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ABC-ul Limbii Engleze Pe Glob

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basic knowledge of English

Text of ABC-ul Limbii Engleze Pe Glob





    RO16 MILB 0000 0000 B0268 9640 /MILLENIUM BANK /LILIANA HUZDUP



    FORM EXAMPLEAFFIRMATIVE:short infinitive I speak, you speak, she speaksNEGATIVE:don't/doesn/t+short infinitive I don't speak/she doesn't speakINTERROGATIVE:do/does+short infinitive

    Do I speak?/Does she speak?


    Don't I speak/Doesn't she speak?

    It is used with : usually, often, always, every day/week/year/in the morning/afternoon, at night, at the weekend, on Monday.

    The verbs ending in y receive an -i at the third person singular.to try-tries

    USE/SITUATION EXAMPLERepeated actions and daily routines He goes to work every morning.General truths Water boils at 100 degrees.Official timetables and programmes The plane arrives at 8:30.Commentaries,reviews, narration She speeds up in the end and wins the



    FORM EXAMPLEAFFIRMATIVE: subject+to be+shirt infinitive+ing

    I am dancing

    NEGATIVE:to be+not+short infinitive+ing I am not reading INTERROGATIVE:to be+subject+short Am I dancing?

  • infinitive+ingINTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE:To be+not+subject+short infinitive+ing

    Am I not reading?

    It is used with :now, at the moment, at present, these days, still, nowadays, today, tonight.Verbs not used in the continuous aspect:verbs of senses(feel, hear), verbs expressing emotions (adore, desire, dislike), verbs of mental activity (agree, assume, believe, forget, expect), verbs of possession (own, possesion).


    EXCEPTION MEANINGI am seeing a doctor Meeting himI am having lunch Eating itI am having my hair cut Somebody else is doing it for meI am tasting the cake Performing the activity of tasting

    USE/SITUATION EXAMPLEActions taking place in the moment of speaking

    What are you doing now?

    Temporary actions I am walking to work this week.Actions expressing irritation, annoyance, anger

    You are always interrupting me!

    Personal plans Next week, I/m leaving for Sibiu.Changing or developping situations It is getting late.


    FORM EXAMPLEAFFIRMATIVE:have/has+third form of the verb

    I have done my job

    NEGATIVE:have+not+third form of the You haven't done yours.

  • verbINTERROGATIVE:have/has+subject+the third form of the verb

    Have they done their job?

    INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE:have/has+subject+not+the third form of the verb

    Hasn't she done hers?

    It is used with:for, since, already, just, ever, never, so far, today, this week/year, how long, lately, recently, still(negations)


    She has gone to the market(she hasn't come back yet)She has been to Rome twice(has visited, she has come back)

    USE/SITUATION EXAMPLEUnfinished action I have known you for yearsAction recently finished in which we see the result

    She has washed her dress

    Past action in which we are not interested in the time

    My uncle has bought a house

    Action happened over a specific period of time (today, tomorrow,this week)

    I have read 10 pages today


    FORM EXAMPLEAFFIRMATIVE: have/has been+short infinitive+ing

    I have been reading for two hours

    NEGATIVE:have not/has not been+short infinitive+ing

    She hasn't been reading for more than five minutes

    INTERROGATIVE:have/has+subject+been+short infinitive+ing?

    Have you been reading?

  • INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE:have/has =subject+not+been+short infinitive+ing

    Haven't they been reading?

    It is used with:for, since, how long, lately, recently

    USE/SITUATION EXAMPLETo emphasize the duration of an action She has been running for an hourPast action with the visible result Her arms hurt.She has been working too

    much.To express anger, irritation, annoyance You have been giving away your plans.


    FORM EXAMPLEAFFIRMATIVE:short infinitive+ed (regular)or second form of the verb(irregular)

    I played two days agoI ate a pizza yesterday

    NEGATIVE: did not+short infinitive I didn't buy anythingINTERROGATIVE:did+subject+short infinitive

    Did you finish your job?

    INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE: did+subject_not+short infinitive

    Didn't you grow vegetables in the garden?

