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KYUSHU UNIVERSITY Kentaro Yaji Kentaro Yaji Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering (Shindo Group) (Shindo Group) Feb. 17. 2009, University of Illinois at Urbana Feb. 17. 2009, University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign Champaign Acid Acid - - catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and and its Asymmetric Conversion its Asymmetric Conversion

Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

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Page 1: Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

KYUSHU UNIVERSITY

Kentaro YajiKentaro YajiInterdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering SciencesInterdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering SciencesInstitute for Materials Chemistry and EngineeringInstitute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering(Shindo Group)(Shindo Group)

Feb. 17. 2009, University of Illinois at UrbanaFeb. 17. 2009, University of Illinois at Urbana--ChampaignChampaign

AcidAcid--catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and and

its Asymmetric Conversion its Asymmetric Conversion

Page 2: Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

Recent developments in Nazarov cyclizationRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization

2

Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224.

SiMe3

O

OO

CO2Et

OMe

OMe

MeO

SiMe3

OFeCl2

Cl

OOM

CO2Et

TMP

OH

H

OO

CO2Et

TMP

FeCl3 (1.05 equiv.)

CH2Cl2, 0 oC, 4 h76 %

S. E. Denmark (1982) ~ Silicon-direct Nazarov cyclization ~

Cu(OTf)2 (2 mol%)

CH2Cl2, rt, < 0.1 h+ -

TMP: 2,4,6-trimethoxyphenylM = CuOTf

>99 %

A. J. Frontier (2003) ~ Polarizing Nazarov cyclization ~

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1982, 104, 2642.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 14278.

Nazarov CyclizationNazarov CyclizationO OA OA OA O

Acid 4

conrotatory

-H+ +H+

Page 3: Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

OM

OR

OM

ORstable unstable

Br

Ar OtBu

O

NEt3 Br

Ar OtBu

O

Ar OtBu

O O

Ar OtBu-alkoxy divinylketone

42-69 %

Harmata. M. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 14328; 2004, 126, 10954.RetroRetro--Nazarov cyclizationNazarov cyclization

3

ConceptsConcepts

OM

OR

D DOM

OR

D D

D: electon-donating groupstable stable

☜ RetroRetro--NazarovNazarov

☜ NewNew NazarovNazarov

Novel effect of electronNovel effect of electron--donating donating --substituentssubstituents

☞☞ Elimination of Elimination of --alkoxidealkoxide induced the induced the rapid rapid and and regioselective regioselective reaction.reaction.

Page 4: Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

OEtO

Ph

Sc(OTf)3 (10 mol%)

CH2Cl2, rt> 75 %

< 3 min

OMe

OEt

Me

Ph ssingle regioisomeringle regioisomer

Sc(OTf)3

Sc(OTf)3

CH2Cl2

CH2Cl2

complex mixture

complex mixture

MeO

Ph OMe

OMe

OEt

Ph

4

AcidAcid--catalyzed rapid Nazarov cyclizationcatalyzed rapid Nazarov cyclization

Highly efficient acidHighly efficient acid--catalyzed reactioncatalyzed reaction

Quick reactionQuick reactionRegioselective formationRegioselective formation

Rearrangement of alkoxyl groupRearrangement of alkoxyl group

Page 5: Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

Torquoselective OlefinationTorquoselective Olefination

Me

OLi

MeONHMe HCl

Ph OEt

O

OEt

N

O

Ph

MeO

Me

Li

H+ HO2C Me

Ph(CH2)2 OEt

O

OEt

Ph

79 %

THF, rt, 1 h

81 %

TBTU , NEt3

87 %

CH3CN, rt, 24 h THF, rt, < 0.1 h

ynolate E:Z = >99:1

+

-alkoxy divinylketone

**

Shindo, M. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 1062.*

NN

N

O NMe2

NMe2

BF4TBTU : O-(Benzotiazol-1-yl)- N,N,N',N'-tetramethyluronium tetrafluoroborate

**

*

5

Synthesis of Synthesis of --alkoxy divinylketonesalkoxy divinylketones

Page 6: Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

O

OEt

Ph

Sc(OTf)3

FeCl3

Sc(OTf)3

Sc(OTf)3

TiCl4

Sc(OTf)3

OX

Ph

Lewis acid-catalyzed conditions

Entry Lewis acid mol % Product Yield (%)Additive

1

2

3

4

5

10

10

1

10

1006

10 MeOH (10 equiv.)

H2O (1 equiv.)

1

1

1

2

3

4

62

92

76

73

72

94

1: X = OEt2: X = OMe3: X = OH4: X = Cl

a 0.025 M, unless otherwise noted. b 0.25 M. c The reaction was carried out at 0 oC in MeCN.

