Academic Vocabulary. Today’s Agenda: How do words get learned and stay learned? What do we mean by “academic vocabulary”? 3. Implicit and explicit vocabulary instruction 4. Classroom practices that grow vocabulary. Presenter: Amy Benjamin - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Presenter: Amy BenjaminYou may access any of todays visuals at: www.amybenjamin.com
Todays Agenda: How do words get learned and stay learned?What do we mean by academic vocabulary?3. Implicit and explicit vocabulary instruction4. Classroom practices that grow vocabulary
The visuals for todays presentation are available for your classroom use.Feel free to access them at www.amybenjamin.comGoals: Vocabulary growth in authentic situationsImproved ability to derive meaning of unfamiliar words3. Positive attitude about words and languageAggressivePurposefulPervasive
Implicit: Natural language acquisitionthrough immersionExplicit: Planned instruction on targeted words:
Etymology (word histories) Morphology (word partsEstimation: 3% to 20% of instructional time spent on vocabulary
absorptionLotus Effect Learning:Study Guide: Chapter 2 of The PearlVocabulary Words:
Bulwarka wall built for defense
Estuary wide mouth of a river where it empties into the sea
Incandescencebrightness given off by a hot object
Mangrovea tropical tree
Poulticeherbal medicines applied to a wound or sore
Rose Effect Learning:Study Guide: Chapter 2 of The Pearl
Mangrove: a tropical tree that grows in clusters very close to a body of waterWhat do we notice about mangrove trees?(other than mangrove) What might I google to get a pictureof a mangrove tree?Did you ever see mangrove trees? where?
Rose Effect Learning:Study Guide: Chapter 2 of The Pearl
Poultice: a mix of herbs or other plants, crushed and placed inside cloth, to be applied to a wound as a home remedyPoultices can be made of herbs, garlic, carrots, potatoes, ginger, lemon, etc.
Watering Can Effect Learning:Study Guide: Chapter 2 of The Pearl
incandescence: glowadj: incandescent eyes
Related words: candle candidate kindle Sentence: Under an incandescent sliver of the moon, the trees appeared life-like.. Synonyms andNear Synonyms:
What if ad executives taught vocabulary?
repetitionassociation with emotionassociation with an imagehumorstorynovelty
apprentice: (n) one bound by legal agreementto work for another for a specified time in return for his training in a trade, an art,or a businessscheme: (n, v) a systematic plan of actionDefinition contains unfamiliar language
Definition can be too simplistic and therefore misleading
Usually, no context
Not all of the information about a word is captured in a definitionCharlotte, are you thirsty?Would you like some juice?What kind of juice do youwant? Do you want applejuice? Thats the yellow juicethat you liked at Nanas. No?Do you want the purple juice? The grape juice?OK. Do you want your juice in the sippy cup orthe Big Girl juice box? OK, now hold it carefully.Two hands. Dont squeeze it! Itll spill all over theplace. Very carefully.Sip it through the straw.
BOSUII. New word for a simple but new conceptCategories of Word Knowledge: New word/ new, complex concept
Concept may be understood on progressively deeper level
Of Limited ValueLists aloneContext aloneDefinitions aloneDictionaries and Glossaries aloneOf Durable ValueWords in clustersLeisure readingMultiple exposures in various contextsChances to speak, hear, writeManipulation of forms of wordsClassify and categorize word listsWord games, puzzlesRules of ThumbNew learners need SIX (meaningful) exposures to a new word during the initial lesson and at leastTHIRTY additional exposures during the ensuing month.The chances of learning a word after a single exposure in context are 10-15%.We learn most words through non-conscious effort, inpursuit of information of interest.Explicit Teaching: Etymology Illuminates Meaningnostalgiaalgia: painneuralgiaGr: nostos: return home
Visuals illuminate meaningExplicit Teaching: Personal connections Illuminate MeaningnostalgiaHave you ever been homesick? Stories illuminate meaning
Explicit Teaching: Teaching morphology facilitates usenostalgia, nostalgicHave you ever felt nostalgic for elementary school? Teaching collocation facilitates use: Im nostalgic forIm nostalgic aboutfeel nostalgic.