    USE/SITUATION EXAMPLEAction that happened at a definite time in the past

    We went home last night

    Actions happened one after the other I paid the driver and I got off.Past habits or states Everything was different a hundred years

    ago.After wish, as if, as though, if only , would rather

    I wish I were hereI would rather you went there


    USE /SITUATION EXAMPLEPast habits and states We used to travel a lotRepeated actions We used to have lunch in the family on

    SundayA habit I am not used to not finding public toilets.Becoming accustomed with something I am getting used to the cold weather


    FORM EXAMPLEAFFIRMATIVE:subject+was/were+short infinitive+ing

    I was writing an email yesterday at noon

    NEGATIVE:subject+was /were not+short infinitive+ing

    You weren't reading

    INTERROGATIVE:was/were+subject+short infinitive+ing

    Was she digging in the garden last week?

    INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE:was/were+subject+not+short infinitive+ing

    Weren't you listening?

    It is used with:while, when, as , all morning/evening, day

    USE/SITUATION EXAMPLEAction in progress at a certain time in the They were taking pictures yesterday at 12

  • past o'clockLong action interrupted by short action I was having a rest when she sent me a

    messageTwo long simultaneous actions I was cooking while he was writingSetting the atmosphere The birds were singing, the trees were

    blossoming and the wind was blowing gently


    FORM EXAMPLEAFFIRMATIVE:had+the third form of the verb

    I had finished dinner before I went out

    NEGATIVE:had not+the third form of the verb

    You hadn't finished your work yet

    INTERROGATIVE:had+subject+the third form of the verb

    Had they done their job?

    INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE:had+subject+not+the third form of the verb

    Hadn't they forgot anything?

    It is used with:before, after, never, already, just, for, since, till/until,by the time.

    USE /SITUATION EXAMPLEPast action that took place before another past action

    I had finished washing before the phone rang.

    Action endede in the past, result visible in the present

    He was happy.He had closed the deal.


  • FORM EXAMPLEAFFIRMATIVE: had been+short infinitive+ing

    I had been speaking for 2 minutes when you saw me

    NEGATIVE: had not been+short infinitive+ing

    You hadn't been running at all when winter came

    INTERROGATIVE:had+subject+been+short infinitive+ing

    Had you been following mother's footsteps?

    INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE:had+subject+not+been+short infinitive+ing

    Hadn't you been speaking to her?

    USE/SITUATION EXAMPLEEmphasizes the duration of a past action He had been looking for a flat for more

    than two years before he found oneA past action whose result could be seen He was succesfull. He had worked hard.


    FORM EXAMPLEAFFIRMATIVE:will+short infinitive I will write you tomorrowNEGATIVE:will not +short infinitive She will not comeINTERROGATIVE;will+subject+short infinitive

    Will they go?

    INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE:will+subject+not+short infinitive

    Won't they plan their trip?

    It is used with: tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, tonight, soon, next week/year, in a week, month.

    USE/SITUATION EXAMPLEPredictions I'm afraid I won't be there in time

  • Decisions taken on the spot I'll take the orange juice, pleasePromisses, offers, requests, hopes, warnings

    Will you help me please?

    Future events that cannot be taken under control

    The temperature will reach 42 degrees next week.


    FORM EXAMPLEAFFIRMATIVE:will+be+short infinitive+ing

    I will be dancing this time tomorrow

    NEGATIVE:will+not+be+short infinitive+ing

    You won't be readind

    INTERROGATIVE:will+subject+be+short infinitive+ing

    Will they be drawing?

    INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE:will+subject+not+be+short infinitive+ing

    Won't she be singing?

    USE/SITUATION EXAMPLEAction in progress in a future moment I will be travelling next monthAction which will happen as a result of an arrangement

    I''ll be seeing a specialist designer tomorrow

    Plans for the near future Will you be lending me the bike?


    FORM EXAMPLEAFFIRMATIVE:will+have+third form of the verb

    She will have finished her essay by 8 o'clock

    NEGATIVE: will+not+have+third form of the verb

    We won't have come unless you called us

  • INTERROGATIVE:will+subject+have+third form of the verb

    Will you have been travelling all summer?

    INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE;will+subject+not+have+third form of the verb

    Won't she have chosen her way back to the challet?