CH2Cl2, rt

Time (min)

< 3

< 3

10

< 3

20

< 3

a

b

c

6

LewisLewis--acid catalyzed Nazarov cyclizationacid catalyzed Nazarov cyclization

Shindo, M., Yaji, K., Kita, T., Shishido, K. Synlett , 2007, 1096.

Page 7: Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

Bronsted acid-catalyzed conditions/

Bronsted acid/

O

OEt

Ph

TsOH

TFA

OX

Ph

Entry mol % Time (min) Product Yield (%)

1

10 102 1 40

1: X = OEt4: X = Cl

a 0.25 M. b pKa value in H2O.

200 2403 1 39

CH2Cl2, rt

4

pKa

-2.8

-0.25

a b

TfOH

TfOH/Tf2O

Tf2O

Tf2NH

5

6

7

8

0.1

0.1/0.005

0.001

< 3

< 3

< 3

0.1 < 3

1

1

1

1

74

91

80

76

-14

< -14

HCl 300 < 3 4 83-8

AcOH 1004.8 no reaction

7

BrBrøønstednsted--acid catalyzed Nazarov cyclizationacid catalyzed Nazarov cyclization

Shindo, M., Yaji, K., Kita, T., Shishido, K. Synlett , 2007, 1096.

Page 8: Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

R4 R1O

OR3R2R5

R1O

R3O

R4

R2R5

A : TfOH/Tf2O (0.1/0.005 mol%)B : Tf2O (0.1 mol%)

C : Sc(OTf)3 (10 mol%) (Additive)

8

OMeO

Ph

OiPrO

Ph

iPrO

EtO

Ph

O

Ph

O

Ph

EtO

OEtO

PhTBSO

OHO

Ph

O

Ph

O

Ph

OEtO

Ph

96 % (A) 73 % (B)

92 % (B)82 % (A) 89 % (C) 58 % (C) (EtOH)

60 % (C) 94 % (C) (H2O)

64 % (C)(tBuOH)

50 % (C)(allylBu3Sn)

>99% de

Synthesis of multiSynthesis of multi--substituted cyclopentenonessubstituted cyclopentenones

Page 9: Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

OEt

OM

R

OM

OEtR

EtOH

TfO

TfOH

OMEtO

ROEt

EtOH

EtOH

OEtR

OMTfO

O

R

EtO

O

R

TfOH

TfO

EtOH

O

OEtR

TfOH

SnBu3

ONu

R

-alkoxy divinylketone pentadienyl cation

4

conrotatory

oxyallyl cation(M = Sc(OTf)2, H)

acid

Nu

Nu = alcohol, H2O

9

Proposed mechanismProposed mechanism

Page 10: Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

Crossover experimentsCrossover experimentsO

OR2R1

O

OR3R2

+Sc(OTf)3 (2 mol%)

CH2Cl2, rt, < 3 min

+

a c

b d

(a : b : c : d = ca. 1 : 1 : 1 : 1)

R1 = -(CH2)2C6H4(p-Me)R2 = -(CH2)2C6H5

R3 = -(CH2)2C6H4(p-MeO)

68 %

Normal products Crossover products

OR2O

R1

OR3O

R2

OR3O

R1

OR2O

R2+

OEtO

Ph

OMeO

Ph

Sc(OTf)3 (10 mol%)

MeOH (1 equiv.)

CH2Cl2, rt, 1 hno reaction

×

10

InterInter--molecular molecular Alkoxide TrappingAlkoxide TrappingIntraIntra--molecular molecular Alkoxide TrappingAlkoxide Trapping

Crossover experimentsCrossover experiments

Page 11: Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

11

Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224.

Nazarov CyclizationNazarov Cyclization

OO

R

OO

Ph

nBu

OO

R

OO

Ph

nBuO

O

Ph

nBu

65-94%

CH3CN, MS3A, 0 oC or rt

10 mol% Sc(OTf)3-pybox/indane

76-95% ee

(R = Me, Et, iPr, tBu, Cy)

2 mol%N-triflyl phosphoramide

CHCl3, 0 oC95% (dr = 3.5:1)

+

90% ee 93% ee

NN

OO

N

Ar

Ar

O

OP

O

NHTf

D. Trauner (2004) ~ Catalytic Asymmetric Proton Transfer ~

M. Rueping (2007) ~ The First Enantioselective Organocatalytic Electrocyclic Reaction ~

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 9544.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007, 46, 2097.

pybox/indane

N-triflyl phosphoramide (Ar = 9-phenanthryl)

O OA OA OA OAcid 4

conrotatory

-H+ +H+

Asymmetric Nazarov cyclizationAsymmetric Nazarov cyclization

Page 12: Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

no reaction

NO

N N

O

R1

R2 R2

R1

N

O

N

O

R R

O

NO

Ph

ON

Ph

Entry Ligand Time (h) Yield (%) ee (%)

