A trgy term©szete

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A tárgy természete. A biológiai tudományok egysége Molekuláris, organizmikus és populációs megközelítés Érdekes de NEHÉZ Aki nem akar figyelni, az menjen ki! Vizsga: írásban. Utóvizsga: szóban Vizsganyag: az előadások (órai jegyzet és diasorozat, cikkgyűjtenény). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • A trgy termszete...A biolgiai tudomnyok egysgeMolekulris, organizmikus s populcis megkzelts rdekes de NEHZAki nem akar figyelni, az menjen ki!Vizsga: rsban. Utvizsga: szbanVizsganyag: az eladsok (rai jegyzet s diasorozat, cikkgyjtenny)

  • Az let ketts termszeteErs Szathmry Etvs University Collegium Budapest

  • Mirt ketts?HomeosztzisdisszipatvanyagcsereEgyirny vezrls s rkldsA lng s az rkld tulajdonsgokkal rendelkez sejt klnbzsge

  • Great thinkers on the nature of lifeGottfried LeibnizFreeman DysonJohn Maynard SmithErwin Schrdinger

  • LeibnizAz isteni gpek vgtelenl oszthatnak tnnek A gpszer mkds a molekulris dimenziban is rvnyesl

  • SchrdingerA gn mint aperiodikus kristly Az entrpia alacsony szintjnek fenntartsa lland munkavgzst ignyel

  • Maynard SmithAnyagcsere s homeosztzisGenetikai szablyozs Az evolvabilitst az utbbi adja

  • Freeman DysonAz let ketts eredeteElszr az anyagcsere s a homeosztzis, nukleinsvak nlklA gnek mint a rendszer paraziti jelenhettek meg

  • An irreversible systemA B

  • A reversible reactionA BLe Chatelier-Braun principle

  • A reversible, closed reaction system

  • Reaction systems A closed, reversible cycle An open, almost reversible system

  • Closed and open systemsAlul: a stacionrius llapot (steady state)

  • The skeleton of sugar decomposition

  • Chemical cycles are metabolic enginesThe cycle as a whole is a catalystThe Noble prize of Szent-Gyrgyi was awarded for catalysis by fumaric acidKrebs has recognized the whole cycleEnzymes are superimposed on the metabolic cycle

  • A simple chemical cycleIt is formally a unit composed of a closed and an open partActs as a catalys

  • Engines operate in cycles, and are hence are dynamically stable

  • Tibor GntiBorn in 1933Chemical engineerPatents in industrial biochemistry (artificial metabolism)Syntheses using the controlled operation of enzymatic reaction networksFirst book on molecular biology in Hungary (1966)

  • The first edition of the PrinciplesA serious book in a popular science disguise (1971)There was no other way to publishProposal included the term chemotonreductionist and vitalist at the same time!

  • The investigation of life criteria: absolute criteriaInherent unityMetabolismInherent stability Information carrying subsystemProcesses regulated and controlled by a programmeVERBAL AND PHENOMENOLOGICAL

  • Quest for a biological minimal systemChemical supersystemShould be conceptually as simple as possibleMust not necessarily be realizable in its simplest formComparison with other elementary units (such as the elementary cell in crystallography) FORMAL AND EXACT

  • The latest edition: OUP 2003After several editions in HungarianTwo previous books (the Principles and Contra Crick) plus one essayEssays appreciating the biological and philosophical importance

  • Enzymes and cycle stoichiometryVery important: the cyclic process sign with the number of turns

  • Structures built of amphipathic moleculesA two-dimensional fluid

  • A self-reproducing vesicle (1978)Metabolism and reproductionNo genetic subsystem

  • Pathways of supersystem evolutionboundarytemplatemetabolismM BB TM TM B TINFRABIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

  • Organisation of chemical systems into a supersystem (1974)CHEMOTON: a particular supersystem which is also a biological minimal system

  • Gntis chemoton modelALL THREE SUBSYSTEMS ARE AUTOCATALYTICtemplate copyingmetabolismmembrane growth

  • The assembly of RNA structuresCombinatorial assembly of RNA structuresSubmitted to selection for function between chemotons1979

  • The channelled assembly of ribozymes (1983)The presence of substrates gives guidance to ribozyme assemblyGood enzymes and bad enzymes will affect the fitness of the chemotons

  • Venter: professional but trivial (synthetic biology)

  • The monograph (Kluwer 2003)

  • The chemoton symbol

  • Evolution towards a Borromean arrangement?Chemoton symbolBorromean rings