    It is used with: before, by, by then, by the time, until/till

    USE/SITUATION EXAMPLEFor a future action finished before another future action/moment in the future

    She will have finished her job before dark.


    FORM EXAMPLEAFFIRMATIVE:will+have+been+short infinitive+ing

    By the end of the week, I will have been digging for ten hours

    NEGATIVE;will+not+have+been+short infinitive+ing

    By the end of the year, you will not have been watching 10 old movies

    INTERROGATIVE:will+subject+have+been+short infinitive+ing

    Will she have been listening to her?

    INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE: will +subject+not+have+been+short infinitive+ing

    Won't they have been speaking Spanish for five years now?

    It is used with by.........for.

    USE/SITUATION EXAMPLEEmphasizes the duration of an action up to a certain future moment

    By the time you reach Paris, you will have been flying for two hours


  • USE/SITUATION EXAMPLETo be to I am to visit Rome next monthTo be about to I'm about to leaveTo be due to The train is due to arriveTo be bound to My plan is bound to succeedTo be going to I/m going to buy a house



    1.They are defective(lack some verbal forms)2.They don't receive -s in the third person singular.3.They form the interrogative with inversion(without auxiliary)4.They are followed by the short infinitive


    can=to be able to/to be capable of

    It expresses :


    I can speak four languages.


    Can I borrow your pen?

    -possibility(present or past)

    You can ski now(there is enough snow)She could have helped me.

    -polite request

    Can you wait a few moments, please?

  • -negative deduction:

    You can't be broke;you have just received a large sum of money!


    may=be allowed to/be permitted to

    It can express:


    May I go now?

    -polite request

    May I wait here?

    -present or future possibility

    He may come soon.


    He might have arrived


    *must expresses an inner obligation:

    I must go now(it's my decision)

    *have to expresses an obligation that comes from the outside:

    You have to call first when you come to visit.

    *mustn't expresses prohibition:

    You mustn't shout out loud!

    *needn't expresses lack of obligation:

  • You needn't buy all these things!

    *must also expresses a logical deduction(or a past deduction):

    She must be at home by now.She must have worked very hard.


    It expresses:-an obbligation

    I shall bring you all the documents.

    -a suggestion, an order, an offer

    I suggest we should leave nowShall I bring you a coffee?

    -a supposition

    He should be there by now

    -unfulfillment of an obligation:

    We should have talked to them .


    It expresses:

    -an obligation or a moral duty

    You ought to help your parents.

    -an unfulfillled duty

    I ought to have written all the details.


    It expresses:

  • -an impersonal command

    You will come here at once!

    -the determination for an action

    He will study design whatever his parents say.

    -a repeated action

    He will sit on the bench for hours

    -an invitation

    Will you have a cup of coffee?

    -a spontaneous intention

    I''ll fetch you some fruits.

    -a request

    Would you do me a favour?

    -a probability

    That would be their house


    Form:the verb to be+3rd form of the verb

    Active: Passive:I write a letter A letter is written by me.I have painted the floor Ther floor has been painted by me.

    Technique:the object of the active clause becomes subject of the passive clause.

  • Personal/Impersonal constructions:It is believed that he lied in front of the jury.He is believed to have lied in front of the jury.


    TYPE 0 IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSEPresent simple Present simple

    If it's sunny, there is much light in the room.

    TYPE 1 IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSEPresent Future/Modal

    If it's warm, we'll go walking in the woods.

    TYPE 2 IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSEPast simple/continuous Would/could/might

    If we work hard, we might succeed.

    TYPE 3 IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSEPast perfect(had+3rd form) Would/could/might+3rd


    If we had known,we could have done something better.

    Other ways of forming conditional:


    Unless you help me, I won't finish my essay.

    -providing/provided that

  • I''ll do that provided that I have some free time.

    -what if

    What if he needs it?

    -but for

    But for your advice, I wouldn't have managed.


    Supposing you were broke, what would you do?

    -in case of

    In case of a fire, call me!


    If I were you, I wouldn't do that.

    -omission of if:

    Should he fail, it would be a great disappointmentWere he more attentive, he would never make mistakes.Had she known this,she wouldn't have involved in uncertain situation.