1

5

3

4

6

7

8

9

pybox/Ph

pybox/i-Pr

pybox/Ph, Me

pybox/indane

pybox/Bn

box/Ph (Cu)

box/t-Bu (Cu)

DBFOX/Ph (Ni)

3

12

0.5

5

24

1

0.5

65

37

69

59

46

74

90

51

9

8

3

3

0

0

pybox/Ph:R1 = Ph, R2 = Hpybox/p-MeOPh: R1 = p-MeO-Ph, R2 = Hpybox/i-Pr: R1 = i-Pr, R2 = Hpybox/Ph, Me: R1 = Ph, R2 = Mepybox/indane: R1, R2 = indanylpybox/Bn: R1 = Bn, R2 = H

box/Ph: R = Phbox/t-Bu: R = t-Bu DBFOX/Ph

2 pybox/p-MeO-Ph 2 56 46

12

O

OEt

Ph Sc

O

Ph

EtO10 mol%Mtl(OTf)x-pybox/Ph complex

CH2Cl2, rt

51% eeCu, Zn, Fe, In, Sn, Yb, La, Pr, Eu 0 ~ 4% ee

<<MtMtll(OTf)(OTf)xx-- pybox/Phpybox/Ph complexes>complexes>

<Sc(OTf)<Sc(OTf)33 -- Ligand complexes>Ligand complexes>

Chiral Chiral bisoxazolinebisoxazoline--type Lewis acidstype Lewis acids

Page 13: Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

( chiral Bronsted acid )/

O

OEt

Ph

OEtO

Ph

OHOH

Br

Br

OHOH

OO

Ph

Ph

POOH

O

O

OHOH

naph naph

naph naph

OO

Ph

Ph

PONHTf

O

OSc(OTf)3

H

H

N

N

(chiral Lewis acid)

10 mol% Chiral acid

CH2Cl2, rt

Entry Chiral acid Time (h) Yield (%) ee (%)

1 BINOL / Ti (1)

TADDOL / Ti (2)2

2.5 61 65

0

3 BINOL / Zr (3)

4 BINOL / Sc(OTf)3/ TMP (4)

no reaction

48 30 0

5

6

7

phosphoric acid / Ph (5)

N-triflyl phosphoramide / Ph (6)

TADDOL no reaction

44 14

0

< 0.1

+ TiCl2(OiPr)2

+ TiCl2(OiPr)2

+ Zr(OtBu)4

Mikami BINOL/Ti (1)

Narasaka TADDOL/Ti (2)

J. R. Pedro BINOL/Zr (3)

S. Kobayashi BINOL/Sc(OTf)3/TMP (4)

Terada, Akiyamaphosphoric acid / Ph (5)

H. YamamotoN-triflyl phosphoramide / Ph (6)

13

Screening of chiral Lewis or BrScreening of chiral Lewis or Brøønsted acidsnsted acids

Page 14: Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

14

The ratio of Sc(OTf)The ratio of Sc(OTf)3 3 : pybox/Ph: pybox/PhO

OEt

Ph

O

Ph

EtONO

N N

O

Ph Ph

10 mol% Sc(OTf)3-pybox/Ph complex

Entry Sc(OTf)3 : pybox Additive (ratio) Time (h) Yield (%) ee (%)

CH2Cl2, rt

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1 : 1.1

1 : 1.5

1 : 1.8

1 : 2.0

1 : 1.1

1 : 1.1

1 : 1.1

1 : 1.1

1 : 1.1

NEt3 (0.7)

NEt3 (0.9)

pyridine (0.7)

Hunig base (0.7)

K2CO3 (0.7)

1

1

3

5

3

20

20

1.5

2

71

64

65

72

71

55

30

69

58

0

21

51

40

54

56

54

46

25

a)

b)

a) The starting material remained. b) The ratio based on Sc(OTf)3.

Condition (A)

Condition (B)

(R,R)-pybox/Ph

Capture of TfOHCapture of TfOH

Page 15: Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

15

N

O N

NO

Sc

O OR'R

R'OH

Proposed modelProposed modelfor asymmetric inductionfor asymmetric induction

GeneralityGenerality

OMePh

O

O

OP

O

NTf

Ar

Ar

iPr

iPr

iPr

H

O

Ph

MeO10 mol%N-triflyl phosphoramide/TRIP

CH2Cl2, rt, < 0.1 h

42% ee (82%)

Ar =

N-triflyl phosphoramide/TRIP(TRIP: 2,4,6-triisopropyl phenyl)

Chiral BrChiral Brøønsted acid catalystnsted acid catalyst

OMeO

Ph

40% (12% ee)

OEtO

Ph 71% (54% ee)

OBnO

Ph 53% (67% ee)

OiPrO

Ph 38% (84% ee)

OO

Ph34% (0% ee)

Asymmetric Nazarov cyclizationAsymmetric Nazarov cyclization

☞☞ StericallySterically hinderedhindered --alkoxy groups improved the stereoselectivity.alkoxy groups improved the stereoselectivity.

