Action Shots! Background vs Foreground : El pret©rito imperfecto vs El pret©rito indefinido Choosing when to use the correct past tense

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Action Shots! Background vs Foreground : El pretrito imperfecto vs El pretrito indefinido Choosing when to use the correct past tense Slide 2 ongoing The imperfecto is used for ongoing conditions conditions and habitual actions habitual actions in the past. The indefinido is used for completed events completed events in the past. ongoing The imperfecto is used for ongoing conditions conditions and habitual actions habitual actions in the past. The indefinido is used for completed events completed events in the past. When talking about the past, you must use the use the pretrito indefinido and the pretrito imperfecto, often simultaneously! When talking about the past, you must use the use the pretrito indefinido and the pretrito imperfecto, often simultaneously! Remember: Slide 3 habl = he talked, he did talk hablaba = he was talking, he used to talk, he would talk & he talked indefinido The indefinido is generally translated as the simple past in English. indefinido The indefinido is generally translated as the simple past in English. imperfecto The imperfecto has several English equivalents (including the English simple past). imperfecto The imperfecto has several English equivalents (including the English simple past). Translations: Slide 4 Llova cuando sal. = (It was raining when I went out.) ( imperfect )( preterite ) Llova Llova is an ongoing condition, whereas sal sal is a completed action. Ejemplos: Slide 5 Caminaba Caminaba indicates a continuing action or ongoing state, the background interrupted by an event with a me ca definite ending point, such as me ca. Caminaba por la calle cuando me ca. = was walking I fell (I was walking in the street when I fell.) Slide 6 todos los dasese da Iba todos los das, pero ese da no fui. = (I used to go every day, but that day I didnt go.) Time expressions used with the imperfecto, on the contrary, indicate habit, repetition or long duration. Time expressions used with the imperfecto, on the contrary, indicate habit, repetition or long duration. The event in the pretrito indefinido is often signaled by a ese da very specific time expression, such as ese da, indicating a single completed action. The event in the pretrito indefinido is often signaled by a ese da very specific time expression, such as ese da, indicating a single completed action. Ejemplo : Ms Slide 7 imperfecto Use the imperfecto for: An ongoing or continuous past actions Setting the scene Telling time Telling your age Describing physical and mental states Describing the characteristics of people, places, things or situations Review Slide 8 Use the indefinido for: Actions that are single, completed events Actions that happened a stated number of times Actions that were part of a series /sequence/succession of events To state the beginning or end of an action Review Slide 9 Eran las doce de la noche y llova. Un hombre abri la puerta. Era viejo y muy delgado. Llevaba ropa negra y tena la cara muy blanca. Lo mir por un segundo y corr a mi casa. = (It was midnight and it was raining. A man opened the door. He was old and very thin. He was wearing black and his face was very white. I looked at him for a second and ran to my home.) Ejemplo: Slide 10 1.Jugaba al Scrabble con Judy. 2.Coman helado todos los das. 3.Mi profesor me grit hoy. 4.Adnde fuiste despus de la escuela? 1.He was playing Scrabble with Judy. 2.They ate ice cream every day. 3.My teacher yelled (gritar)at me today. 4.Where did you go after school? Check Your Knowledge! Slide 11 The pretrito indefinido is used in Spanish to answer the question What happened?. On the other hand, you will usually put a verb in the imperfecto if it answers the questions What was going on (when something else happened?), or What was it like/How did things use to be?. Generally, the pretrito indefinido is used to relate events that advance a plot/storyline while the imperfecto is used to describe what was going on in the past, states of being in the past, or past habits. Q&A: Slide 12 Telling stories All this takes on special importance in narration of past actions, when both tenses often occur in the same story side-by-side. Narrating a story entails both describing a setting (habitual actions, atmosphere, places