    Present subjunctive=short infinitive

    God save the queen!Heaven help us!

    Past subjunctive=past tense

    I wish I were abroad.It's high time for you to understand the whole situation.

  • Past perfect subjunctive=past perfect

    You speak as if/as though you heaven't heard the news



    I have decided that she shall leave this place.They suggest that you should say the truth.


    May all your dreams come true!She stood near the window so that she might breath fresh air.

    -no matter. Whatever

    No matter what they say, I'll do what I feel it's right!


    I wish I would come to visit you.


    Form: short infinitive Go!(second person)/ Let me/him go!(first and third person)Don't go/don't let me go!

    It is used for:-emphasisDo be careful!

    -command:You two wash the dishes!Will you show me the way?(checking if the person is willing to do this)


    It has two tenses:present(to go) and perfect(to have gone)I want to go thereHe proved to have done the right thing(an action that preceeds the present moment)

    Long infinitive:

    to sing

    Short infinitive:


    The short infinitive is used after modal verbs, verbs of perception, had better, would rather:

    I can see that everything is ok.I heard you say those words.You had better stay here.

    Constructions:*Accusative+infinitiveI saw her shut the window.I want him to understand the truth.I thought it to be right.It's difficult for him to take a decision.


    She was known to be agreat singerThey seem to know the answers.I was lucky to find a treasure.


    Present:verb+ingThe idea of dancing pleased me

    Perfect:having+3rd form

  • Your having danced pleased me.

    Characteristics:-it can have a plural form;comings and goings-it can be preceeded by a noun, adjectiveTom's arriving/his arriving-it can have a tenseyour comingyour having said that


    -No smoking!(prohibition)

    -I accused him of doing that(after verb+preposition)

    -I'm interested in studying Geography(phrasal verbs)

    -It's pleasure of meeting you(noun+preposition)



    I saw you dancing

    Past:having+3rd form =having spoken

    Having understood the matter , made me more flexible.



    I saw him reading.


  • He was seen leaving the place.

    -Absolute nominative:

    Weather permitting, we will go on a trip.

    -Absolute participle:

    Juding by appearances, he was right

    The past participle can be used as an adjective(a forgotten story) or as a verb (I have seen that film) or as a part of constructions:

    -Our work being ready, we went home(Absolute participle)-I saw his name written there(Accusative with participle)


    DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECHPresent simpleI want a dress

    Past simpleShe said she wanted a dress

    Present continuousI'm working now.

    Past continuousShe said she was working then

    Present perfectI've had lunch

    Past perfectHe said he had had lunch.

    Past simpleI went to the shop yesterday.

    Past perfectHe said he had gone to the shop yesterday.

    Past continuous I was sleeping at two o'clock last night.

    Past perfect continuousShe said she had been sleeping at two o'clock the night before.

    FutureI will call you tomorrow.

    Conditional(would)She said she would call me the next day.

  • Time expression changing:

    now then , at that timetoday that daytonight that nightyesterday the day beforetomorrow the next daythis week that weeklast week the week beforenext week the week aftertwo days ago two days beforehere there

    Reported questions:

    Did you go there, she asked.She asked if you had gone there




    I know that Mary will go to Bucharest tomorrow.I have found out that she would leave the town next week.

    MAIN CLAUSE SUBORDINATE CLAUSEPast simple-anterior action Past perfectPast simple-simultaneous action Past simplePast simple-posterior action Future in the past

    I found out that he had been there.

  • I foundout that he was there.I found out that he would be there.


    MAIN CLAUSE SUBORDINATE CLAUSEFuture-simultaneous action presentFuture-anterior action present perfect

    She will tel us the truth when she knows it.She will tell us the truth after she has known it.