Page 16: Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

O

OiPr

Ph

CH2Cl2

iPrOH + CH2Cl2 (1:1)

MeOH

EtOH

OiPrO

Ph

10 mol% Sc(OTf)3-pybox/Ph

NEt3, solvent, rt, 3 h

Entry Solvent Yield ee (%)

55 91

56 90

2

3

4

5

no reaction

no reaction

41 801

iPrOH

6 tBuOH no reaction

16

Solvent effectsSolvent effects

☞☞ Using Using iiPrOHPrOH as a solvent, stereoselectivity was improveas a solvent, stereoselectivity was improved.d.

Page 17: Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

O

TBSOOEt

Ph

10 mol%Chiral acid-catalyzed condition

CH2Cl2, rt

OEtO

TBSO

Ph(> 99 % de)

Entry Chiral acid Time (h) Yield (%) ee (%)

1

2

3

Sc(OTf)3-pybox/Ph

chiral phosphoramide / Ph

chiral phosphoramide / TRIP

5

4

3

34

55

68

25

15

35

a)

a)

b)

a) Starting material was not consumed. b) TRIP: 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene

O

OP

O

NHTf

Ar

Archiral phosphoramide (Ar = Ph, TRIP)

Concept: Concept: Torquoselective Nazarov cyclizationTorquoselective Nazarov cyclization

17

OM

OR

ORO

ORO

**

**

counter-clockwise clockwise

Torquoselective Nazarov cyclizationTorquoselective Nazarov cyclization

Page 18: Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

OEt

O OEtO

Ph

Sc(OTf)3 (10 mol%)

< 3 min.

74-96 %TfOH (0.001 mol%)

or

Ph

1.1. AcidAcid--catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclizationcatalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization

22.. Catalytic Asymmetric Nazarov CyclizationCatalytic Asymmetric Nazarov Cyclization

OiPr

OSc(OTf)3-pybox/Ph

OiPrO

Ph

91 %eeiPrOH

Ph

33.. Asymmetric Torquoselective Nazarov CyclizationAsymmetric Torquoselective Nazarov Cyclization

Shindo, M.; Yaji, K.; Kita, T.; Shishido, K. Synlett 2007, 7, 1096.

OEt

O

Ph

TRIP catalystO

EtO

Ph

35 %eeTBSO

TBSO*

*18

The 128th Annual Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan Highlight Selected Title.

ConclusionConclusion

Page 19: Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

Total Synthesis of Stemonamide & Total Synthesis of Stemonamide & IsostemonamideIsostemonamide

19

The current project The current project

N

O O

O

OMe

ON

O O

O

OMe

O9

12

stemonamide isostemonamideFrom the roots of Stemona japonica

Alkaloids from Stemona plants have been used in Chinese and Japanese folk medicine as cough-relief agents and insecticides.The biological activities of stemonamide & isostemonamide has not been reported.

Structure: Xu, R-S. et al. J. Nat. Prod. 1994, 57, 665.The 1st Total Synthesis: (racemic) Kende, A. S. et al. Org. Lett. 2001, 3, 2505.;Tetrahedron. 2002, 58, 61. The 2nd Total Synthesis: (racemic) Ishibashi, H. et al. Org. Lett. 2008, 10, 197.

stemona japonica Miq.stemona japonica Miq.

Page 20: Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

Synthetic strategy for Stemonamide Synthetic strategy for Stemonamide

20

TBDPSO OEt

O

O

OMeON3

Me

OLi

HO2C Me

OEt

MeO

C

O

OMe

NH

O

O

HOOEt

MeO

CN O

OA

O

OMe

HO

BA

N O

O HOO

OMeMe

OLiN O

O O OMe

O

A

B

C

D

N O

O HOOH

C-H insertion dihydroxylation

TorquoselectiveOlefination

stemonamide

Acid-catalyzedRapid Nazarov

TorquoselectiveOlefination

N-Alkylation

3

C

Page 21: Acid-catalyzed Rapid Nazarov Cyclization and its ... · PDF fileRecent developments in Nazarov cyclization 2 Nazarov, I. N. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1941, 211-224. SiMe3 O

Kyushu University (Shindo Lab.)Kyushu University (Shindo Lab.)

FUKUOKAFUKUOKA

KYUSHUKYUSHU

TOKYOTOKYO・

OSAKAOSAKA

Prof. M. ShindoProf. M. Shindo