Connecting to related words facilitates use: sentimental, memories, forgotten, reminds me of, evokative, deja vu
Tier 3: glossary word:Multisyllabic Specific to a subject area Latin or Greek-basedtopography, photosynthesis, isoceles triangle, sedimentary, oxygenated, cartographerTier 2: Words of education, business, government, religion: Components: Prefix, root, suffix Latin-basedelevation, formation, protrude, expansive, isolated, remote
Tier 1: Basic conversational words: Friends & family1 or 2 syllables Learned naturally, through exposure hills, grass, rocks, land, sky, clouds, fly, climb,green, high
Vocabulary List: The Tell-Tale Heart Foresight: Thoughtful regard for the future
Dissimulation: Hidden under a false appearance
Vexed: Troubled, distressed, caused agitation
Sagacity: Sound judgment
Hearkening: Giving careful attention
Awe: A mixed feeling of reverence, fear, and wonder
Distinctness: Unmistakable, clearly defined
Over-acuteness: Very keen
Concealment: A means of hiding
Waned: Grown gradually less
Scantlings: Small quantities or amountsComplete sentence of at least ____words: Must contain an action verb and a visual image.
Target Word: Visual:Draw or find a picture: My guess: Dictionary Definition: Understanding the words we meet in reading Definition in my own words:
A noble spirit embiggens the smallest man. -Jebediah Simpson
Should I spend time teaching this word explicitly? Three Questions:
How useful is this word? Will students be likely to encounter it again soon? Is it necessary for comprehension?
Will teaching this word explicitly equip the students with word-learning skills that can be applied to other words?
3. Am I enthusiastic about this word? Can I make it interesting? Prior Knowledge: How well do I know these words?StrangersAcquaintancesFriends
2929The Academic Word List (AWL): Background: The Academic Word List consists of 570 word families that are not in the most frequent 2,000 words of English but which occur frequently over a very wide range of academic texts.These 570 word families are grouped into ten subsets that reflect word frequency. A word like analyze falls into Subset 1, which contains the most frequent words, while the wordadjacent falls into Subset 10 which includes the least frequent (among this list of high incidence words).
The AWL is not restricted to a specific field of study. That means that the words are useful for learnersstudying in disciplines as varied as literature, science, health, business, and law. This high-utility academic word list does not contain technical words likely to appear in one,specific field of study such as amortization, petroglyph, onomatopoeia, or cartilage. Two-thirds of all academic English derive from Latin or Greek.
Understandably, knowledge of the most high-incidence adademic words in English can significantly boost a students comprehension level of school-based reading material. Students who are taught these high-utility academic words and routinely placed in contexts requiring their usage are likely to be able to master academic material with more confidence and efficiency, wasting less time and energy in guessing words or consulting dictionaries than those who are only equipped with the most basic 2000-3000 words that characterize ordinary conversation.
The following link gives you a two-page version of the list: http://www.doe.in.gov/TitleI/pdf/Word_List_Feldman.pdf
Source: Coxhead, Averil. (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL Quarterly, 34, 213-238.Academic Word List: Subset 1analyze approach area assess assume authority available benefit concept consist context constitute contract data define derive distribute economy environment establish estimate evident factor finance formula function income indicate individual interpret involve issue labor legal legislate major method percent period principle proceed process policy require research respond role section sector significant similar source specific structure theory vary
Academic Word List: Subset 2 achieve acquire administrate affect appropriate aspect assist category chapter commission community complex compute conclude conduct consequent construct consume credit culture design distinct equate element evaluate feature final focus impact injure institute invest item journal maintain normal obtain participate perceive positive potential previous primary purchase range region regulate regulate relevant reside resource restrict secure seek select site strategy survey tradition tra