    SENTENCE TAG QUESTIONHe can swim(affirmative) can't he(negative)He plays tennis(affirmative), doesn't he?(negative)He won't come tomorrow(negative), will he?(affirmative)


    FIRST FORM SECOND FORM THIRD FORMbe was/were beenbear bore bornbeat beat beatenbecome became becomebegin began begunbite bit bittenblow blew blownbreak broke brokenbring brought broughtbuild buit built

  • burn burnt burntbuy bought boughtcatch caught caughtcome came comecost cost costcut cut cutdig dug dugdo did donedraw drew drawndrink drank drunkdrive drove driveneat ate eatenfall fell fallenfeed fed fedfeel felt feltfight fought foughtfind found foundfly flew flownforget forgot forgottenforgive forgave forgivenfreeze froze frozenget got gotgive gave givengo went gonegrow grew grownhave had hadhear heard heardhide hid hiddenhold held heldkeep kept keptknow knew known

  • lay laid laidlead led ledlearn learnt learntleave left leftlend lent lentlet let letlie lay lainlight lit litlose lost lostmake made mademean meant meantmeet met metpay paid paidput put putread read readride rode riddenring rang rungrun ran runsay said saidsee saw seensell sold soldsend sent sentset set setshake shake shakeshine shone shoneshoot shot shotshow showed shownshut shut shutsing sang sungsit sat satsleep slept slept

  • smell smelt smeltspeak spoke spokenspend spent spentspread spread spreadspring sprang sprungstand stood stoodsteal stole stolenstick stuck stucksting stung stungstrike struck struckswear swore swornsweep swept sweptswim swam swamtake took takenteach taught taughttear tore torntell told toldthink thought thoughtthrow threw thrownunderstand understood understoodwake woke wokenwear wore wornwin won wonwrite wrote written


    The nouns are simple(arm,board) and compound (armchair, boy friend),common (table, wood)) and proper(Deborah, john), formed with prefixes (disability,supermarket) and suffixe(Yorkshire,Scotsman).

    The common nouns are countable (pencil ,girl, dog) and uncountable (advice, anger, food,)

    Nouns expressing

  • -amounts:*a piece of*a bar of*a slife of*a drop of*a loaf of*a lump of*a pinch of*a portion of

    -containers:*a bottle of milk

    a mug of cocoa

    -measures*gallon of petrol*a pair if glasses

    Collective nouns: a band of musicians(people),a pack of wolves(animals), a bunch of flowers (plants), a set of china (things)

    Regarding gender, nouns are masculin(actor) and feminin (actress).

    The formation of plural:-nouns ending in y:

    country countries (changing y in I and adding -es)

    -nouns ending in o:

    cuckoo cuckoos

    -nouns ending in f/fe

    belief beliefs (turning f into v, addind -es)

    -nouns ending in th:

    month months

    Irregular plurals:

    brotehr bretherntooth teethchild childrenmouse micewoman women

  • Nouns used only in the singular(singularia tantum):advice, business, knowledge, news, luggage, money, weather.

    Nouns used only in the plural(pluralia tantum):-clothes:-diseases:-tools:-sciences:-geographical names:-miscellaneous


    The boys are playingt tennisHe is a lawyer.


    I saw a boy in the street


    I'm going to buy today's paper(synthetical)The windows of the room are open(analytical)


    He told a story to the child.


    There are three articles in English:-the definite article(the)-the indefinite article(a, an)-the zero article

    The definite article is used :-when expressing unique things the sun, the earth, the Bible-before names:the Danube, the Times

    The indefinite article is used:-when expressing one Can I have an apple?-with measurements 80 km an hour/twice a week-in phrases: as a rule, as a reward, at a distance, all of a sudden, in o low voice, to have a fancy for

  • The zero article is used:-with nouns with general meaning life, love, liberty-with names of material iron, gold, cotton-with names of subjects chemistry, maths-with months and seasons February is the last winter month-in a number of phrases: arm in arm, face to face,from top to bottom, to make fun of, beyond hope,at dawn/night, to be in debt


    The adjectives are formed with prefixes(supernatural) and suffixes (economical).