and people) using the imperfecto and recounting a plot or a series of events, actions, changes of feelings or thoughts using the indefinido. Slide 13 El imperfecto: usually implies ongoing actions in the past Time: It was 2 oclock Date: on a sunny Saturday in May. Weather: It was beautiful out a truly perfect spring day! Background actions: was ing, were ing The sun was shining, the birds were chirping, the flowers were blooming, and love was most definitely in the air Feelings/Emotions: I was feeling happy, healthy, and good about life, Habitual Actions: On such days, I used to go for walks in the park Slide 14 The following adverbs are commonly associated with the imperfecto to express an incomplete past: SpanishEnglish AntesBefore rase/Haba una vez Once upon a time (used only in stories) GeneralmenteGenerally FrecuentementeFrequently A menudoOften ConstantementeConstantly SiempreAlways Slide 15 SpanishEnglish Cada daEach day Cada mesEach month Cada aoEach year Raras vecesRarely Por lo generalIn general Todos los aosEvery year Todos los mesesEvery month Todos los dasEvery day De vez en cuandoOccasionally NormalmenteNormally UsualmenteUsually MientrasWhile Slide 16 Act 1, Scene 1: Setting the stage w/ el imperfecto Cul era la fecha? Qu hora era? Qu tiempo haca? Cmo era el medioambiente? Cuntos aos tena? Cmo se senta? Qu ms se pasaba en la escena? Slide 17 Act 1, Scene 1: Setting the stage w/ el imperfecto What was the date? What time was it? What was the weather like? Describe the environment? How old was the person? How was the person feeling? Was there anything else going on in the background? Slide 18 Repaso: el tiempo (very) hot(mucha) calor (very) cld(mucho) frio coolfresco nice outbuen tiempo bad weathermal tiempo windyviento sunnysol Hace/ Haca o: (El) llover (El) nevar Slide 19 Repaso: el tiempo oscurodark nubladocloudy lluviosorainy nieblafog humedadhumidity relmpagoslightning Est/ Estaba Hay/ Haba Slide 20 Imagina et describe la escena: Slide 21 Act 1, Scene 2: The foreground w/ el indefinido An action on a specific date/point in time: On that sunny Saturday, the 24 th of May, my life changed. Interrupting action: As I was strolling through the park, a beautiful specimen ran right into me, knocking me both literally and figuratively on my butt. Repetition of events: I got up, disoriented, but fell back down again 3 times. Series/sequence/succession of events: When I was finally able to stand, first I brushed myself off, then I straightened out my shirt, finally I got the nerve to approach her Slide 22 The following adverbs are commonly associated with the indefinido to express a completed action at a specific point in time.past : SpanishEnglish AyerYesterday Anteayer/antierDay before yesterday AnocheLast night AntenocheThe night before last La semana pasadaLast week El ao pasadoLast year El verano pasadoLast summer Slide 23 SpanishEnglish Hace + tiempo + pretritoAgo En la maanaIn the morning Por la maanaIn the morning El otro daThe other day El fin de semana pasadoLast weekend Siempre*Always Nunca*Never *For actions/events that never actually happened (as opposed to habitual events in the past that regularly did happen): i.e., Siempre quise ir a Disneyworld, pero nunca fui. I always wanted to go to Disneyworld, but I never went. Slide 24 Imagina y describe la escena: (background & foreground) Slide 25 1. Which tense should I use? IMPERFECTO AR = aba, abas, aba, bamos, abais, aban ER/IR = a, as, a, amos, ais, an 1. DESCRIPTIONS: -Time -Date -Weather -Feelings/emotions/conditions -physical 2. HABITS (used to/would) 3. ONGOING actions (was/were ing) 4. NON-SPECIFIC DATE RANGE OVER AN EXTENDED PERIOD OF TIME PRETRITO INDEFINIDO AR = , aste, , amos, asteis, aron ER/IR = , iste, i, imos, isteis, ieron 1. EVENTS moving the plot forward (It usually interrupts an ongoing action in the Imparfait) 2. SUCCESSION of events (1 st, then, after, finally) 3. REPITITION of events (anytime you use fois) EXCEPT w/ Il tait une fois (once upon a time) 4. SPECIFIC DATE/POINT IN TIME settingsetting Slide 26 Ahora, te toca a ti: In pairs, illustrate a scene and describe it, using both past tenses. The catch? You both interpret the same scene very differently Specs: Write at least 3 sentences each to describe the background (imperfecto) and at least 7 sentences each to describe the foreground/developing events (pretrito indefinido).