.m.