    The -ed and -ing adjectives:

    amazed amazingembarassed embarassingpleased pleasingsurprised surprising

    Adjectives designating nationalities:

    Canadian the CanadiansChinese the ChinesePolish the PolesScottish the ScotsAmerican the AmericansFinnish the FinnsSweedish The Sweeds

    The comparison of adjectives:

    Type of adjective The positive degree The comparative degree The superlative degreeShort adjective bold as bold as

    bolderless bold than

    the boldest

    Long adjective beautiful as beautiful as more beautiful thanless beautiful than

    the most beautiful

    Irregular short adjectives:

    good better the bestbad worse the worstmuch/many more the mostlittle less the least

  • Idioms:

    as blind as a batas brave as a lionas fresh as a daisyas obstinate as a muleas graceful as a swana drunk as a lordas proud as a peacock

    to do one's best=to do everything possiblesafe and sound=very healthysick and tired=very boredup and going=very energetic

    Types of adjectives:

    -possesive adjectives

    I my bookyou your bookhe, she his book/her bookwe our bookyou your bookthey their book

    -demonstrative adjectives

    this ball these balls

    that ball those balls

    such a (he is such a man)the other (the other child stayed at home) the same (we have the same opinions)

    -interrogative adjectives

    what What book did you read?which Which painting do you like best?whose Whose house is this?

  • -relative adjectives:

    I told him what to do.

    Tha girl whose hair is red is my friend.

    -indefinite adjectives:

    some They gave me some information about the conference.any I didn't know any of this piece of news.no I have no money today.

    each-refers to all members

    Each pupil had a bag

    every-refers to people as a a group

    Every man in the group carries a lantern

    idioms:every now and then

    all-entire quantity

    All people sleep at night.


    He read the whole book.

    either -one or another of the two

    You can take either book, it's not important.

    neither-not one and not the other

    I offered him three solutions, he accepted neither.

    both -two persons/things considered together

    Both men are charming.

    several-a large but indefinite number

    I waited for several months.

    other-something different

  • I asked him other questions.

    another-different or additional

    Can I have another coffee?


    The personal pronoun: I, you, she, he, it, we, you, they.

    She is a wonderful woman.

    The case:

    Accusative-Dative(object): (to )me, (to )you,( to) her, (to )him, (to )it, (to )us,(to) you, (to )them.

    I talked to him.

    The pronoun it:

    -impersonal it:It is seven o'clock-introductory it:It is quite easy to learn this rule.It is last week that I saw him.

    The possessive pronoun:mine, yours,his, hers,ours,yours,theirs.

    Is this pen yours?

    The demonstrative pronoun: this, that, these, those.

    This ball is made of rubber.Those balls are made of silver.

    The reflexive pronoun:myself, yourself,himself, herself, itself,ourselves,yourselves,themselves.

    Ex:Help yourself!Enjoy oneself!

    The indefinite pronoun:somebody, something, anybody, anything,nobody, nothing.

    There's somebody on the phone.

    Other indefinite pronouns:all, both, either, neither,little, a little, each,, much, many, few, a few, another, others, the other, several, enough,one.

  • We have been thinking for several days now.

    The reciprocal pronoun: each other, one another.

    We love each other

    The relative pronouns:who, whom, whose, which, that

    This is the man to whom I gave some papers.

    The interrogative pronouns:who, whose, whom,what, which.

    Whose pen is this?


    Cardinal numerals:


    20=twenty30=thirty40=fourty....100=one hundred..1000=one thousand1547=one thousand and fourty seven

    Ways of calculating:

    addition: 1+4 one plus four is five

  • subtraction:5-3 five take way three is two

    multiplication:2x4 four times two is eight

    division:8:4 eight divided by four is two

    Telling the time:

    It's two o'clockIt's a quarter past two.It's half past two.It's twenty to two.

    Telephone numbers:

    0733 566788 oh- seven-three-three-five-six-six-seven-eight-eight

    Ordinal numerals:

    the firstthe secondthe thirdthe fourththe fifththe sixththe sevenththe eighththe nineththe tenth.

    the twentieth...

    the one hundredth

    Writing the date:

    May 1st 2015

    Collective numerals: couple, pair, dozen,score

    Multiplicative numerals:double, threefold, fourfould,...tenfold

    Distributive numerals: one by one, two by two, ten by ten


    Adverbs of manner: accurately, carefully,delicately, warmly

    I stepped carefully.

    Adverbs of place:abroad, underwater,backwards,forward

    He went abroad.

    Adverbs of time:yesterday, today, last year, all day long

    I came back yesterday.

    Adverbs of degree: almost, barely,extremely, fairly, rather

    It is rather hot.